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Here are a few reasons why: In a crash program to ramp up production as quickly as possible, production would likely peak in at 5—5. Kjell Aleklett estimated that at best a megaproject could get 3.
Even that goal would require Canada to choose between exporting natural gas to the United States or burning most of its reserves in the tar sands to melt bitumen.
So far, Canadian oil sands have contributed to the 5. There are about billion barrels thought to be recoverable, equal to 6 years of world oil consumption. Much of this book covers the horrifying, sickening destruction of the ecology of a vast region. You may think you will not be affected, but very close to major rivers, flimsy dams holding back large lakes of toxic sludge are bound to fail at some point and eventually spill out into the arcti.
I have rearranged and paraphrased some of what follows, as well as quoted the original text. Alberta has approved nearly mining and in situ projects. That makes the tar sands the largest energy project in the world, bar none. The size of the resource being exploited has grown exponentially. The 54, square mile bitumen-producing zone contains nearly billion barrels in proven reserves, which makes it the single-largest pile of hydrocarbons outside of Saudi Arabia.
For every barrel of synthetic crude eventually produced, pounds of tar sands were dug up, separated, and disposed of. To use a drug analogy, bitumen is the equivalent of scoring heroin cut with sugar, starch, powdered milk, quinine, and strychnine. It also distracts North Americans from two stark realities: That ancient megaproject did not end well. He questions whether that is really sustainable. If the tar sands produced five million barrels a day, the group said, oil companies would consume 60 per cent of the natural gas available in Western Canada by Cambridge Energy Research Associates, a highly conservative private energy consultancy, confirmed the cannibalistic character of natural gas consumption in its report on the tar sands.
Tar sands are a half-baked substance, a finite product of up to million-year-old sun-baked algae, plankton, and other marine life, compressed, cooked, and degraded by bacteria. Good cooking results in light oil.
Bad cooking makes bitumen, which is so hydrogen poor that it takes energy-intensive upgrading to make marketable. Fifty per cent of Canada now depends on a half-baked fuel.
This can sometimes lead to fouling and corrosion of equipment, causing energy inefficiencies and refinery shutdowns. Between and , processing lower-quality oil from the tar sands increased energy consumption at U. Of 25 PAH s studied by the U. Environmental Protection Agency and there are hundreds , 14 are proven human carcinogens.
Jan Ciborowski to make another one of those unbelievable tar sands calculations: Industry typically recovers these acids from oil to make wood preservatives or fungicides and flame retardants for textiles. The acids are also one of the key ingredients used in napalm bombs. Naphthenic acids kill fish and most aquatic life. Upgrading requires so much fuel that this step adds to pounds of CO2 per barrel. This toxic, polluting, ultra-heavy hydrocarbon is a damned expensive substitute for light oil.
Bitumen looks like molasses and smells like asphalt, sticky as tar on a cold day. Because of its stickiness, bitumen cannot move through a pipeline without being diluted by natural gas condensate or light oil. Oil sands sounds much better, implying abundance, easy access, and much cleaner. The world oil raises investment cash better than the word tar. Rick George, president and CEO of Suncor, unwittingly made a good argument for calling the stuff tar.
In , engineer Donald Towson made a good case for calling the resource tar, not oil, in the Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. Light oil shortages are so chronic that industry imported 50, barrels by rail last year to the tar sands. They finally arrived at a novel solution: Extracting bitumen from the forest floor is done in two earth-destroying ways. The open-pit mining operations look more hellish than an Appalachian coal field.
To get just ONE barrel of bitumen: Most of the tar sands are so deep that the bitumen must be steamed or melted out of the ground, with the help of a bewildering array of pumps, pipes, and horizontal wells.
Engineers call the process in situ in place. It will drain to the bottom where it can be collected. SAGD technology burns enough natural gas, for boiling water into steam, to heat six million North American homes every day. Compare that with oil —on average, it takes 1 barrel of oil or energy equivalent , to pump out 20 to 60 barrels of cheap oil. Given its impurities, bitumen often sells for half the price of West Texas crude. The rising price of oil largely obscured these extravagant costs until prices crashed in and again in At a 50 per cent use of groundwater, SAGD generates formidable piles of toxic waste.
As a consequence, an average SAGD producer can generate 33 million pounds of salts and water-solvent carcinogens a year, which simply gets trucked to landfills. Arsenic, a potent cancer-maker, poses another challenge. Industry acknowledges that in situ production the terrestrial equivalent of heating up the ocean can warm groundwater and thereby liberate arsenic and other heavy metals from deep sediments.
Pollution from the tar sands has now created an acid rain problem in Saskatchewan and Manitoba. Astronauts can see the ponds from space, and politicians typically confuse them with lakes. The ponds are truly a wonder of geotechnical engineering. Made from earth stripped off the top of open-pit mines, they rise an average of feet above the forest floor like strange flat-topped pyramids. By now, the ponds hold more than 40 years of contaminated water, sand, and bitumen.
Amazingly, regulators have allowed industry to build nearly a dozen of them on either side of the Athabasca River. The basin ferries wastes from the tar sands to the Arctic too.
Of the 12 barrels of water needed to make one barrel of bitumen, approximately three barrels become mudlike tailings. After separating bitumen from sand with hot water and caustic soda, industry pumps the leftover ketchup-like mess into the ponds. Engineers originally thought that the clay and solids would quickly settle out from the water. They now cover fifty square miles of forest and muskeg.
Within a decade, the ponds will cover an area of eighty-five square miles. Experts now say that it might take a thousand years for the clay in the dirty water to settle out.
Every year the ponds quietly swallow thousands of ducks, geese, and shorebirds as well as moose, deer, and beaver. Industry has tried to keep bird killing to a minimum by using scarecrows affectionately called Bit-U-Men. In , the intergovernmental Mackenzie River Basin Board identified the tailings ponds as a singular hazard. In , a tailings pond operated by the Australian-Romanian company Aurul S.
The pond released enough cyanide-laced water to potentially kill one billion people,. Bruce Peachey of New Paradigm Engineering. The Valdez released about 11 million gallons of crude oil into Prince William Sound, Alaska, in PAH concentrations alone in the tar ponds represent about 3, Valdezes.
McDonald was born on the river, and he had trapped, fished, farmed, and worked for the oil companies. He fondly remembered the s and s, when Syrian fur traders exchanged pots and pans for muskrat and beaver furs along the Athabasca River. Families lived off the land then and had feasts of rabbit.
They netted jackfish, pickerel, and whitefish all winter long. There is nothing in that river. McDonald had recently told his son not to have any more children: They are going to have a tough time to breathe and will have nothing to drink. Like most residents of Fort Chipewyan, Ladouceur believes there is definitely something wrong with the water. He has a list of suspects.
Abandoned uranium mines on the east end of the lake, for example, have been leaking for years. Then there are the pulp mills and, of course, the tar sands and tar ponds. The Ottawan government concluded that a massive tar-sands mega-scheme could overheat the economy, create steel shortages, unsettle the labor market, drive up the value of the Canadian dollar, and generally change the nation beyond recognition.
The tar sands would also be needed to meet future domestic energy needs. Mountain-top coal removal versus Tar Sands destruction.
Mountaintop removal and open-pit bitumen mining are classic forms of strip mining, with a few key differences. In mountaintop removal, the company first scrapes off the trees and soil.
Next, it blasts up to feet off the top of mountains in West Virginia alone, industry goes through 3 million pounds of dynamite every day. In the tar sands, companies specialize in forest-top removal. First they clear-cut up to , trees, then drain all the bogs, fens, and wetlands. As earth-destroying economies, mountaintop removal and bitumen mining have few peers in their role as water abusers. The EPA published its damning findings in a series of studies, despite massive interference along the way by the coal-friendly administration of George W.
In an area encompassing most of eastern Kentucky, southern West Virginia, western Virginia, and parts of Tennessee, mountaintop removal smothered or damaged 1,miles of headwater streams between and , which bring life and energy to a forest.
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