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Crime Against Nature - Gay Mormon History

She co-founded the Sequoia Seminar, an organization promoting nonviolent conflict resolution. The organization was a forerunner of the Foundation for Global Community. Stolaroff, the former Ampex executive, noted in that LSD was the most important invention of the last 1, years. No intelligent well-informed person would disagree.

Berkeley was world headquarters for LSD, a substance which the government conservatively estimates more than 90 million people have taken. In a ranking DEA official, Gene Haislip, stated that the entire global supply was controlled by a group of approximately people in the bay area. Mullis famously attributes his invention to the fact that he took LSD in Berkeley. The waitress at the Buttercup was Suze Orman , who went on to become the bestselling financial author.

She was frequently annoyed at the 2 customers, Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak , who were poor and tried to get free coffee. The reason, of course, was Leary's advocacy of LSD.

In the words of a popular song from that time "San Francisco [be sure to wear some flowers in your hair]" by Scott Mckenzie, To produce 5- to million hit of any other psychedelic, you would have to have the resources of Upjohn Corporation. I mean it's an industrial scale undertaking. Because LSD is active in the microgram range, it is unique in that you're not simply able to get your neighborhood or your campus high, you are a political force at the national level.

If you're sitting on to million hits of LSD, you have a gun poised at the head of the establishment, and they react to it that way. You have some strong ties to the Bay Area; tell us about them. In , I came to Berkeley from Illinois and slept in my van on Hearst Avenue for four months while I worked in the hills for a tree service helping cut down eucalyptus trees. E-mail Carolyn Said at csaid sfchronicle. C San Francisco Chronicle http: Gobind Khorana that allows the amplification of specific DNA sequences.

Mullis earned a Bachelor of Science degree in chemistry[2] from the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta in , during which time he got married and started a business. After receiving his PhD, Mullis left science to write fiction, but quit and became a biochemist at a medical school in Kansas City.

A lot of people were doing that in Berkeley back then. And I found it to be a mind-opening experience. It was certainly much more important than any courses I ever took. I seriously doubt it. California Monthly Berkeley, CA: California Alumni Association 1: Yesterday a Hillary operative ate his words faster than a stoner gobbling a smoldering roach when the fuzz kicks in the door.

Did you ever give drugs to anyone? Did you sell them to anyone? She wants no discussion of youthful drug experiments. Reasons that go back to the Clintons' Berkeley Summer of Love in -- if not before. Reasons that I know well because I was in Berkeley in that summer of I was living about four blocks away from where Bill and Hillary were, in the parlance of the time, "shacked up. I know what went down. It was non-stop sex, drugs, rock and roll, and activism. And while I don't remember everything, I remember a lot.

More than I should given the quantity, quality, and diversity of the drugs that were on the scene, on the street, and in the bodies of all of us at the time in that place.

Of course, Mr Gerstein makes no accusations of drug use by the young, hip and activist couple Hillary was clerking for the radical Treuhaft law firm in nearby Oakland. Bill gave up a summer of working for George McGovern to be with her. Instead, he's dug up some charming details of two young politico-hippies in love in the town that was the town to be in if you were young hippies in love in The new couple quickly became quite domestic.

Bowing to her future husband's Arkansas roots, Mrs. Clinton baked him a peach pie. The pair also "produced a palatable chicken curry for any and all occasions we hosted," Mrs. Clinton clerked at the Treuhaft firm in nearby Oakland, Mr. Clinton plowed through books, explored Berkeley shops, and scouted out San Francisco restaurants. According to the future senator, the pair also kindled their romance on long walks where Mr.

Clinton occasionally used his southern twang to regale her with Elvis Presley tunes. One night in July, the couple drove down to Stanford to listen to an outdoor concert by Joan Baez.

I know because I was part of the People's Park riots of Shotguns, death, helicopters spewing gas. The whole stupid shebang that left one man dead. Our own mini Kent State. I was also around for the Free Speech Movement of By I'd been around Berkeley and the Bay Area for some time. And I was there, living in a house on corner of Fulton and Ward streets not more than four blocks from the Derby Street apartment. If the Clintons ventured outside onto Telegraph Avenue at all we would have passed each other on the street, skulked around Cody's books, and had cappuccino at the Med.

On this you can bet your stash of primo Afghan hash. The Green House, today. My apartment, below right. Acid factory, above right The other thing you can bet the stash on about the Clintons in that summer of in Berkeley is that they were stoned, loaded, blasted, wasted, high as a kite, and just plain baked.

At the very least. Assuming that pot and hashish was as far as it went. And it did not for many in that summer, I assure you, stop at that. Other drugs that were around for the asking and used frequently were LSD and cocaine. Heroin too, but I never saw it. It was on the down low, the QT, very hush-hush and you usually had to go to Oakland to score it.

In the house I lived in at the time, there were four apartments. Two in front and two in the rear. I lived in the downstairs front. Above me lived a couple, Ben and Carol. Carol was great at sewing and macrame. Ben was great at making tablets of Lysergic Acid. Indeed, at the time Ben was one of the main suppliers for the bay area. Every so often Ben would go off somewhere and come back with a trunk which he and a partner would haul up the stairs and into the apartment above us. Yes, like the Clintons I too was shacking up with what we referred to at the time as "my old lady.

About one every three seconds or so. Ben had mixed up his LSD and was running the preparation through the pill press. After a long night of this, Ben and Carol and his partner would emerge from the apart, stoned as poleaxed penguins from the high you got by working around LSD in a less than controlled environment. Bags of small pills in blue or red or whatever color he'd decided on would remain behind to be shuffled out to the Hells Angels or whomever Ben had doing his distribution.

You didn't ask about that. It was his business and Ben was the first person I ever knew to keep a number of guns lying around. And that was the LSD scene in Berkeley at the time. The pot scene was even looser and more available. It wasn't a question of who on the streets of Berkley was baked.

It was a question of who wasn't. If you read the Sun article it is clear that there's more investigative reporting to be done on the question of the Clintons' summer of love. But there are a few hints. The pair also "produced a palatable chicken curry for any and all occasions we hosted. But put that together with a chicken curry and you've got hard core stoner food, dude.

And you know I'm right. So unless the Clintons were very, very unhip at the time It was, after all, It was, after all, Berkeley California. If the Clintons, during their first prolonged cohabitation, were at all "normal" for the time their evenings at home would have consisted of 1 rolling a fat doobie, probably three or four; 2 whipping up some chicken curry 3 smoking a fat doobie; 4 getting some dim candles going along with a stick of incense 5 putting on a tried and true series of records; and 6 hopping into bed and, as we said then, "balling" until they passed out.

That was pretty much the standard evening's entertainment in the summer of in Berkeley. And one thing I can tell you is that the non-conformist hippies of that time and that place ran to type. Glancing at a list of the singles that were hot in , I can probably even guess the songs the Clintons played while they frolicked.

Big Stuff for the dinner moment. Then when you really started to get into it, a stoned and hip Lothario such as the young and even-more-randy-than-when-President Bill Clinton would not have left Led Zepplin's Stairway to Heaven off the turntable when he was going to make his move. Indeed, if he planned it right he'd stacked the albums carefully and at just the right moment, the killer platter would fall and it would be The Doors I don't know about Bill, but by I was on my second copy of The Doors album.

Now, I am sure that you will never, ever have the ghost of a chance of getting either Hillary or Bill to, as we used to say, cop to any of this. But it happened that way, a long, long time ago, in a stoner's universe far, far away. Believe me, the last thing Hillary Clinton wants is for anyone on her campaign or any other campaign to start looking into drug use. Especially for Candidates shacking up in Berkeley, just down from Telegraph Avenue, in the lovin' summer of I know what happened.

Not in their bedroom. At least, I don't think I was. But in mine, in the same town in the same summer. And that's what was, as we said then, "Happening, man. And I'm not stoned anymore either. At least, I don't think I am. Then again, if Hillary was to have an epiphany on the question of dumping the insane laws again marijuana and promise not just a chicken curry in every pot, but a kilo of Acapulco gold in every pothead, she just might get people to vote for her that are usually too stoned to make it off the couch, much less to the polls.

It might be the one promise that gets all America to vote. I haven't gotten to some of the underlying "theology".

Could "LSD Therapy" create the "enhanced human"? If you will notice many "engineers" are involved with the early story. Also notice the early "Global Community" push. Located in Palo Alto, California, this prestigious think tank received a number of grants from the US Army to conduct classified research into chemical incapacitants. Harmon made no bones about where he stood with respect to political radicals and the New Left.

And my side is not going to lose. Also, with the many Isomers and production differences it maybe that the LSD of the 's was different from the later incarnations. Also dosage created wide differences in "mind altering" effects, which I'd like to expand on in another post.

The Grateful Dead "heads" were a nationwide distribution network. Jerry's gone but I doubt the GD distribution is. Scully had one more ace up his sleeve. Scully found the ALD formula among scientific papers and books in the specialist library at Berkeley. It was a compound Hofmann had tested years before. At the University of California Medical Center, Scully uncovered the scientific paper Hofmann and a colleague had published on the drug.

The table suggested that ALD might actually have advantages over LSD, reducing any side effects but achieving a stronger trip. Measurements of brain waves while people were taking the two drugs showed that while LSD produced brain waves associated with intense concentration and anxiety, ALD produced brain waves showing a more relaxed mental state.

There was one snag. Although the finished product might be legal, at a crucial stage in its production it was illegal. The solution was a simple reversal in the order of production so that at no time was drug illegal. Hitchcock had been badly burned financially when STP had picked up a bad name on the street. It was thought he would oppose ALD as yet another innovation that would prove difficult to sell. Willis Harmon was turned on to LSD in the late 's by Captain Al Hubbard , the legendary superspy, who took a special interest in his new convert.

IFAS was the brainchild of Hubbard, who undoubtedly leaned on his political connections in Washington to insure that Harmon and his colleagues would be allowed to continue their drug investigations even after the first big purge of above-ground LSD research by the FDA in the early s. In October he invited Hubbard, then living in semiretirement in British Columbia, to join SRI as a part-time "special investigative agent. Some of it appears to be present as a deliberate weapon aimed at political change.

We are concerned with assessing the significance of this as it impacts on matters of longrange educational policy.

In this connection it would be advantageous to have you considered in the capacity of a special investigative agent who might have access to relevant data which is not ordinarily available. He boasted a great deal of experience both in the law enforcement field and in the use of psychedelic drugs. As a special agent for the FDA in the early s, he led the first raids on underground acid labs , and a number of rebel chemists were arrested because of his detective work. The Captain was particularly irked when he learned that LSD in adulterated form was circulating on the black market.

To Hubbard this represented degradation of the lowest order. The most precious spiritual substance on earth was being contaminated by a bunch of lousy bathtub chemists out to make a quick buck.

The Captain was dead set against illicit drug use. Even though Hubbard took a lot of acid and was a maverick among his peers, he remained a staunch law-and-order man throughout his life. The crew-cut Captain was the quintessential turned-on patriot, a seasoned spy veteran who admired the likes of J. Thus he was eager to apply his espionage talents to a secret study of the student movement and the acid subculture. After conferring with Harmon, the Captain donned a khaki uniform, a gold-plated badge, a belt strung with bullets, and a pistol in a shoulder holster.

That was the uniform he wore throughout his tenure as an SRI consultant, which lasted until the late S. Ironically, while Harmon and Hubbard were probing the relationship between drugs and radical politics , a number of New Left activists grappled with a similar question. Political and cultural radicals from both sides of the Atlantic discussed the drug issue at a conference on "the dialectics of liberation," which took place in London during the summer of In the last report, I mentioned the satisfaction resulting from books I have written which stir up dormant personal connections of the past.

Those who are familiar with the many benefits derived from the responsible use of psychedelics are hard pressed to understand the ardent negative evaluation by many government officials, mainstream scientists, and the public at large.

Consequently it is gratifying to hear from those who are willing to speak up and share their personal experiences. Here is a recent letter forwarded to me by MAPS: My interest is very personal. The two session I had there were some of the most valuable experiences of my life. Though I worked with some wonderful therapists after that, nothing approached the kind of straightening out I got with LSD. Reading The Secret Chief has given me some hope that someday qualified therapists will be able to use these drugs in their practices.

It also made me mourn that I did not know about Jacob and did not try to seek out a place where I could have done it anyway. My life would have been much different. Thank you for all your work in trying to get these substances legitimized for therapeutic use. I'm 68 now, but I yearn for the opportunity to untangle more of my knots. Is it possible to participate in research studies?

I also would be glad to write letters to Senators, Congressmen, the FDA, or anyone to help this process along. It's absurd to have these powerful tools unavailable to doctors, while the illicit drug trade sells everyone else whatever they want.

This unfortunately is very loose. Once that connection was established I would continue documenting Leary's operation The son of a wealthy businessman, Pinchot studied law in New York City. In he married Gertrude Minturn. The couple had two children, Rosamund and Gifford. Pinchot held left-wing views and in helped establish the radical journal The Masses. In Pinchot helped formed the Progressive Party. Later that year Theodore Roosevelt and Hiram Johnson became the party's candidates for the presidential election.

The proposed program included women's suffrage, direct election of senators, anti-trust legislation and the prohibition of child labour. In winning 4,, votes Roosevelt defeated William H. Taft, the official candidate of the Republican Party. However, he received less votes than the Democratic Party candidate, Woodrow Wilson. Pinchot believed that the First World War had been caused by the imperialist competitive system.

This was the point of view expressed by The Masses. Glintenkamp had violated the Espionage Act. Under this act it was an offence to publish material that undermined the war effort. The legal action that followed forced the journal to cease publication.

In April, , after three days of deliberation, the jury failed to agree on the guilt of the men. The second trial was held in September, John Reed , who had recently returned from Russia, was also arrested and charged with the original defendants.

This time eight of the twelve jurors voted for acquittal and the defendants walked free on October 5, The couple had two children, Mary Pinchot and Antoinette Pinchot. In two Italian immigrants, Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti , were accused of murdering a shoe factory payroll clerk in Braintree, Massachusetts.

Pinchot and his wife were convinced that the two men were innocent and spent a great deal of time and effort trying to get them released. Pinchot supported his friend, Robert La Follette, the the candidate of the Progressive Party in the presidential election. Although La Follette and his running partner, Burton K. Wheeler, gained support from trade unions, the Socialist Party and the Scripps-Howard newspaper chain, La Follette only won one-sixth of the votes.

However, the books were not published in his lifetime. Initially he supported Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal. However, he was opposed his attempt to control the Supreme Court. In April, , Pinchot had a letter published in the New York Times where he criticised Roosevelt's style of government "which places the fate of labor, industry and agriculture in a bureaucracy controlled by one man I am forced to conclude that Although she only appeared in one Hollywood movie, she did get parts in several French films.

However, she suffered from depression and in she committed suicide. Pinchot was devastated and never fully recovered from this tragedy. Flynn and Charles A. Supporters of the organization included Burton K. The AFC had four main principles: The AFC influenced public opinion through publications and speeches and within a year the organization had local chapters and over , members.

Pinchot grew increasing depressed by the progress of the Second World War and in the summer of he slit his wrists. He survived this suicide attempt but his health never recovered and spent the rest of his life in hospital.

Amos Pinchot died of pneumonia in February, In fact, Pinchot was quoted as saying, "I have been governor every now and then, but I am a forester all the time. Pinchot's great grandfather, Constantine Pinchot, and his grandfather, C. Pinchot, settled in Milford, Pike County, in James Pinchot was born in Milford and built the present Pinchot mansion there in Pinchot was determined to establish forestry as a legitimate occupation, despite the fact that forestry was not a recognized profession at that time in the United States.

Amos Eno offered his grandson a business position that most likely would have made Pinchot independently wealthy , but Pinchot considered forest conservation a more important calling. With his father's encouragement, he studied forestry in Germany, France, Switzerland, and Austria. In January , Pinchot, at the invitation of George Vanderbilt, created the first example in the United States of practical forest management on a large scale at Vanderbilt's Biltmore Estate, near Ashville, North Carolina.

Proving that conservation practices could be both beneficial for forests and still profitable, the Biltmore arboretum became a model for forest management around the world. From to , Pinchot consolidated the fragmented government forest work under the U.

In , Pinchot also became professor of Forestry at Yale University and, in , his friend President Theodore Roosevelt appointed him chief of Forestry. Under Pinchot's guidance, the number of national forests increased from 32 in to in Pinchot and Roosevelt agreed on many points of conservation and worked tirelessly to end the destruction of U. Pinchot also visited the Philippine Islands in and recommended a forest policy for the islands. He was also appointed chairman of the Joint Committee on Conservation, by the first conference of Governors at Washington, December In , he was a member of the U.

Cornelia and Gifford both were longtime friends with Theodore Roosevelt, who attended their wedding. As one of the most politically active first ladies in the history of Pennsylvania, she was a very strong advocate for women's rights, full educational opportunities for women, seeking wage and union protections for women and children, and encouraging women to participate in the political process. Her family's wealth, influence from socially and politically prominent relatives, and Progressive Era politics proved to be a great influence on her husband's political agenda.

Her influence among female voters is credited as a key factor in the election of her husband. Cornelia Bryce Pinchot ran for the U. House of Representatives three times and attempted to succeed her husband as governor in the primary of , but lost all four elections. Shortly after Congressman Louis T.

Cornelia Bryce Pinchot, the Governor's wife and no political friend of the President, announced her Republican candidacy for the House from Mr. Last week 15th District voters renominated Mr. McFadden who returned to the House to receive an ovation from his colleagues. Pinchot had campaigned in a bright blue Studebaker. Often she stepped out wearing mannish knickerbockers. Big posters bearing her sharp profile had blared: McFadden's later career was marked by violent criticism of his party's financial policies.

Opposition to the Hoover moratorium on war debts led him to propose to the House on that the President be impeached. He bitterly attacked the governors of the Federal Reserve Board for "having caused the greatest depression we have ever known".

Both the President and the Board, he was convinced, were conspiring with the "international" bankers to ruin the country. He lost his seat to a Democrat in , although two years previously he had had the support of the Republican, Democratic and Prohibition parties.

He died in while on a visit in new York City. Chairman, we have in this Country one of the most corrupt institutions the world has ever known. The Fed has cheated the Government of these United States and the people of the United States out of enough money to pay the Nation's debt. The depredations and iniquities of the Fed has cost enough money to pay the National debt several times over.

Sadly, Theodore Roosevelt died in or no doubt he would have attended as well. Grant went on to publish a sequel to Passing of the Great Race in Entitled The Conquest of a Continent, Grant wished for the creation of a separation nation for blacks in order to protect white blood from their taint, though he knew that the realities of the American South made this impossible.

At the very least, he wanted stricter anti-miscegenation laws, the promotion of contraception among blacks so they stop breeding, and extremely strict legal segregation.

He was President Theodore Roosevelt's chief forester, substituting federal land-control in place of Abraham Lincoln's free-land-to-families farm creation program. Pinchot's British Empire activism included the Psychical Research Society and his vice presidency of the first International Eugenics Congress in Pinchot's British Empire activitism included the Psychical Research Society and his vice-presidency of the first International Eugenics Congress in Helping Pinchot initiate this century's racialist environmentalism were his cohorts George W.

This family's friendship with President George Bush is a vital factor in the present environmentalist movement. Antoinette Bradlee is second on the left. Mary Pinchot was born on 14th October, Her father Amos Pinchot, was a wealthy lawyer who helped fund the radical journal, The Masses. He was also a key figure in the Progressive Party. As a child Mary was brought into contact with left-wing intellectuals.

Mary attended Brearley School and Vassar College. In she began going out with William Attwood. It was while with Attwood at a dance held at Choate that she met John F.

Kennedy for the first time. While at Vassar Mary became interested in left-wing politics. This did not seem to upset her father, Amos Pinchot, who wrote to his brother Gifford: And a great deal of warm debating is going on among the students of Mary's class, which I think is an excellent thing. People of that age ought to be radical anyhow. This included writing for magazines such as Mademoiselle.

Mary also became a member of the American Labor Party. Mary, like her parents, was also a committed pacifist. In Mary met Cord Meyer, a lieutenant in the US Marines who was recovering from serious shrapnel injuries that had resulted in him losing an eye. The couple married on 19th April, Soon afterwards the couple went to San Francisco to attend the conference that established the United Nations.

Cord went as an aide to Harold Stassen, whereas Mary, who was working for the North American Newspaper Alliance at the time, was one of the reporters sent to cover this important event.

Cord Meyer had been shocked by the dropping of the atom bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Meyer wanted this film to be the definitive statement about the dangers of the atomic age. Cord wrote at the time: Meyer expressed pacifist views in the book: Let us throw down these guns that we hate. Her first child Quentin was born in After the birth of Michael in she became a housewife but still managed to attend classes at the Art Students League in New York City.

Like her husband, Mary became an advocate of world government. Under his leadership, membership of the organization doubled in size. Albert Einstein was one of his most important supporters and personally solicited funds for the organization. Mary wrote for its journal, The United World Federalists.

Mary's third child, Mark, was born in The family now moved back to Cambridge. Cord was showing signs of becoming disillusioned with the idea of world government. He had experienced problems with members of the American Communist Party who had infiltrated the organizations he had established. It was about this time that he began working secretly for the Central Intelligence Agency. It is almost certain that this had been done on behalf of the CIA. Dulles made contact with Cord Meyer in He accepted the invitation to join the CIA.

Dulles told Meyer he wanted him to work on a project that was so secret that he could not be told about it until he officially joined the organization. This became the espionage and counter-intelligence branch of the CIA. Wisner was told to create an organization that concentrated on "propaganda, economic warfare; preventive direct action, including sabotage, anti-sabotage, demolition and evacuation measures; subversion against hostile states, including assistance to underground resistance groups, and support of indigenous anti-Communist elements in threatened countries of the free world.

According to Deborah Davis Katharine the Great: Katharine Graham and the Washington Post: Meyer was Mockingbird's "principal operative". Mary and the family now moved to Washington where they became members of the Georgetown Crowd. The Federal Bureau of Investigation added to the smear by announcing it was unwilling to give Meyer "security clearance". Suspicion also fell on Mary at this time and it was revealed that the FBI had been investigating her activities. However, the FBI refused to explain what evidence they had against the Meyers.

The FBI eventually revealed the charges against Meyer. Apparently he was a member of several liberal groups considered to be subversive by the Justice Department. This included being a member of the National Council on the Arts, where he associated with Norman Thomas, the leader of the Socialist Party and its presidential candidate in Meyer was eventually cleared of these charges and was allowed to keep his job.

Although he saw contacts he had made during his covert work with the media Operation Mockingbird he was unable to obtain a job with any of the established book publishing firms. In the summer of the Meyer family's golden retriever was hit by a car on the curve of highway near their house and killed.

The dog's death worried Cord. He told colleagues at the CIA he was afraid the same thing might happen to one of his children. In the summer of the Meyers got new neighbours. Kennedy and his wife Jackie Kennedy purchased Hickory Hill, a house several hundred yards from where the Meyers lived.

Mary became good friends with Jackie and they went on walks together. Meyer began spending a lot of time in Europe. According to Nina Burleigh A Very Private Woman Meyer was "overseeing a vast 'black' budget of millions of dollars channeled through phony foundation of a global network of associations and labor groups that on their surface appeared to be progressive".

On 18th December, , Mary's nine-year-old son, Michael, was hit by a car on the curve of highway near their house and killed. It was the same spot where the family's golden retriever had been killed two years earlier. The tragedy briefly brought the couple together. However, in , Mary filed for divorce.

In her divorce petition she alleged "extreme cruelty, mental in nature, which seriously injured her health, destroyed her happiness, rendered further cohabitation unendurable and compelled the parties to separate. She took up art and her sister, Antoinette Pinchot and her husband Ben Bradlee, allowed her to set up a studio in their converted garage.

Mary also began a relationship with the abstract artist, Kenneth Noland. Kennedy and Jackie Kennedy moved out in Angleton became a regular visitor to the family home and took Mary's sons fishing. In October , Mary began visiting John F. Kennedy in the White House. It was about this time she began an affair with the president.

Mary told her friends, Ann and James Truitt, that she was keeping a diary about the relationship. In Mary made contact with Timothy Leary, the director of research projects at Harvard University.

Leary also claimed that Mary helped influence Kennedy's views on nuclear disarmament and rapprochement with Cuba.

It was later discovered that the FBI was keeping a file on Mary. Later, James Angleton, head of counterintelligence at the CIA admitted that the agency was bugging Mary's telephone and bedroom during this period. Kennedy aide, Meyer Feldman, claimed in an interview with Nina Burleigh that the president might have discussed substantial issues with her: Graham, who was suffering from alcoholism, disclosed at the meeting that John F. Kennedy was having an affair with Mary Meyer.

No newspaper reported this incident but Kennedy decided to bring an end to the affair. However, they continued to see each other at social functions. According to his biography, Flashbacks Timothy Leary claims that Mary phoned him the day after Kennedy was assassinated: He was changing too fast.

He was learning too much They'll cover everything up. I gotta come see you. On another occasion she told Elizabeth Eisenstein that "she thought she had seen somebody leaving as she walked in". Mary reported these incidents to the police. Eisenstein said Mary was clearly frightened by these incidents. Henry Wiggins, a car mechanic, was working on a vehicle on Canal Road, when he heard a woman shout out: He then heard two gunshots.

Wiggins ran to the edge of the wall overlooking the tow path. He later told police he saw "a black man in a light jacket, dark slacks, and a dark cap standing over the body of a white woman.

The first bullet was fired at the back of the head. She did not die straight away. A second shot was fired into the heart. Soon afterwards Raymond Crump, a black man, was found not far from the murder scene. He was arrested and charged with Mary's murder. Police tests were unable to show that Crump had fired the. There were no trace of nitrates on his hands or clothes.

Despite an extensive search of the area no gun could be found. This included a two day search of the tow path by 40 police officers. The police also drained the canal near to the murder scene.

Police scuba divers searched the waters away from where Mary was killed. However, no gun could be found. Nor could the prosecution find any link between Crump and any Smith and Wesson gun.

A civil rights lawyer who defended him for free, she argued that Crump was so timid and feeble-minded that if he had been guilty he would have confessed everything while being interrogated by the police. No newspaper reports identified the true work of her former husband, Cord Meyer. He was described as a government official or an author. A large number of journalists knew that Meyer had been married to a senior CIA officer.

They also knew that she had been having an affair with John F. None of this was reported. In fact, the judge, ruled that the private life of Mary Meyer could not be mentioned in court.

The trial judge was Howard Corcoran. He was the brother of Tommy Corcoran, a close friend of Lyndon B. Corcoran had been appointed by Johnson soon after he became president. Although she attempted to investigate Mary's background she found little information about her: The prosecution was also handicapped by the fact that the police had been unable to find the murder weapon at the scene of the crime or to provide a credible motive for the crime.

On 29th July, , Crump was acquitted of murdering Mary Meyer. The case remains unsolved. Truitt told the newspaper that Meyer was having an affair with John F. Kennedy when he was assassinated. He also claimed that Meyer had told his wife, Ann Truitt, that she was keeping an account of this relationship in her diary. Meyer asked Truitt to take possession of a private diary "if anything ever happened to me". Ann Truitt was living in Tokyo at the time that Meyer was murdered on 12th October, She phoned Bradlee at his home and asked him if he had found the diary.

Bradlee, who claimed he was unaware of his sister-in-law's affair with Kennedy, knew nothing about the diary. He later recalled what he did after Truitt's phone-call: It was locked, as we had expected, but when we got inside, we found Jim Angleton, and to our complete surprise he told us he, too, was looking for Mary's diary.

Kennedy and was searching her home looking for her diary and any letters that would reveal details of the affair. According to Ben Bradlee, it was Mary's sister, Antoinette Bradlee, who found the diary and letters a few days later. It was claimed that the diary was in a metal box in Mary's studio. The contents of the box were given to Angleton who claimed he burnt the diary.

Angleton later admitted that Mary recorded in her diary that she had taken LSD with Kennedy before "they made love". Leo Damore claimed in an article that appeared in the New York Post that the reason Angleton and Bradlee were looking for the diary was that: She was involved in illegal drug activity.

What do you think it would do to the beatification of Kennedy if this woman said, 'It wasn't Camelot, it was Caligula's court'? There is another possible reason why both Angleton and Bradlee were searching for documents in Meyer's house.

Meyer had been married to Cord Meyer, a leading CIA operative involved in a variety of covert operations in the early s. Were they worried that Meyer had kept a record of these activities?

Was this why Mary Pinochet Meyer had been murdered? In the book Meyer commented on the murder of his wife: Meyer didn't for a minute think that Ray Crump had murdered his wife or that it had been an attempted rape.

But, being an Agency man, he couldn't very well accuse the CIA of the crime, although the murder had all the markings of an in-house rubout. Who had committed such a heinous crime? The Society's headquarters are in Marloes Road, London. It holds an annual conference, regular lectures and two study days per year. Its purpose was to encourage scientific research into psychic or paranormal phenomena in order to establish their truth.

Research was initially aimed at six areas: The Society is run by a President and a Council of twenty people. The organization is divided between London and Cambridge where the archives are located , the London headquarters were initially at 14 Dean's Yard. Its initial officers included president Prof. Simon Newcomb; secretary N. Hodges; and, four vice-presidents, Profs. Stanley Hall, George S.

Those involved in the controversial field found it difficult to maintain support, even with renowned advocates such as Harvard Psychologist and Professor of Philosophy, William James, a member of the illustrious Boston family that included his brother, novelist Henry James. In , for financial considerations, then-president S. Richard Hodgson from until his death in The society, never strong, was dissolved the following year.

Gifford Pinchot , Rhode Island Ave. This should be split into a separate thread. They're interests in Eugenics and "Human Improvement" fold into this field since they believed that Psychic abilities might be improved via various means. They divide up into "spirituals" and "scientific" directions. So LSD would be the scientific direction. With the Sequoia Seminars there was a synthesis of spiritualism and scientific. Barrett, a professor of physics at the Royal College of Science in Dublin , had been conducting experiments in the s testing the notion of thought-transference.

Barrett conceived of the idea of forming an organization of spiritualists, scientists, and scholars who would join forces in a dispassionate investigation of psychical phenomena. Myers, Edmund Gurney and Henry Sidgewick attended a conference in London that Barrett convened, and the Society for Psychical Research SPR was created with Sidgewick, who had a reputation as an impartial scholar, accepting the first presidency. The great American psychologist, William James, met Gurney in England in and immediately they struck up a close friendship.

Later James also became a close friend of Myers. In , Barrett toured the United States and succeeded in arousing the interest of American scholars in forming a similar society , which was established in , and in which William James took an active role.

The American Society for Psychical Research constituted the first organized efford for experimental psychological research in the United States.

For a period of many years, before the ascendency of the German experimental approach of Wilhelm Wundt, psychology in the United States was equated with the efforts of psychical research.

The Society set up six working committees, each with a specific domain for exploration: An examination of the nature and extent of any influence which may be exerted by one mind upon another, apart from any generally recognized mode of perception. The study of hypnotism, and the forms of so-called mesmeric trance, with its alleged insensibility to pain; clairvoyance and other allied phenomena.

A critical revision of Reichenbach's researches with certain organizations called "sensitive," and an inquiry whether such organizations possess any power of perception beyond a highly exalted sensibility of the recognized sensory organs. A careful investigation of any reports, resting on strong testimony, regarding apparitions at the moment of death, or otherwise, or regarding disturbances in houses reputed to be haunted.

An inquiry into the various physical phenomena commonly called spiritualistic; with an attempt to discover their causes and general laws. The collection and collation of existing materials bearing on the history of these subjects. The organisation is divided between London and Cambridge, the London headquarters were initially at 14 Deans Yard.

Rhine and Arthur Conan Doyle who was shamefully duped on at least one occasion by tricksters. The Society was especially active in the thirty years after it was founded, gaining fame for its debunking of Madame Blavatsky and the Theosophical Society in Most initial members were spiritualists but there was a core of 'professional' investigators - the Sidgwick Group, headed by Henry Sidgwic k, a formation pre-dating the SPR by eight years. The Society was wracked by internal strife, a large part of the membership the Spiritists leaving as early as in opposition to the approach taken by the so-called intellectuals.

The Society still exists and states its principal areas of study as "exchanges between minds, or between minds and the environment, which are not dealt with by current orthodox science. The Legacy The work of the early researchers established the main methodological principles and the main areas of research.

The study of mediumship continued, providing much information on aspects of human personality and altered states of consciousness , as well as perfecting investigative techniques. Field investigations were carried out, and further collections, analyses and surveys of spontaneous phenomena were published. Following the general trend discerned also in psychology, towards an experimental, more biological, approach, experimental methods kept undergoing refinements and improvements.

Much important pioneering work on free-response and quantitative experiments was done in the s and s, by researchers such as George Tyrrell. Mathematician and physicist by education, he explored a variety of methods for inducing altered states of consciousness, techniques to differentiate between telepathy and clairvoyance, and made attempts to automate the randomisation of targets. The establishment of J.

In fact, the work of the SPR has, over the years, attracted a remarkable roll-call of great names of learning, both as members and Presidents. As the knowledge about aspects of psychical research and related areas expanded, so did the function of the SPR, from a mainly investigative to an educational body.

Even in its earliest days the Society began creating a psychical research library and an archive of original documents, now housed both at its offices in London and at Cambridge University Library, which are continuously maintained and updated.

In them one can find a wealth of wide-ranging material relating to investigations and experiments past and present, as well as theoretical studies and papers discussing the relationship between psychical research and fields such as psychology, philosophy, physics, medicine, evolutionary biology, social sciences.

Today, apart from its educational activities, the SPR continues to promote and support the main areas of psychical research: Now that parapsychology has become an academic subject, with postgraduate courses offered at a number of universities, many of these projects are carried out as part of university research.

However, the function of the Society is still very much to bring together independent individuals with many different approaches and views but sharing a passion for the subject, so that findings and ideas can be shared, evaluated and disseminated see Research.

For more than a century, it's mission has been to explore extraordinary or as yet unexplained phenomena that have been called psychic or paranormal, and their implications for our understanding of consciousness, the universe and the nature of existence.

How is mind related to matter, energy, space and time? In what unexplained ways do we interconnect with the universe and each other?

The ASPR addresses these profoundly important and far-reaching questions with scientific research and related educational activities including lectures, conferences and other information services. There will be three full days of programming with concurrent tracks exploring clinical applications, issues relevant to healthcare professionals, and social and cultural issues surrounding the therapeutic and recreational uses of psychedelics.

Bennett was set apart as Assistant President of the church, second only to Joseph Smith, on April 8, , just six months after his conversion. University of Illinois Press, Taylor affirmed that "I was well acquainted with [Bennett]. At one time he was a good man, but fell into adultery, and was cut off from the church for his iniquity He then went lecturing through the country, and commenced writing pamphlets for the sake of making money, charging so much for admittance to his lectures, and selling his slanders.

Indeed when word was received in Salt Lake City that Bennett had in fact died in August , the Juvenile Instructor , an official church magazine for youth, published notice that Bennett "was despised by every one who knew him He dragged out a miserable existence, without a person scarcely to take the least interest in his fate, and died a few months ago without a person to mourn his departure".

Joseph Rick also wrote to fellow-Mormon Edward Hunter that Bennett had fulfilled Joseph Smith prophecy and had recently died "a vagabond on the Earth". In fact, as Andrew Smith has thoroughly documented, this is completely erroneous. Bennett died just north of Des Moines, Iowa, surrounded by his 2nd wife, friends and neighbors who respected and appreciated Bennett.

He also left an appreciable estate behind and has one of the largest tombstones in the Polk City Cemetery. Juvenile Instructor , 3 July 15, Also belying the official church line, Bennett arrived in Nauvoo, not "a good man" as Apostle Taylor declared in France, but rather as a confirmed fraud, signature forger, charlatan, adulterer, spouse-abuser, liar, cheat, swindler, diploma counterfeiter and peddler, expelled Freemason, and confidence man, among many other dubious occupations, clearly intent on milking Mormonism and its members for all he could.

Bennett forcefully craved power and fame, and found in Mormonism extremely fertile ground for his pretensions; a huge mass of gullible people who swallowed his nonsense without question. Anotehr acquaintance of Bennett, Governor Thomas Ford of Illinois, wrote scathingly in that, "This Bennett was probably the greatest scamp in the western country. I have made particular enquiries concerning him, and have traced him in several places in which he lived before he joined the Mormons, in Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, and he was everywhere accounted the same debauched, unprincipled, profligate character.

He was a man of some little talent, and in had the confidence of the Mormons, and particularly that of their leaders. Other than exhibiting certain stereotypical characteristics of homosexuality such as his love of music, flashy clothing - he loved to dress up as Napoleon and he designed the extremely ostentatious generals' uniforms for himself and Joseph Smith - and a penchant for theatrical and military drama, as well as personal dramatics that bordered on the masochistic , there is further evidence of Bennett having intimate relations with at least one other man after Nauvoo.

Andrew Smith, Bennett's biographer, points out that after leaving Nauvoo and during his brief foray into the Strangite schism of Mormonism headquartered in Voree, Wisconsin , Bennett "was clearly attracted to" and had a "passionate relationship with" a young physician named Pierce Bye Fagen of Ohio.

Apparently the two men had met around in Cincinnati, Ohio. In , after Bennett ingratiated himself sufficiently with James J. Strang, he submitted Dr. Fagen's name to Strang as professor of anatomy and surgery at the "Voree University of Wisconsin" what would prove to be yet another of Bennett's faux-institutions. In fact, Bennett wrote six extremely heated and bizarrely animated letters to Strang about Fagen, claiming Fagen was on his way to Voree and demanding "for my sake and for God's sake , and for the sake of the church , and for your sake, do not let him leave" Voree until Bennett got there himself emphasis in original.

However, fortunately for Fagen, he had made other plans and was nowhere near Wisconsin. Apparently while living in Rockville, Iowa, Fagen had met another young man only 11 days younger than himself , a lawyer named Phineas McCray Casady and they decided to move together to Fort Des Moines, Iowa, arriving there on June 11, The two 28 year old bachelors in fact became "founding fathers" of the new-born city of Des Moines; Fagen is known to have executed the very first land deed in the town and also acted as the first town surveyor, laying out all the plots.

According to a compilation of Polk County, Iowa pioneer biographies, the two bachelor men " roomed, ate and slept together , 'boarding 'round,' first at the tavern of Martin Tucker They were firm chums The two men soon bought a cabin on "Coon Row" named for the nearby Raccoon River , located on 2nd Street and Vine, and moved their offices jointly into it.

Fagen moved in with Phineas McCray P. Casady for two years as bachelor "chums", rather than moving to Voree to join John C. Bennett in the Strangite schism of Mormonism. A year and a half after moving to Des Moines, undoubtedly feeling social pressure from fellow settlers, 29 year old Phineas decided to marry a 22 year old German native named Augusta Grimmel.

The Polk County biographies relate that in at Dr. Francis Grimmel's newly built house, his "daughter, Augusta, and P. Casady now known as the 'Judge' were married therein. It was a notable, jolly affair. The groom was popular, a lawyer, and [Democratic] candidate for State Senator. While Fagen lost to his "chum" in the senatorial election, he hadn't yet lost the relationship, despite Casady's marriage. A year after Casady married Grimmel, the 31 year old Fagen announced his own marriage to the woman who had been Mrs.

Casady's maid of honor, 16 year old Melissa P. In what I see as a male version of Lasser's "sororal model" of same-sex relationships of the 19th century, this dual marriage provided the two men with plenty of opportunities to spend time together without raising suspicions, allowing their wives the same privilege. I note here that the word "chum" was used twice in to describe the relationship between Fagen and Casady. Interestingly Evan Stephens director of the Tabernacle Choir also used the word "chum" and "boy-chum" in to describe his many intimate same-sex relationships with other Mormon youths, from John J.

Ward onward see below. The Oxford English Dictionary notes that from the s to the mids, the word "chum" etymologically from "chamber-mate" referred specifically to both prisoners and students who share sleeping chambers. Only after the mids did the word begin to refer generally to a "friend".

Since prisoners and British students are notoriously transgressive in their sexual behavior, "chum" certainly could have had an "underground" sexualized meaning.

Furthermore, the former quote emphasizes that Fagen and Casady both "roomed Phineas Casady, besides being a lawyer, later became postmaster of Des Moines, member of the First Baptist Church, an Odd Fellow, district judge, land speculator, printer, and banker among other things. He and his wife, Augusta Grimmel Casady, had three children. Pierce Fagen, the discouraged Whig, suddenly caught gold fever and left for California with a brother. In July , Fagen went into medical practice for two years with L.

Bennett had some affiliation with. Fagen soon sent for Melissa Hoxie Fagen but she died at Yankee Jims, Placer County, California on January 30, , probably as a result of giving birth to her second child in Fagen however made a lot of money, ran for the California state assembly unsuccessfully also in Around , Fagen moved to Santa Cruz, California, and after almost 20 years of renewed bachelerhood, the widower then married 33 year old widow Mary E.

Perry Jordan in who had three children from her previous marriage. She also owned the property that is now the University of California Santa Cruz campus, where I work. Following the established pattern of his life, Fagen set up a joint medical practice with Dr. Clark and the two men built their houses within a block of each other on Mission Street, living near each other for the rest of their lives.

Although his new wife was still young and had already borne other children, the couple had no children; Fagen's two sons by his first marriage were raised in his mansion the largest in Santa Cruz in by a governess from New York. Bennett was vilified publicly as a bugger because he publicly admitted that Mormon leaders were practicing polygamy. This is an important factor in our understanding Mormon sexuality and Mormon heterosexual panic, as I call it. As stated earlier, Joseph Smith had just begun to deify heterosexuality with his doctrine of the Father and Mother in Heaven.

Mormons found themselves in the ironic position of having to protect this deification, eternalization, and multiplication of heterosexuality by exposing Bennett's acts of buggery with men. This is not the only time accusations of homosexuality, whether true or not, were used by Mormons in their political battles. In , Mormon leaders used homosexual accusations to politically destroy the character of one of their own elite. Thomas Taylor, the wealthy polygamous bishop of the Salt Lake 14th Ward, was excommunicated for masturbating with several young men in Southern Utah.

In Brent Corcoran's brilliant biography of Thomas Taylor which focuses on his conflict over business dealings with church leaders and his apparently accurate claim that he was repeatedly "swindled" by church president John Taylor [no relation] and First Counselor, George Q. Cannon , he reports that ironically, prior to Taylor's fall from grace, he and his first wife Elizabeth in fact received their so-called "second anointings" in June The couple later perform a foot-washing ritual on each other in the privacy of their own home to complete the anointing, which, to the faithful, guarantees the eternal exaltation and eventual godhood of the couple.

As Corcoran has documented, Thomas Taylor was made bishop of the Salt Lake Fourteenth Ward in and a year later an assistant trustee-in-trust for the whole church. Taylor tried his hand at various capital ventures, such as being a hotelier, and then an iron and railroad magnate. But his alleged debt to the church incurred while assisting Mormons migrate to Utah and the ensuing conflicts and swindles kept him regularly in debt or worse throughout most of his life.

Cannon duo arose over iron properties that Thomas Taylor owned and wanted to develop in Iron County at a profit to both himself and his church. However church leaders refused both to assist him develop it and to allow gentile non-Mormon control of the properties. Bishop Taylor then tried to sell his own share to President Taylor but on April 28, , John Taylor recorded that he received a revelation from God mandating that "it is forbidden my Presidency to go into debt unless I, the Lord, command it.

Confer with him on this subject, and if he can see these things and follow council he shall assist you in the developments contemplated. However Thomas Taylor was sure that this revelation meant "that God wanted him to turn over all properties to the church without consideration of payment. Cannon, who then plead with Thomas "to get up some kind of company so as to let Mr. John Taylor, George Q. However, in direct violation of their signed agreement, both John Taylor and his First Counselor immediately sold shares of stock to their sons, George Taylor and Abraham Cannon, "and secured for them directorship in the new company" effectively giving the Taylor-Cannon camp complete control of the company.

Still Thomas stayed the course. And yet again found his signed agreement with Taylor-Cannon violated in December when John Taylor "offered to purchase shares at a 50 percent discount on behalf of the church" in order to finance a railroad for transporting coal to the iron works. At the final company meeting, Thomas Taylor "abruptly left the room" shortly after it began because he "felt that his presence was not necessary"; it was apparent to the bishop that the First Presidency would do whatever it wished, no matter what Taylor felt about it.

Apparently John Taylor had asked Thomas in the meeting to sell his stock in the company. Thomas refused and threatened a law suit against the directors. The church president one-upped him by threatening him with excommunication, our first hint that Taylor's membership in the "kingdom of God" would not survive his business relationship with President John Taylor.

Just over a year after IMCU was dissolved and Thomas Taylor was threatened with excommunication , "Angus Cannon, president of the Salt Lake State and Bishop Thomas Taylor's ecclesiastical superior, received via church president John Taylor the report of a special investigation by President Thomas Jones of the Parowan Stake where Thomas's iron properties were located" in July , concerning his "lascivious conduct with certain young men" two years earlier.

Taylor, who had been arrested the year previous for cohabitation with his polygamous wives, was now facing charges from four young men that he "had taught them the crime of Masturbation". Simkins and William W. Simkins of Cedar City, and a fourth, unnamed teenager out of the area during the trial who alleged that Thomas Taylor had on several occasions slept with them and during the night had used their hands to masturbate him.

Cannon's brother, and Thomas's superior in the church hierarchy, recorded in his diary that the high council of the Salt Lake Stake suspended Taylor as bishop of the Fourteenth Ward without even conducting a hearing and allowed Thomas Jones of Parowan to conduct the formal trial in southern Utah, far from church headquarters.

As Corcoran points out, Taylor should have been tried by his own local leaders, rather than those of the area where the alleged homosexual incidents took place and I fully agree with Corcoran that the church leaders surely wanted Taylor punished but with as little public exposure and scandal as possible. Since President John Taylor also had a son Arthur Bruce Taylor who was apparently homosexually-inclined and whom had moved to Oregon just two years previously after "coming out" to Taylor's counselor, Joseph F.

Smith, I believe President Taylor may have had further reason to keep the topic of sodomitical practices away from public debate in Salt Lake City, thus necessitating the change of trial venue to Parowan. However the anti-Mormon elements of the Salt Lake Tribune were obsessed with uncovering anything scandalous about the church, and soon news of the ecclesiastical proceedings reached the columns of the Tribune. In August , the Tribune went so far as to accuse Taylor of being "guilty of a horrible and beastly sin" and interestingly reiterated that he was "a polygamist" and then i n another editorial asked if Taylor should be "prosecuted in the courts?

Or is there no law against sodomy, either, in this most lawless of Territories. However he did admit that he had masturbated with 18 year old Richard Williams, also confessing that was "not the first one I practiced in my life, but was the first since I joined the Church" as a teenager.

To confuse things even more, Taylor later called the incidents "trumped up slander". Cannon on September 22, , Thomas confessed his "sins" altough he does not enumerate them and asked to be reinstated into full fellowship with the church:. I am ashamed to think that I have been so weak and I feel to cry God be merciful to me, and I want my brethren to be merciful to me[.

Oh, help me to come back to [God's] favor. I expect to have offended you greatly[. I am suffering terribly. My nerves are unstrung[. I cannot sit still, nor sleep, when I doze off to sleep, I wake and see before me ["]excommunicated["], and my wife suffers almost if not quite as much as bad, and I feel for her because it is my doing and I ought to be alone the sufferer, and I will try to endure.

I do not want to apostatize[. Despite this plea for forgiveness, none was forthcoming, for Thomas Taylor had committed two unspeakable crimes: The church-owned Deseret News announced on August 28, that Taylor had been excommunicated, although in fact he had only been disfellowshipped and released as bishop by the Salt Lake Stake high council:. It becomes our duty to chronicle the fall of a man who has long been associated with the Church. It is sad that such a useful life should thus have been blighted.

The fact is published with deep sorrow. It is authenticated beyond room for doubt that he has been excommunicated from the Church The cause of action was unchristianlike and immoral conduct, and contempt of the High Council. The law of God, which demands that the Saints shall preserve themselves in purity, must be enforced no matter who the guilty parties may be. Cannon had "swindled" Taylor in their business dealings and that, in fact, "President Taylor was himself responsible for spreading the 'dirty stories,' planning to replace Thomas Taylor with his son as bishop of the Fourteenth Ward", according to Corcoran.

Taylor, was ordained as the new bishop for the 14th Ward on October 11, In the meantime, another of George Q. Cannon, became central to yet another sex scandal in the church hierarchy. John Nicholson was preaching in the Tabernacle in September and obliquely referred to the current Thomas Taylor scandal when he spoke of men who misdirect "the use of the powers of life that have been implanted in the nature of man" and who would subsequently suffer "a withering blight" for their sinfulness.

Cannon, apparently pricked in his conscience, then arose and confessed to the congregation that he was guilty of adultery and "resigned his priesthood". Cannon then moved that he be excommunicated. The Tribune on Christmas Eve reported that Taylor was under investigation by a grand jury in southern Utah "for an unmentionable crime", which had "elicited some disgusting things of Taylor" apparently his homoerotic experiences as a youth prior to his conversion yet were unable to find "evidence of the crimes he was accused of" and thus had dropped the case against him.

Cannon were so angry that I had got the property into my hands again that they encouraged the authorities to excommunicate me from the church upon a trumped-up slander, no charge was preferred, no [secular] trial had The publication was made by Taylor and Cannon on purpose to damage and ostracise me and has damaged me how much it is impossible to find out.

Even lay Mormons accused members of their own families of sodomitical practices, ostensibly for political gain. In , Lorenzo Hunsaker went through two ecclesiastical trials in Honeyville, Utah for allegedly having sexual relations with two younger half- brothers.

Evidently just after October general conference, Lorenzo Hunsaker told Clawson that recently "Peter and Weldon, his [half-]brothers had circulated a story in that Ward to the effect that [Lorenzo] had been guilty of sucking their penis [sic] The question, therefore, was what, under the circumstances had best be done.

My confidence in the purity of Lorenzo's life and faithfulness as a Latter-day Saint," Clawson confided, "was such that I felt it would be an insult to ask him if he were guilty. Lorenzo Hunsaker did as suggested, ignoring the accusations, and found himself quickly excommunicated by the bishop of the Honeyville Ward. Lorenzo appealed the action to the stake presidency and high council.

Eventually, other half-brothers as well as male neighbors added their own accusations of attempted or accomplished oral and anal sex and masturbation with Lorenzo. But as Clawson indicated in his journal, Lorenzo was a Mormon in good standing: Thus the question came down to Lorenzo's piety versus the impiety of some ten accusers.

But behind all this lay the issue of the family inheritance. Abraham Hunsaker, the polygamous patriarch of a family of almost fifty children, had recently died and made it clear that his son Lorenzo was to be the fiscal and spiritual head of the family, even though he was not even close to being the oldest of the sons.

After Abraham's death, there had been some petty bickering and power struggles, and the accusations of homosexuality against Lorenzo must be viewed in the context of that power struggle among Abraham Hunsaker's heirs. While Peter, Weldon, and others clearly used their accusations against Lorenzo to erode his familial power and social influence, it seems clear after carefully reading all the testimonies, that Lorenzo Hunsaker was indeed engaging in sexual relations with his half-brothers and perhaps a neighbor or two.

However, because of his good standing in the church, Lorenzo won readmission into the church and managed to have Peter and Weldon Hunsaker excommunicated for lying, through the persistent efforts of Rudger Clawson. The other accusers, when faced with similar church action against them, recanted. During this period the local ward structure fell apart as people picked sides in a bitter ward and stake battle.

A petition was circulated by the women of the ward, protesting the church's action against Peter and Weldon, but when they presented the petition to Clawson, he curtly replied that the women "could do as they pleased, but if they wished to do right, they would invariably vote to sustain the propositions of the Priesthood". Clawson eventually released all local ward leaders including Bishop Benjamin H. Tolman for disobedience and for "humiliating the Priesthood". Tolman Released because of disobedience in Lorenzo Hunsaker case.

One of the most fascinating aspects to the Hunsaker case is the comprehensive first-hand account left by Clawson of frontier homosexuality, and the terminology used to describe acts of seduction and sex.

I am always a bit disconcerted at not only how off-handedly Clawson recorded the rather crass terminology, but also at the fact that this terminology was used so frequently and easily in such a conservative environment as church courts. The word "penis" is used 21 times in Clawson's record, and ejaculation is referred to as "discharging" five times. While "masturbation" occurs once, the act was often described by Clawson: Fellatio is much more frequently mentioned; however eight times it is described as sucking a penis, three times a penis was "found" in Lorenzo's mouth, twice he had his mouth over or on a penis, twice he "got" a penis in his mouth, and once he held a penis with his mouth.

Lorenzo Hunsaker was also twice called a "cock sucker" during the ecclesiastical proceedings. Lorenzo's brothers and neighbors also four times described non-specific sex acts apparently either masturbation or fellatio but not anal sex as being "monkeyed" with.

Once anal sex is referred to when Cyrus Hunsaker testified that Peter Hunsaker had told him that Lorenzo had tried to "ride" Peter when the two had traveled to Mendon, Utah together.

Cyrus also testified that Peter had called Lorenzo "the horniest cuss he had ever slept with". We also get one small hint as to how Lorenzo justified his actions in seducing these young men. Once Weldon asked Lorenzo "what good it did him, and he answered that it might keep [Weldon] from bothering the girls. Here Lorenzo used the excuse of having homosexuality maintain heterosexual chastity!

In turn, Weldon Hunsaker felt that homosexual acts with his half-brother would only increase his heterosexual desires.

Both views are certainly at odds with current Mormon beliefs. For Thomas Taylor, secular judicial proceedings and media attention were minimal, while for Lorenzo Hunsaker, no such exposure occurred at all, indicating that the church maintained carefully controlled responses in both situations.

In the case Taylor, judicial proceedings were brought against him in the form of a grand jury investigation - but that took place several months after his excommunication. The grand jury convened in southern Utah, where it predictably received a minimum of press coverage. Although Taylor's ecclesiastical investigation found enough "evidence" to excommunicate him, the grand jury concluded that "there was no evidence of the crimes he was accused of" and dropped the case. The fear of yet another scandal to feed anti-Mormon appetites perhaps helped keep Lorenzo Hunsaker out of both the secular courtroom and the media, as Hunsaker was a good Mormon polygamist like Thomas Taylor.

Even acknowledgment of homosexual desire among church members was unthinkable. Little profit then would have come from publicizing these cases in open court with the media filing sensationalized reports on an already battered church.

As Mormon missionaries left Western civilization to preach to the "exotic other" in non-European countries, they were confronted with cultures, ethnoi , and mores that differed markedly from their own. They often turned to myths and legends to explain these differences.

In one such case, Elder Nathaniel Vary Jones was called on a mission to Calcutta, India in , remaining there until , when he returned to Utah. In a lengthy letter to Jedediah M. Grant of the First Presidency, Elder Jones explained that there in India, "the women are very singular in their costume," and went on to describe the sari , which was a scandalous and overly sensual mode of dress to the Victorian missionary.

Jones noted however that, according to the tradition he heard, the sari was introduced to save India from nearly universal male homosexuality!

He wrote to Grant on November 5, Tradition says concerning the dress of the women, that about years ago [i. The then reigning king and queen, enforced upon the females of the nation by decree, the kind of dress which I have already described, the queen herself setting the pattern first, then enjoined all others, with the hope of reclaiming the men, by the exposure of their persons, which it appears has had a salutary effect.

Deseret News , April 18, , p. Such sociological nonsense can only be laughed at today but this shows just how gullible Mormons can be to rumor, myth, and outright lies when it comes to sexuality in general and homosexuality specifically. Early LDS leaders generally handled same-sex scandals among their own people with discretion. Smith had been a young missionary in Hawai'i and sometimes used Hawaiian words in his diary when writing on sensitive subjects.

While Smith reacted with surprise, there seems to have been no formal action taken against Bruce Taylor, either ecclesiastically or legally. It is also possible that George Q. Cannon's scathing remarks about heterosexual monogamy causing the "crime against nature" in his April General Conference address had prompted young Taylor to reconsider his relationship to the LDS Church.

A lawyer, Bruce Taylor moved to Oregon following his "private conversation" with Smith about his sexuality and after his father's death in , Bruce seems to have lost all connection with his prominent LDS family and the religion of his childhood, remaining in Oregon until his death. Bruce Taylor had "left the territory and cast his lot in the Northwest among strangers and had nothing further to do with the Church". Smith was confronted with another case of homosexuality, this time a "ring" of young Mormon men in south-central Utah.

Only Soren Madsen is identified with certainty in the available records, although Michael Quinn has tentatively identified the other five men. Note that the men were not reported to the press or to legal authorities; the case was simply handled internally.

While they kept intramural homosexual scandals from the public sector, Mormon leaders could be merciless when uncovering sodomy in non-Mormons, as occurred when Private Frederick Jones was brought to trial in for raping a nine year old boy. The boy then told his father, who pressed charges against Jones. A week later Jones was in the Salt Lake City jail awaiting trial for sodomy.

Although the Jones suit actually deals with violent pedophilia an adult raping a pre- pubescent child , I have included it in this essay because the judicial response shows that many Utahns could only see that the perpetrator and victim both happened to be male and thus they focused solely on the issue of sodomy.

As Gay theorist Daniel Shellabarger recently posited, "the homophobia of the Utah territorial judicial system is exposed in this case. How odd that the molestation or rape of a child was not even the primary question. The issue of sodomy between two males blocked their vision of the real crime.

Jones was initially examined by Justice of the Peace Jeter Clinton, who was also an alderman on the Salt Lake City council, a member of a ward bishopric, and had ties with the secret Mormon Council of the Fifty. Jones pled not guilty. During the hearing a week later, Clinton determined that the "evidence was clear and conclusive against Jones", and the court went into recess to "examine the law on the subject," but then discovered that Utah had no anti-sodomy law.

When Jones appeared before Clinton the following afternoon, Clinton was forced to released him. Jones set off for Ft. Douglas but only reached the corner of First South and State Street, where he was assassinated. Although witnesses heard gun shots, saw the flash of pistol fire, and heard the sound of retreating footsteps, no one reported to have actually witnessed the murderer.

Many Mormons felt little sorrow at the murder of Frederick Jones. Albert Carrington, a member of the secret vigilante Council of the Fifty under Brigham Young, editor of the Deseret News , and future LDS Apostle who would ironically be excommunicated 20 years later for an adulterous affair with his female secretary , editorialized that Jones's murder "should prove a warning to all workers of abominations, for there is always the chance that some one will be impatient of the law's delay in cases so outrageous and abominable.

Stenhouse, Mormon editor and propiretor of the Daily Telegraph, wrote that, "we have no crocodile tears to shed over [Jones], he is dead, and we have not the slightest disposition to call him back again to change the manner of retribution. To give the details of his crime would be to besmear our sheet with facts so loathsome enough to crimson the face of the most barbarous of the human race.

We confine ourselves to narrative, our readers who want more information then we are disposed to publish can seek it elsewhere. As Michael Quinn has pointed out, even Brigham Young responded to the outcome of the Jones trial, writing in November that Utah lacked an anti-sodomy law at that time because "our legislators, never having contemplated the possibility of such a crime being committed in our borders[,] had made no provision for its punishment.

In essence, he represented everything Mormons feared - federal intervention and challenges to their own sexual perversities. Mormons could do nothing but murder Jones, first to cleanse their community of God's judgment on sodomy, and second, to atone for their own feelings of guilt for deviating from Victorian socio-sexual mores.

As a felony it was punishable by imprisonment for not more than five years. In , the punishment was changed to three to twenty years imprisonment. While Mormons reacted with various degrees of intolerance when confronting sodomitical practices of both Mormon and non-Mormons men, there was still room in which many Mormon men could safely and quite publicly negotiate passionate and romantic relationships with other men without critical or punitive reactions from Mormon officials.

In the 's, Mormon converts Luke Carter and William Edwards constructed an intimate relationship with each other without any apparent opprobrium from church leaders. Luke Carter, a 46 year old British Mormon, arrived in Liverpool, England in to emigrate to Utah with his daughter. Carter had been separated probably divorced from his wife for some three years.

While in Liverpool, he started a friendship with another recent Mormon convert, William Edwards, an unmarried man of thirty, who was emigrating to Utah with his younger sister in the Martin Company. Within days, the earliest winter on record set in. Fatigue, cold, malnutrition, snow, and poorly built handcarts took their toll. One of the first adults to die in this tragic journey was William Edwards. Josiah Rogerson, a fellow immigrant, later published an account of this disastrous event in which one third of the immigrants died.

Rogerson describes the intimate friendship between Edwards and Carter when recounting Edwards' tragic death:. Two bachelors named Luke Carter, from the Clitheroe branch [of the church], Yorkshire, England, and William Edwards from Manchester, England, each about 50 to 55 years of age, had pulled a covered cart together from Iowa City, Ia.

They slept in the same tent, cooked and bunked together; but for several days previous unpleasant and cross words had passed between them. Edwards was a tall, loosely built and tender man physically, and Carter more stocky and sturdy. He had favored Edwards by letting the latter pull only what he could in the shafts for some time.

This morning he grumbled and complained, still traveling, about being tired, and that he couldn't go any further. You'll be all right again when we get a bit of dinner at noon. The cart was instantly stopped. Carter raised the shafts of the cart. Edwards walked from under and to the south of the road a couple of rods, laid his body down on the level prairie, and in ten minutes he was a corpse. We waited a few carts of us a few minutes longer till the captain came up and closed Edwards's eyes.

A light-loaded open cart was unloaded. The body was put thereon, covered with a quilt, and the writer [Rogerson] pulled him to the noon camp, some five or six miles, where we dug his grave and buried him a short distance west of Fort Kearney, Neb. Several details in this story seem to signify what I have called "faggotry". Both Edwards and Carter were unmarried, which is significant in the context of polygamous Mormonism. Although sexual relations between men in England of that era generally or ideally were inter-class affairs, this one was not, for both converts were from the lower class.

However, their relationship was somewhat intergenerational - one was thirty and the other forty-six not fifty to fifty- five, as the 14 year old Rogerson thought - and that does have "class" overtones. And they not only shared a handcart and a tent, but they also cooked and "bunk[ed] together".

Coincidentally Carter died a short time after Edwards, even though he was the "sturdy" one, perhaps in grief at the loss of his physically "tender" companion. Rogerson, despite these "clues", does not seem surprised at all by their intimate relationship. What is of note to him is that Edwards could will himself to die. Whether Edwards' and Carter's emotional and financial partnership extended to sexual intercourse is ultimately unknown, but the image of two men pulling a handcart together, one nurturing the other, is fascinating, especially in juxtaposition to the traditional heterosexual scenes of Mormon pioneer iconography.

Painting of burial in the Martin Handcart Company [click to enlarge]. Edwards and Carter however weren't the only Gay pioneers to migrate to Utah before the arrival of the train in Evan Stephens , Utah's most prominent musical composer as well as the conductor of the Mormon Tabernacle Choir from to , came "across the plains" while a child and is consistently rumored to have been "Gay".

Stephens, born in Pencader, Wales and migrating with his family to Utah in , never married, which in polygamous Utah was a difficult status to maintain, especially for someone as prominent as Stephens. Instead of marrying, he filled his life with his two great passions: Stephens's friendships always centered on passionate love and desire for other, usually much younger, men. Stephens went so far as to publish his autobiography which amounts to little more than an explicit account of the development of his desire to bond passionately with other men in a periodical for Mormon children - without any apparent reprisal from the church.

In this lengthy autobiography written in the third person and published in the Children's Friend , Stephens told Mormon children about his youth while in Willard, Utah, where he discovered music through a local all male ward choir - another instance of homosociality fostering same-sex desire. Stephens recounts that he became. The men among whom he sat seemed to take a delight in loving him.

Timidly and blushingly he would be squeezed in between them, and kindly arms generally enfolded him much as if he had been a fair sweetheart of the big brawny young men. Oh, how he loved these men [;] too timid to be demonstrative in return he nevertheless enshrined in his inmost heart the forms and names of Tovey, Jardine, Williams, Jones and Ward.

A very queer place for Evan Stephens's "coming out". Ward, the son of the last mentioned man, was the same age as Stephens, and the two young men became friends.

However, their friendship soon developed into something much more profound, as Stephens' autobiography attests. For example, when the entire Mormon community in Willard except for the Ward family moved to Malad, Idaho, twenty year old Evan refused to go with his family and instead chose to remain with his "chum", John.

They eventually built a small cabin and moved into it together. In this same autobiography, Stephens calls Ward the first of his "life companions" with whom he shared his "home life". Gay Mormon historian, Michael Quinn, has thoroughly covered the relationships Stephens had with many of the young men in the Tabernacle Choir.

Recently however, I discovered yet another possible "boy-chum" of Stephens, Appollos B. An online history of the Larsen family recounts that after Benjamin Taylor father of Appollos homesteaded in Willard, Utah, "Evan Stephens, who afterward was famous as a musician and choir leader in the Tabernacle for years, was one of the young men who lived with him [Benjamin].

He [Evan] and Appollos herded sheep on the hills for several years. He was so impressed with the grandeur of the high mountains and rugged peaks just east of the farm. Stephens also avidly transgressed Mormon gender boundaries wtih frequent vocal performances in drag as a woman usually an "old maid" , singing convincingly in a high falsetto.

At least two of his drag performances took place in the Tabernacle on Temple Square. Evan Stephens seated , his housekeeper, and Noel Pratt, one of his later "boy chums".

Although I have not found any direct evidence that Brigham Morris Young was a homosexual, he certainly crossed Mormon gender barriers without any negative repercussions, whenever he appeared in public as the Italian opera diva "Madame Pattirini" see photo at the top of this article. They had ten children, eight surviving to adulthood. During the early s "Morris" Young drove a horse-drawn streetcar for a living.

One popular stereotype of the time was that streetcar drivers were effeminate homosexuals and in fact, Walt Whitman found many of his male lovers amongst the streetcar drivers of New York City, including his long-time companion, Peter Doyle, who drove a streetcar in Washington DC for many years. Interestingly, Morris drove the streetcar between the Utah Central Railroad Depot and the Wasatch Municipal Baths, which I have documented was an active "cruising" area for homosexual men who went there looking for anonymous sexual encounters , at least as early as the s.

From the s to the early s, Morris appeared frequently in his drag persona. His son, Gaylen Snow Young wrote that, "He would sing in a a high falsetto voice. He fooled many people. Jessee notes that Morris was "often called to perform at stake and ward social functions, where he frequently posed as 'Madam Pattirini,' a great female opera singer.

An extant invitation lists B. Another, even earlier cross-dressing Mormon, was pioneer Almerin Grow, who lived in both Salt Lake and Weber Counties during the late s. In this case however, Grow's cross-dressing was not for entertainment purposes, like that of Stephens and Brigham M. Young before him; and it was definitely viewed as transgressive. Sometime after , Grow became a follower of Joseph Morris, a schismatic Mormon leader who designated himself as the seventh angel of the apocalypse and taught that the Second Coming was imminent.

Grow had already been excommunicated and rebaptized so many times that Brigham Young had publicly yet humorusly sugggested that the next time Grow be rebaptized in the Jordan River, he be drowned immediately thereafter to ensure he be saved "while in the faith". Young then commanded Musser to move south with her and "never return", because he was becoming increasingly mentally unstable, as evidenced by "his acts of extracting all his teeth, wearing his wife's clothing, etc.

While criticism of polygamy became something of a national past-time during the Victorian era, what I find fascinating about this anti-polygamy rhetoric is how similar it is to anti-Gay and anti-Lesbian rhetoric employed later by the Mormon Church and society at large. For example, a non-Mormon living in Nauvoo in the 's claimed that polygamy is "a system which, if exposed in its naked deformity, would make the virtuous mind revolt with horror; a system in the exercise of which lays prostrate all the dearest ties in our social relations - the glorious fabric upon which human happiness is based - ministers to the worst passions of our nature and throws us back into the benighted regions of the dark ages.

Mormon pleas for tolerance of its sexual diversity drew only international ire and further governmental and social contempt. During the 's and 's, federal laws were passed outlawing polygamy. Believing this was an unconstitutional violation of the guarantee of the separation of church and state, Mormon bigamist George Reynolds was selected by the church's First Presidency to be a test case. Reynolds was found guilty of polygamy, and the Mormons appealed the decision all the way to the U.

In January , in the landmark case Reynolds v. Ironically, this decision currently keeps pro-Gay religions such as the Unitarian-Universalists, the Religious Society of Friends [Quakers], and the Metropolitan Community Church from legally performing same-sex homogamous marriages today. Of course many are performed any way, either illegally - which is the case in Utah - or extralegally each year across the United States. In the aftermath of Reynolds v.

United States Mormon polygamists were disenfranchised, children by polygamous wives were disinherited, female suffrage in Utah was abolished, the Corporation of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints was dissolved, and all church properties including the famed Salt Lake Temple were confiscated.

Bowing to such intense coercion, in church president Wilford Woodruff issued his "Manifesto", ostensibly ending the practice of polygamy in the Mormon Church although members of the hierarchy secretly sanctioned its continued practice for many years afterward.

The Latter-day Saint Church never recovered from this governmnental persecution. The Mormonism of today is so radically different from Mormonism during its polygamous era that they are nearly incomparable. The sexual diveristy Mormons once espoused as a religious obligation is now lost and as the LDS church becomes increasingly more compatible with mainstream Protestantism, it ironically deflects Christian criticism of its sexual past by over-emphasizing its rhetoric opposing other sexualities.

After greeting his well-wishers, he went to the Walker House on Second South and Main Street, where he and his servant scandalously disappeared through the Ladies' entrance. In honor of Wilde being known as the "Sunflower Apostle", his bellboy wore a sunflower in his buttonhole. Oscar Wilde languishing - Notorious aesthete and "Sunflower Apostle". Oscar's visit to Utah announced in the Salt Lake Tribune [click to enlarge].

That night, with the Opera House filled to standing room only, Wilde was visibly disconcerted when he walked out on stage to speak and found an array of young men in the front row, all adorned with enormous sunflowers and lilies, in homage to the controversial British dandy and aesthete. The Deseret News subsequently criticized his speech for being absurd and unoriginal, among other things. However, one historian believes that the Mormons disapproved of his speech because of the "indecent morals" displayed in his other writings.

In , five years after the Woodruff Manifesto "ended" polygamy, Wilde again entered the public eye in Utah, but this time because of his trial in England for sodomy with his longtime companion, Lord Alfred Bosworth. Wilde's story made front page head-lines in twenty issues of the Deseret Evening News as if to emphasize the dangers of such deviant practices. One of many front page headlines from the Deseret Evening News reporting the the lurid details of Wilde's trial for sodomy [click to enlarge].

Contemporary Gay historian Richard Dellamora has observed that in the late nineteenth century "masculine privilege was sustained by male friendships within institutions like the public schools, the older universities, the clubs, and the professions.

Because, however, continuing dominance of bourgeois males also required that they marry and produce offspring, the intensity and sufficiency of male bonding needed to be strictly controlled by homophobic mechanisms" such as public, anti- homosexual scandals - Wilde's trial being a prime example.

Dellamora also states that these anti-homosexual scandals in England in the 's "provide a point at which gender roles are publicly, even spectacularly, encoded and enforced. The Deseret News could well afford to do so, because Wilde, being a non-Mormon in England, could easily be scandalized as a warning to other sodomites, without "tainting" Mormonism's own image.

Because the United States placed so much negative attention on the sexual deviance of Mormon polygamy, Mormons returned the favor to Lesbian and Gay people with the assurance that their perversity was at least heterosexually and procreatively centered.

And two years later, the lesson in homophobia was "spectacularly" reinforced when George Q. Cannon, First Counselor in the First Presidency, spoke in October General Conference about Oscar Wilde who remains nameless throughout the speech and his "nameless crime":. This crime was proved against this man, and some of his associates were what are called noblemen. He was sent to prison. His term of imprisonment having expired, he comes from prison, and is now engaged, it is so published, in writing a book, and, we suppose is received into society, though guilty of this nameless crime.

And is this common; If we may believe that which is told to us, without going into researches ourselves, it and other kindred wickedness, is far too common. The same sin that caused the utter destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah! This and other abominable crimes are being practiced. How will these be stopped? Only by the destruction of those who practice them. Why, if a little nest of them were left that were guilty of these things, they would soon corrupt others , as some are being corrupted among us.

In coming to these mountains we hoped to find a place where we could live secluded from the abominations of Babylon. But here in this secluded place wickedness intrudes itself, and is practiced in this land which we have dedicated to the Lord as a land of Zion! How can this be stopped? Not while those who have knowledge of these filthy crimes exist.

The only way, according to all that I can understand as the word of God, is for the Lord to wipe them out, that there will be none left to perpetuate the knowledge of these dreadful practices among the children of men.

And God will do it, as sure as He has spoken by the mouths of His prophets. He will destroy the wicked, and those who will be left will be like the Nephites after the wicked were all killed off; they were righteous men and women who lived for over two hundred years according to the law of heaven.

This statement leads me to query if Cannon would have been so egregiously hateful, vicious, and murderous in his condemnation of "sodomites" if he had realized his own adopted son, the famed musician and Tabernacle organist Tracy Young Cannon, would later become a leader of the homosexual Bohemian Club in Salt Lake for which see Michael Quinn's treatment , and would be at the center of a network of homosexual and bisexual musicians at the LDS School of Music headquartered in the McCune Mansion?

Tracy Young Cannon, bisexual son of George Q. When public figures make such statements filled with fearful anger, criticism, and condemnation, they are often projecting their own personal turmoil onto others, scapegoating their own problems and short-comings.

Indeed, the larger context for Cannon's homophobic speech reveals two possible motivations for his vitriolic attack on sodomites. First of all, during the period between Wilde's visit to Utah and his imprisonment for sodomy, Cannon himself was embroiled in bitter dissension among the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles and the First Presidency. It was discovered after President John Taylor's death in that Cannon had been secretly acting as the de facto head of the church for the last five months of Taylor's life, due to the president's deteriorating health, something which Cannon had kept hidden from the Twelve Apostles and other church leaders.

Cannon's ineptitude and mismanagement of the Church, and deception about his role in its governance, left some members of the Quorum of the Twelve angry. In particular, Cannon's mismanagment of the church's involvement with the Bullion Beck silver mine in Eureka, Utah where Michael Quinn has discovered the existence of an all-male brothel frequented by miners could have financially ruined Mormon investors, including fellow Apostle Moses Thatcher an outspoken Democrat and a morphine addict who suffered intensely from a stomach ulcer.

Cannon's inept management of and continued involvement in the Bullion Beck remained the sharp dividing line between Cannon and Thatcher for many years to come. Grant were questioning Cannon over "conduct unbecoming a witness of Jesus Christ", especially with regards to his handling of the Bullion-Beck mine, his "meddling in the case of his son John Q.

Even Wilford Woodruff publicly expressed doubts about the First Counselor's "mining schemes".

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