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Check our guide to activities for all the family across the region this month. Fear not, as our fun events guide has you covered for the rest of the month with activities ranging from nature trails to wrestling shows. When you're done, you can also read our guide to free things to do in half term. If you spot anything that we've missed then get in touch by commenting at the bottom of the article.

Would you trust a talking cat? You never know, he might turn you from a pauper to a prince just like the hero of this story, brought to vivid life on our incredible sloping stage by Patrick Lynch from Cbeebies. Clwyd Theatr Cymru , Mold. For more information, visit the Theatr Clwyd website or call Brace yourselves for an explosive night of action bringing a host of top American wrestling stars to the ring to face the very best of home grown talent and fans favourites in a two hour rip roaring show.

If you've been before you know how good it gets - this is great entertainment for families and kids! Venue Cymru , Llandudno. For more information visit the Venue Cymru website or call the Box Office on The castle and its collections may be tucked up warm for the winter months but you can still enjoy some of its delights on a special Winter Weekend house tour.

For the price of garden admission alone you will see what happens to the building and its contents during these months and how our conservation team takes care of our special place. For more information visit the Penrhyn Castle National Trust website or call Take a friendly and informative two-hour walk around the reserve this Saturday morning at 11am booking essential and find out what makes the bird sanctuary so special while discovering some of its birds and other wildlife.

No experience necessary, all are welcome! There are masses of snowdrops to plant, and the more people who can give us a hand the better. The staff will dig the holes, you just need to pop your snowdrop in and make sure it's well planted. Come back next year to see if you can find 'your' snowdrop! For more information, visit the Bodnant Garden National Trust website or call Ideal for ages Family Interactive matinees are a fun, engaging and creative way to introduce your family to dance.

For more information, visit the Venue Cymru website or call Join Livingstone the Explorer as he delves belowe the waves to search for all it's colourful inhabitants in the Explorer's Trail.

Follow the clues around the SeaQuarium to find the animals and earn your prize and Explorers Sticker Badge! For more information, visit the SeaQuarium website or call Pick up your '50 Things to do' pack from the ticket office or register on www. For more information, visit the Erddig National Trust website or call Make a secret trail through the garden with sticks. You will collect a load of sticks and use coloured wool and scraps of fabric to mark them.

Then you'll set off around the garden, deciding where the secret trail is going to go, and putting the sticks out to show the way. Come along and make your very own fossil to take home at this drop in event.

This is event is suitable for years. There's loads of activities to enjoy during the show including free rides for children on miniature steam engines. To find out the ticket price call or e-mail linda theatrbaracaws. Fun and free family event to celebrate National Nest Box Week. As well as giving you some tips on the different types of nest boxes, there will be plenty of activities throughout the day including bird watching, wildlife spotting, making bird feeders and you can have a go at some wild art.

Join a wild walk around the forest, foraging for material to use to make a wild art masterpiece. Remember to bring warm, waterproof clothing and sturdy footwear. This activity is suitable for children aged years old, children must be accompanied by an adult.

This guided wildlife walk will see you search for wild birds and red squirrels taking in the estuary and Newborough forest. Suitable for babies under 12 months old. Fancy taking in some Six Nations rugby with your children without having to travel to Cardiff or fork out for high priced match tickets?

Well Wales Under 20s will be playing their fixtures in Colwyn Bay at a reasonable price. For ticket information visit the WRU website. Live action wrestling which is fun for all the family, this promises to be an action packed event.

Open to girls and boys over the age of 8 just starting out and those cricket players of all ages who are either still playing or want to get back to the sport. Get daily updates directly to your inbox Subscribe See our privacy notice. Thank you for subscribing See our privacy notice. Subscribe to our Daily newsletter Enter email Subscribe. Halloween The most haunted spots in North Wales and beyond mapped Looking for somewhere truly terrifying to visit this Halloween?

There's a map for that. Traffic and Travel Turkey has changed its visa process and it will affect all Brits flying there The country's e-Visa system will be undergoing significant changes - here's what you need to know.

Events 48 October half-term activities in North Wales Looking for things to do with the children this half term? We've rounded up the best in North Wales. Most Read Most Recent. Denbigh Three teens killed in horrific Denbigh crash named Victims named as family of one says 'life will never be the same without him'. Denbigh Recap - Three teenagers killed and four people injured in Denbigh horror crash Three were killed and three were seriously injured in the two-vehicle crash last night.

North Wales Police What we know about Denbigh horror crash which killed three and injured four Three people were pronounced dead at the scene of the crash, which happened between Denbigh and Trefnant. Llandudno Strong winds postpone major North Wales fireworks display The annual Llandudno Fireworks Display usually attracts thousands of people to the town. Wrexham The North Wales 'pet psychic to the stars' who counts celebrity pooches among her star-studded client list Animal communicator Jackie Weaver claims to have had conversations with them.

Prestatyn 'I cried like a baby, but the tears froze to my face' Rob Griffiths runs the rule over the Dragons' individual performances. Denbigh Three teens killed in horrific Denbigh crash named as family of one says 'life will never be the same' Four other people remain in hospital after the two-car collision'.

Denbigh Denbigh crash killed three and left four more in hospital - latest updates Three were killed and three were seriously injured in the two-vehicle crash last night.

North Wales Police What we know about Denbigh horror crash which killed three and injured four. Wrexham The North Wales 'pet psychic to the stars' who counts celebrity pooches among her star-studded client list. Holyhead Fire breaks out at Holyhead truck stop.

Flintshire First pictures of John Garner, the man accused of hammer murder of partner at their Flintshire home John Barry Garner is charged with murdering Teresa Garner in a hammer attack in Penyffordd, near Holywell. Flintshire Man appears in court accused of Flintshire hammer murder of partner John Barry Garner, 51, is charged with the murder of mum-of-three Teresa Garner at their Penyffordd home. North Wales Weather What to expect from the weather this weekend as Arctic air draws in.

Health Clocks go back tonight - here's why it's good for your health.

Man jailed for sex assault on girl more than 20 years ago | The Leader

Jackson, his younger brother Issac and their father Andrew were repairing a fence at their Waratah St, Avondale, home. They needed more nails. So Jackson got on his bike and headed to Bunnings on Marshland Rd, about 4km away. It was Constable Buckley. Last week, Mr Tooby launched a scathing verbal attack on four elderly residents, including a woman, while The Star was interviewing them about a sign they had put up on a fence at the village protesting against noisy trucks.

Other newspapers and websites, including some from overseas, published the article and recording. But Tooby does have his supporters, as we reveal on page 1 today.

Two gents, Chris and Bruce, arrived at our Lincoln Rd office on Tuesday with a letter signed by 59 of their fellow Lady Wigram residents, supporting Tooby. They said he was a good bloke who had done a lot for the residents and continued to put their welfare first. They did add he was a bit of a hot head at times, and whatever else was going on for Tooby that fateful day, almost certainly was the catalyst for his outburst.

So hats off to Chris and Bruce for backing Tooby, who did apologise to the residents he had a crack at. His apology has been accepted. This week in history saw the inauguration of the Canterbury Club building on October 23, It was designed by Frederick Strouts. On October 24, , a fire destroyed the centre of Lyttelton.

On October 25, , the first high pressure water supply system went into operation in Lyttelton. In a seven-week period it was visited by 71, people, the largest number to a paying show at the gallery.

On October 26, , the Chamber of Commerce transferred from Lyttelton. On October 28, , the Pioneer Sports Stadium opened. Mrs Todd was driven to Christchurch Hospital in a police car. When Mr Todd arrived he came in and was told the bad news.

A few hours later they were able to see Jackson. He was medicially unconscious and would stay that way for almost six weeks. It is a child rehabilitation service which provides familycentred rehabilitation services to children up to the age of About two weeks later he start-.

We offer a range of personal Loans and can provide cash quickly. The first word he was able to say was Meg, the name of the family dog. He was joined by his family for Christmas Day at the centre complete with a tree and presents. Jackson spent about four months in hospital and rehabilitation. Constable Buckley was appointed the police family liaison officer at the time.

But he has stayed in touch since. The driver of the car who hit Jackson allegedly fell asleep while driving on Lake Terrace Rd, Burwood, after telling his boss he was too tired to continue at work. The year-old was kayaking with his family when wind caught them about 1pm, tipping all into the water. The man made it onto a nearby rock, where he and his family clung for 30min before being taken to the beach by Westpac rescue helicopter.

It was organised by the Diamond Harbour Community Association. She takes over from Nicky Wagner, who held the portfolio under the National government. He spoke to Bridget Rutherford. But Hutch needed to go to the loo. El Alamein, a battle that raged He went yards away. El Alamein on the coast of the I was bounding, going like hell, Mediterranean Sea.

To this day, Mr Hutcheson From 9pm the sky was alight reckons he holds the world with shells and fires brightened record for running the fastest the night sky in the distance. This week marks the 75th an-. It picked me up and blew. His only war injury was a scar on his arm where a piece of shell had carved its way through his flesh to the bone.

The reality of the carnage caused by the barrage at El Alamein became evident in the days after the attack. It was a distressing sight. Many were in a bad way. One walked with a hunch. In fact, he came home and committed suicide after being home for about a month. He asked her out to dinner, and 10 days later, he proposed. Mr Hutcheson fell into an unexpected career path when he returned to Wellington, before later moving to Christchurch. An air force man he met in Britain, was a diamond merchant.

He wanted an agent in New Zealand, and Mr Hutcheson fitted the bill. He used to lay out a piece of fabric on the table to sit the diamonds on to grade them. One day, he accidentally knocked them onto the carpet.

He thought they had picked them all up — until he decided to take a pair of trousers to be dry cleaned. On Monday they visited the crosses commemorating the Battle of Passchendaele in the Park of Remembrance.

Police were called to the domain on William Brittan Ave on October 5 at about 3. Police and the vets who cared for Daisy were not the only ones excited to see. Constable Harriet Carey released Daisy back into the wild after she saved her from drowning 20 days ago. I Constable Carey would like to pass on our sincere thanks to the Animal and Bird Hospital and their volunteers. Animal and Bird Hospital manager Nicola Broad said Daisy had suffered a nasty concussion and developed a bit of a hiss.

She said it was great to get some closure on what was quite a weird job. Rest home residents get behind abusive owner They will now leave the matter in the hands of the Halswell-Hornby-Riccarton Community Board regarding a bylaw on Lodestar Ave to stop trucks. Mr Havill said the protesting residents should have taken their complaint to the village committee.

He said improvements at the village, including a swimming pool, needed trucks and heavy equipment. Mr Tooby told The Star yesterday he appreciated the support. He could see a lot of effort was put into the letter. Asked why he flew off the handle at the residents, Mr Tooby said: They say they are noisy and wake them up as early as 4. Mr Prescott said the protest sign will not be put back up. Bob Prescott, one of the residents who was abused by Mr Tooby, signed the letter of support.

Not all services and products featured are available in all stores. See in store for product availability. We reserve the right to restrict the purchase of commercial quantities. All prices quoted are inclusive of GST. Prices valid until Sunday 5th November , or while stocks last.

Excludes trade and special quotes, stock liquidations and commercial quantities. The in-store price may be lower than that advertised. He hoped to urge others not to risk their lives and repeat the same mistake he did. A woman, 25, and man, 29 died after the car they were in crashed into a tree in Morningside on Sunday morning — the second fatal chase within a fortnight.

Earlier this month, Morrocco Tai, 15, was killed within moments of fleeing from police in a stolen car in South Auckland. Falcon was lucky — his decision to flee from cops took his licence, for a year, not his life.

He said he was also put under supervision for nine months. I could not be bothered dealing with the police then, so I put my foot down, and led them on a bit of a chase.

The recent fatal pursuits have also led to calls from road safety campaigner Clive MatthewWilson for the police to rethink their pursuit policy and look to ban or restrict the practice. However, the Christchurch man said it was easy to blame police but said the officers were just doing their job. He said if speeds were getting too high, it would probably be best for police to back off a little. It will see the cafe, ziplines, chairlift, mountain bike coaching and sightseeing attractions reopen.

Christchurch Adventure Park spokeswoman Anne Newman was delighted to announce the reopening date. New trails have also been planned. About ha of the park had been logged, the chairlift haul rope and four ziplines had been replaced, and much of the area had been replanted.

From December 5, the park will be open from noon-7pm daily. The latest data shows 47 per That was quicker than the three cent of those interviewed last other cities surveyed. The cheapest of the four centres. In Christchurch, 18 per The study, funded by cent said synthetics were the New Zealand Police, the substance responsible involved interviewing for their drug-related harm.

Greg people who were arThe statistics come after Murton police revealed they believed rested in the Whangarei, Auckland, Wellington and about 20 people may have Christchurch central police stadied from synthetic drugs. Synthetic cannabis was banned It compared drug use from in Since then, a black Murton said targeting the More than 60 per cent said it manufacturers and suppliers of.

Dr Richards said there had been a small change in the side effect profile of synthetic drugs with some people, which could indicate there was a new substance or ingredient around.

We are also seeing cyclical vomiting from both natural cannabis and synthetic cannabinoid. He said prior to synthetics being banned in , a wide range of people were using it. Now, people who were already using other drugs were becoming larger users, he said. I want help getting off synthetic cannabis. After 24 happy years in Nelson, retirement beckoned, plus a desire to move closer to family.

We also discovered Elloughton Village. Jesse made us feel so welcome and helped make the move into Elloughton very easy and smooth. We genuinely love the community at Elloughton and have already made great friends. We love our villa and just find Jesse and his team so welcome and friendly. To find out more, call Jesse on For a virtual tour of the Village and a villa go to www.

Bookings for tours are essential. The price of is always on this area. But the figure surveyed said they had used canhad reduced slightly from the nabis in the past month. That hol, those surveyed said increased to 66 per cent they drank less days in last year. Although that a year, with 14 per cent did drop from about 75 saying they felt dependent per cent in But Detective Inspector Ecstasy use declined in Murton said police had Christchurch, dropping David not seen evidence of meth from 29 per cent in Richards becoming easier to get to 12 per cent last year, and pricing of drugs fluctuated.

The study these products can cause to said successful police cannabis users and the people around eradication operations could be them. Such illicit drugs have a a factor. How quickly those interviewed could buy drugs in Christchurch in One hour — 30 per cent; less than 20min — 37 per cent. One hour — 23 per cent; less than 20min — 55 per cent. One hour — 39 per cent; less than 20min — 7 per cent. One hour — 24 per cent, less than 20min — 66 per cent.

Average cost of drugs in Christchurch in Join our friendly team at Northlands. Goods must be collected and paid in full on the day. Customers are responsible for the transportation of their purchases by bringing a trailer, blankets and tie downs. Delivery may be arranged upon request and a delivery fee will apply. All orders placed from 9am 27th October to 5pm 29th October are in the draw to win a refund for the full amount paid.

Entrants will automatically be entered into the draw. One winner per day. Winners will be drawn at random on Wednesday 1st November The winners will be notified by phone by Thursday 2nd November We reserve the right to limit quantities. The hall has ample parking and easy access so impress us with what you bring along. It was closed for about two hours on June 8 because the main system used to operate the real time information and service bus bay allocation and automated announcements went down.

Environment Canterbury public transport senior manager Stewart Gibbon said the interchange bay allocation function could not be restored. Since then, ECan had installed new hardware to combat the problem, he said. The system was restored at 8. Mr Gibbon said the new hardware had higher. New hardware has been installed at the bus interchange after a system failure in June forced it to close. While the bay allocation function was down, manual procedures were activated to manage bus arrival, allocation and bay door operations, Mr Gibbon said.

Genge was jailed for life with a minimum non-parole period of 15 years after the brutal and fatal attack in September on year-old Anne Maree Ellens in the grounds of Christchurch East School. While she was heavilyintoxicated, Genge and coaccused Samuel Kirner and Michael October took her into the school before raping her and savagely beating her to death. Her semi-naked body was found on the school steps the next morning. The three men were jailed in October Genge filed appeals shortly after his conviction but they were abandoned before any hearings.

Now, the Court of Appeal has rejected his latest attempt. Genge, now 43, had applied for orders setting aside the notice of abandonment and granting him leave to pursue the appeals earlier abandoned.

He also sought leave to bring appeals out of time in relation to the murder conviction and rape sentence. But, in a decision just released, the Court of Appeal has rejected his case. Genge remains a serving prisoner. He is eligible for parole but has been declined in the past. Changes to the Residential Tenancy Act By now, most landlords and tenants throughout New Zealand will be aware of the changes to the Residential Tenancy Act concerning home insulation.

These laws require all rental properties to have adequate ceiling and under floor insulation installed, where practicable, by July What landlords may not be aware of is that they could be eligible for a 50 per cent government insulation subsidy. These subsidies are only available for a limited time so landlords are being urged to take advantage of them now. The introduction of the new insulation law is seen as the most effective way to safeguard tenants by requiring that landlords maintain warm, healthy, energyefficient houses.

The company offers free property assessments. If the existing insulation already complies, then EnergySmart provides an insulation Compliance Certificate for the property. If insulation is required, they provide a Compliance Report and a Quote to complete the work.

An extended home energy assessment is also available, with EnergySmart also supplying heat pumps and LED lights if required. EnergySmart are one of the largest manufacturers and installers of insulation products in New Zealand and supply a range of home solutions including their own insulation brands Terra Lana wool and PolyKing polyester, as well as supplying Pink Batts fibreglass insulation. These market-leading brands all carry a year warranty. EnergySmart installers are fully trained, clean and tidy, and their work is audited both internally as well as by the government, so you are assured of the highest standard of workmanship.

EnergySmart has easy payment options including no deposit, 18 months interest free, and payment holiday. This enables landlords to insulate now, take advantage of current discounts and beat the rush. While insulation in rental properties is now a legal requirement for landlords, they will also have the satisfaction of knowing their tenants are living in a warmer home, and consequently are more likely to stay.

To enquire about a free property assessment and insulation options, contact EnergySmart, phone They will be pleased to help. However, the sleigh might need a GPS system to find him. The Christchurch-born year-old will be manning the oars of his rowing dinghy somewhere between the Canary Islands and Antigua on a km journey across the Atlantic Ocean.

Giesen leaves on December 12 and hopes to complete the crossing in 60 days. On December 25, Giesen will sling his rod overboard, hoping to reel in a catch he can fillet on a chopping board built into the port side gunwale of his vessel, Bonnie Lass. Lemon could be added as a marinade or, depending on how cavalier he feels, he might knock up a soup with tom yum paste, coconut powder and desalinated water.

Isaac Giesen will take on a km journey across the Atlantic Ocean to raise awareness and money for suicide prevention.

He lost an aunt and two mates to suicide in recent years. Giesen knows eating on the voyage is less about Michelinstar meals and more about chowing down enough energy for his stints on the oars. He cites the case of vet-. Hopefully younger people can be open and talk about it like John Kirwan as an All Black. He has been subjecting himself to three-hour rows on the ergometer to build his base fitness. I also completed my yacht masters course last year in the Canary Islands [including more than sailing hours] which helped me understand swells.

But, we cannot ignore the fact that there are roadblocks to be removed. People need their EQC and insurance claims settled so they can put their lives back together, we need to accelerate the Anchor Projects in the central city, and we need a clear vision for a vibrant Canterbury future. All of this requires certainty, transparency and determination. I am committed to offering these. Likewise, I am dedicated to a strong and enduring partnership with the councils.

Underpinning all my thinking is the need to transition our future back to where it belongs — in Canterbury and away from Wellington. Our special arrangements are set to expire in and I want to ensure this transition back is as smooth as possible.

There is much to celebrate in our city. All around us we can see. Many years ago the relationship saw the bringing of HIT human interface technology lab to Christchurch. First established at the University of Washington, it has become an enormously important part of the University of Canterbury. This time we connected with CoMotion, MakersSpace, and the innovation impact centre based at the University of Washington, bringing together established companies, start-ups, mentors, academics and very bright students.

Being the minister responsible for seeing Christchurch through this stage of its recovery and regeneration is a challenge and I feel humbled at the opportunity. This is my home. I was born here, my family and my history is here, as is my heart and my future. We campaigned hard on the need for a Labour Government to provide the certainty Christchurch needs. In opposition we have often spoken about the need for a locally-led recovery; now in Government we get to put this into action.

One of my key priorities as the in-coming minister will be ensuring that we have strong relationships across the city and with Wellington. There are broken relationships that simply must be restored and the relationship with the CDHB is at the fore of my mind. Readers of my columns know that addressing mental health issues in our city is something I care passionately about. I am committed to. I have sent a congratulatory message to the prime minister elect, which she has acknowledged. Her election has sparked real interest overseas, and there was a genuine sense of excitement among the Seattle Christchurch Sister City Association which has hosted my visit.

I believe the new Government will be good for the city, given the policies that were announced during the campaign. We will invite the Government to partner with us on a range of initiatives that will take advantage of the opportunity to apply fresh eyes to a set of arrangements now four to five-years-old.

We need to ensure that we build the momentum necessary to get things done. What a bully, and horrid man. A prominent rest home owner and businessman John Tooby right , of Lady Wigram Retirement Village, Wigram Skies, verbally abused his tenants after they put up a sign at the complex complaining about noisy trucks.

Janine Lloyd — What a horrible man. I pity anyone unfortunate enough to end up in one of his homes. Unfortunately, they are the wrong sort to have in the industry. They had a sign stating how they felt. He should feel very, very ashamed of himself. Beverley McEwan — Mr Tooby has just demonstrated the ugly money driven face of elder care in this country. What a despicable human being. Shame on you John Tooby, shame.

You awesome folk stick to your guns, this is why we live in a democracy. I thought it looked very nice and close to where I live, just goes to show us oldies need to be very careful.

These places say they are very caring, but it all comes down to money. I pity those working for him. Regardless of age, a paying nonabusive client deserves matters to be handled professionally and as a human they deserve empathy. I hope they can change residence. Why is a truck driving around there? By the sounds of it they tried other routes to solve this issue.

Nothing more than holding pens at the cattle yards. Shout prices run from Monday 23rd October until Sunday 5th November or while stocks last. Mary Mander — All I can say from this report is that you John Tooby, are an arrogant, self-centred, foul-mouthed person. Your use of the English language is extremely limited as all you can do is continually repeat yourself and swear.

The people who bought there must know there is another two years of building going on around them. He has since apologised and we all fly to the handle once or twice in life. Good luck to all involved. Preheat oven to deg C. Line a tray with baking paper. Beat the egg whites until stiff then slowly add the sugar, a little at a time, while still beat-. Make a seafood cocktail sauce by blending mayonnaise, a little tomato paste, a dash of Worcester sauce, a dash of tabasco, a squeeze of lemon and, if you like, a glug of brandy.

Season to taste then fold through cooked prawns and avocado balls made by using a melon baller dress these with a little lemon juice to stop browning. Arrange some small cos lettuce leaves in glass dishes or bowls and spoon in your prawn and avocado mix. Add the vanilla then fold through the almonds. Place in small spoonfuls on the tray and bake for 45min. Turn the oven off, leaving the door slightly ajar to let the meringues cool completely in the oven.

Top the meringues with a small spoonful of mascarpone and the strawberries. I am having trouble growing radishes. I have tried various places in our garden and several types and brands to no avail.

I get top growth but nothing underneath. Many gardeners have experienced the same problem growing radishes, with very healthy leafy top growth and small or non-existent roots.

Radishes do not need overly rich soil and prefer a warm, sunny spot with well drained soil. Prepare soil by digging it over and working in small amounts of compost.

If your soil is heavy clay based you can also add in Daltons Garden Time Planting Mix to help with drainage. If radishes are planted in heavy soils, the roots are often misshapen or non-existent. Once you have established a suitable environment for your radishes, they will grow very rapidly. As they germinate, thin them out and allow enough room for roots to develop.

Harvest them regularly before they become too large and too hot to eat. Radishes do not require any side dressings of fertiliser. Be careful not to cultivate soil too close to the young radish plant; hand weed only where it is required. For more information and expert advice, check out How to Grow guides www. Brilliant snacked sized fruit, with a long fruiting season. Planting basil with tomatoes improves the flavour We all love the colour of the flowers and leaf of the fruit.

Coriander produces delicately variations of cornus. With so many varieties and serrated leaves that are aromatic and delicious. Email your gardening questions and glove size to: Just in time to plant up for Xmas. Pots are great to dress an entranceway, for displaying houseplants and outdoors as a feature. A more compact version of its brother plant Broadway Mint, this hedge master has a slightly smaller foliage and is much more compact.

A mixture of bright long-lasting flowers which smother the compact, uniform plant. Ideal for baskets, tubs, rockeries or borders. Plant now to feed those hungry Monarch caterpillars later. Swan plants are perennial so once the butterflies have finished, leave plants in the garden for next year. Replenish existing soil or incorporate when planting, Oderings compost is the perfect addition to any garden or veggie patch. Specials valid until 1. We cannot sell or redeem Go Gardening gift vouchers.

Other vouchers — Yes. Follow the signs and our parking teams directions to find a spot to start exploring from. Mobility parking right by the heart of the community open day is also available. There was a consistent theme in their comments. Emily Cambridge says she feels fitter and riding helps get her energised to start the day while Klaus Sulz is a convert to cycling, who took it up to improve his health and fitness.

It makes the whole experience a lot nicer. But building the cycleways is only part of the picture. For example, community group Go Cycle Christchurch offers personalised ride assistance to help people build their biking confidence. Search the internet or Facebook to find all of these groups. The city council also does work to educate people about getting around safely and efficiently. Only one week of Biketober events to go Girls on Dirt Enduro: Western Belfast Bypass Open Day: Lazy Sunday Ride to Bike Expo: Aotearoa Mini Bike Challenge: There are plenty of groups provi ding more bikin Christchurch th g activities in roughout summ er, including: Each week The Star will give away a double movie pass to the best photo sent in by a reader.

Send your photos to martin. Adults and older kids can test ride bikes on the 1km off-road demo track or sealed runway.

This is a rare opportunity. Plenty of bike and car parking. David from Biomaxa presents chamois cream and bicycle lubricants, providing excellent performance for the urban, sport and long-distance cyclist.

Electric bikes and scooters are generating excitement around the world. From the deep south clyde , Fletch and her team from Bike it now! Gary paterson is sharing his free Great rides App. Outside on the field, the Share The road team brings a different dimension to the Expo. The nZ Bike Expo is the grand finale to the Biketober festival. Event owner cycling Action network cAn is a registered charity that aims to get more people on bikes, more often. Thinking about the future Feel safe in the knowledge that you are working with a professional and experienced team who will guide you through prearrangement and prepayment options.

We can be contacted at anytime to assist you. This spectacular garden, which has been named as a Garden of National Significance by the New Zealand Garden Trust, provides the perfect backdrop for the springtime art exhibition. This is the 15th year the event has been held, with the works of more than 90 contemporary New Zealand artists being featured. As always, it covers a broad spectrum of artworks, including large-scale installations, paintings, photography, prints, ceramics, glass and jewellery.

There are two guest artists exhibiting. After leaving home for study and overseas travel, she returned to her roots in the country, and her work demonstrates her love for farm animals, including cattle, deer and farm dogs. While strolling around the extensive range of exhibits, visitors will be treated to live music on each of the four days, starting at 11am, and finishing at 2pm on the first day and 3pm on the remaining three days.

First prize is a wall tile by ceramicist Christine Thacker, entitled Waiheke Island An established ceramicist with an international reputation for innovative form and approach to medium, Thacker was born in New Plymouth in and now lives in Herne Bay, Auckland. She has been a practising artist since The third prize is a Harris Meats meat pack and two Ravensdown vouchers each for one 40kg bag of Nitrophoska.

The second guest artist is Americanborn sculptor Doug Neil. Zealand sculpture shows and galleries. Frank Greenslade - Ph 03 email: Third Age Tours Ph 03 or 03 Freephone: Regain the freedom of your home Simple, safe and stylish, Acorn Stairlifts give people the chance to enjoy their own homes once again.

Were there any particular challenges to overcome? I had a few steep learning curves to climb, and finding funding is always a challenge. Christine Dann, left, with Sheila Natusch on location while making the film. Banks Peninsula resident Christine Dann, who is both a writer and an environmentalist, took on the role of producer for the New Zealand film, No Ordinary Sheila.

The film tells the life story of historian, illustrator and writer, the late Sheila Natusch, who died on August 10 at the age of 91, just days after the film was premiered at the New Zealand International Film Festival. Forward 50 talks to Christine about the project. What drew you to research the life of Sheila Natusch? After I met her I found that she had an interesting life story and a great personality as well.

What were her particular qualities you saw as remarkable? She was an extremely determined and resilient woman — essential qualities for her to be able to achieve what she did at a time when higher education and professional work for women was not common or easy. She was also exceptionally creative and skilled with words, and with her brush and coloured pencils.

How did your research on her life lead to your being asked to produce the film about her? I was already working with Hugh Macdonald as his producer, so it was more a matter of picking up the research task as well — but I was already an experienced researcher and I love doing it. Was that the first film you have produced? It was the first feature documentary for cinema release that I have produced. Nestled amidst landscaped grounds on the fringe of Christchurch, the Barton Fields and Mary Brittan Lifestyle Villages are a community with an ownership structure that provide both freedom and peace of mind.

Instead, our Villages were created under the Unit Titles Act, allowing residents to purchase their own villas just as one would a normal home. The villa becomes their own in every respect — an asset they can borrow against, sell whenever they want, or pass on to other family members.

And because there is no Deferred Management Fee i. She got so much joy out of life from learning and from sharing what she learned, from creating books and drawings, and from her many friendships with interesting people. To find out more, simply call or visit www. Proudly built by Mike Greer Homes and with a 10 year Master Build Guarantee Call us to find out about our latest promotions or register your interest in our Stage 3 villas.

Retirement Villages Security, companionship, support and on-site healthcare are just some of the reasons why you might be contemplating the move to a Retirement Village. But, the implications of buying in a Retirement Village are varied and often seem quite complex. The most important thing to remember is that this decision is about you and the type of lifestyle you want. Here are some things to keep in mind when you are thinking about the move to Retirement Village living. What ongoing fees are there?

Will those fees change? If so, how will they change? On terminating your Agreement, what money will be refunded to you? How is this calculated? What costs will be taken out of any refund and when will you receive it?

Safeguards — are there any safeguards? If the Retirement Village you are looking at is registered, it will either have a Statutory Supervisor or an Exemption The Lifestyle — what kind of lifestyle do you want? Think about the things that are Certificate. Make sure you understand what a Statutory Supervisor is. Ask to see the Look at different Villages to ensure that the Village you pick ticks all your boxes.

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Make a checklist of the reasons for and against a different level of care? What are your and involve your family and friends rights in those circumstances? Will you have priority over a new resident? What in your decision-making process. It is happens if there is no available space?

Title — there are four common legal structures used in Retirement Villages. You who understand how this area may impact are required to seek legal advice before on you and your legal requirements. At you sign an Occupation Right Agreement Harmans we have experience dealing so make sure your lawyer explains how the Village you are interested in is with estate planning strategies.

Fleur McDonald a call on 03 to The money — make sure you understand arrange an appointment to discuss your situation. World Journeys creates and operates a range of small group tours each year, selecting our most-loved destinations such as the game parks of africa, the beauty and traditions of Japan, and the epic ports of the Mediterranean. Booking a small group tour takes care of all of that. Coast, visiting some of the most beautiful Croatian. Most of all, i love the conviviality of travelling in, and hosting, a small group.

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Our bones are living tissue, with an outer shell and dense structures within. Bones are designed to be light, strong and have some flexibility. They provide structural support for our bodies and are involved in the production of blood cells and mineral storage.

While we generally think of osteoporosis as being a disease of old age, as this is most commonly when it is diagnosed, the ground work in preventing the onset starts well before then. While activities such as cycling and swimming have a range of valuable health benefits, these activities are not considered weight bearing.

One of the factors that affects those with osteoporosis is the increased chances of broken bones, especially as balance is compromised with age and inactivity, leading to increased falls. In fact, approximately one in three people over the age of 65 will fall in any one year. Osteoporosis will increase the chances of these falls leading to fractures.

Once again, exercise comes to the rescue. As we age, prevention, it is balance exercises that assist most in falls prevention. Once this loss reaches a certain programme, which used a set of leg level, a diagnosis of osteoporosis is made. The Prevention of this can be assisted by programme was taught one on one to a couple of key factors. A contributor participants and resulted in a reduction to osteoporosis prevention is a wellbalanced diet. It is the calcium and vitamin of 35 per cent in both the number of falls, and the number of injuries resulting from D that assists in this area.

There is no falls in programme participants. Simple conclusive evidence that more is better, so a balanced and varied diet is adequate exercises carried out regularly, under professional guidance, reduce falls and rather than mega dosing. For those with specific dietary restrictions that may lead their outcomes. Specifically, weight-bearing exercise offers the best defence, and this includes.

Introducing our brand new purpose built retirement village in the heart of Shirley. Retirement just started looking a whole lot better in Shirley! The Village Palms, opening in November, offers affordable luxury and first class care. Anyone can wear any colour as long as they wear it in the brightness or clarity that most enhances their hair, skin and eye colour. There are several key colour trends this season. Just choose it in an intensity that suits your clarity, e. Kate Middleton or MP Paula Bennett you are a straight and your best assets are your shoulders and legs.

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You will definitely want to invest in a. Good water-based not oil-based skincare and foundation will keep you looking fresh all day, even if you perspire. Burnt, bright red skin is not the fashion look you are going for!

Dust loose powder over foundation to soak up any excess oil produced on a warm day and take a small mirror and lipstick with a retractable lip brush or gloss for touch ups during the day.

The best makeup application to avoid looking overly made up focuses on highlighting your eyes or lips, but never both e. Have fun dressing up! Enjoy the opportunity to pamper yourself and enjoy being a woman. By Christine de FeliCe For many people reaching retirement, stopping work brings the opportunity to take up new pursuits and interests.

But for nick ledgard of loburn, it has meant a continuation of two lifelong interests — trees and the environment. Most of his working life was spent in rangiora and Christchurch, where his role as a scientist for the institute involved the growing and management of trees, both native and introduced, in hill and high-country environments.

The main focus of the project was nurseries and outplantings, with a full-time staff of six local people. As a schoolboy in Auckland where he grew up, nick became interested in birds after his brother became involved in a local bird club. When he came to Christchurch in , nick joined the new Zealand Ornithological society and his fondness for birds has continued. Much of his time, especially during the summer months, is spent actively involved in the work of the Ashley-rakahuri rivercare Group, and he has been the chair since As well as stoats, weasels, ferrets, rats and feral cats, hedgehogs also endanger the birds by stealing their eggs, nick says.

Our work has been very successful. As you would guess, nick is very much an outdoors man. For anyone who has retired, nick believes it is important to stay as physically and mentally involved in activities as they can.

Put yourself in a positive frame of mind and unless you have no choice, try not to focus too much attention on health issues. A mere hop, skip and a jump from central Christchurch you will find an array of options to satisfy your taste buds, fashion needs and home desires. A friendly shopping experience for fashion lovers to enjoy. An exclusive collection of performance skincare and luxury rituals, rich in pure essential oils and active botanicals.

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This allows all the walls to be poured at the property in one solid piece. It reduces the energy required, and therefore the expense of heating or cooling your home. It tends to also have lower ongoing maintenance costs, which she puts down to the fact that it is less absorbent than other materials. This weekend, Compass Homes will be opening the doors to the very first Concrete Show Home in Canterbury, and it will be the first of many, Yolande says.

Metal mesh made in New Zealand is used for reinforcing, she says, providing a structure that has a very high earthquake, flood and fire resistance, as well as an extremely high thermal efficiency. Come and have a look for yourself. Well thought out storage, quality fixtures and high spec appliances ensure this impressive kitchen ticks all the boxes.

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Since its launch in , Faringdon has evolved into a fully-fledged suburb in Rolleston, the fastest growing town in the South Island. Conceived and developed by Hughes Developments, this multigenerational small family owned business has made its mark on Canterbury with long-term vision and high quality subdivisions.

Waitaha School will open early next year and a second EduKids late At Southpoint you will find quality retail outlets: The great lifestyle available in this superior lifestyle explains why many people are attracted to Faringdon where over 1, lots have been developed with more to come.

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Faringdon is the biggest show in town! On his return home he communicated to his mother the extraordinary vision. Next morning, before the sun was up, the young man was at the lake, not for the purpose of looking after the cattle, but that he might again witness the enchanting vision of the previous day. In vain did he glance over the surface of the lake; nothing met his view, save the ripples occasioned by a stiff breeze, and a dark cloud hung heavily on the summit of the Van.

As he was hastening away to rescue them from their perilous position, the object of his search again appeared to him, and seemed much more beautiful than when he first beheld her.

His hand was again held out to her, full of unbaked bread, which he offered to her with an urgent proffer of his heart also, and vows of eternal attachment, all of which were refused by her, saying. But the smiles that played upon her features as the lady vanished beneath the waters forbade him to despair, and p. His aged parent was acquainted with his ill success, and she suggested that his bread should the next time be but slightly baked, as most likely to please the mysterious being.

He was soon near the margin of the lake impatiently awaiting the reappearance of the lady. The sheep and goats browsed on the precipitous sides of the Van, the cattle strayed amongst the rocks, rain and sunshine came and passed away, unheeded by the youth who was wrapped up in looking for the appearance of her who had stolen his heart. The sun was verging towards the west, and the young man casting a sad look over the waters ere departing homewards was astonished to see several cows walking along its surface, and, what was more pleasing to his sight, the maiden reappeared, even lovelier than ever.

She approached the land and he rushed to meet her in the water. A smile encouraged him to seize her hand, and she accepted the moderately baked bread he offered her, and after some persuasion she consented to become his wife, on condition that they should live together until she received from him three blows without a cause,.

These conditions were readily and joyfully accepted. Thus the Lady of the Lake became engaged to the young man, and having loosed her hand for a moment she darted away and dived into the lake.

The grief of the lover at this disappearance of his affianced was such that he determined to cast himself headlong into its unfathomed depths, and thus end his life.

As he was on the point of p. This man addressed the youth, saying that, as he proposed to marry one of his daughters, he consented to the union, provided the young man could distinguish which of the two ladies before him was the object of his affections. This was no easy task, as the maidens were perfect counterparts of each other. Whilst the young man narrowly scanned the two ladies and failed to perceive the least difference betwixt the two, one of them thrust her foot a slight degree forward.

The motion, simple as it was, did not escape the observation of the youth, and he discovered a trifling variation in the mode in which their sandals were tied. This at once put an end to the dilemma, for he had on previous occasions noticed the peculiarity of her shoe-tie, and he boldly took hold of her hand.

But remember, that if you prove unkind to her at any time and strike her three times without a cause, she shall return to me, and shall bring all her stock with her. Such was the marriage settlement, to which the young man gladly assented, and the bride was desired to count the number of sheep she was to have. She immediately adopted the mode of counting by fives, thus: The same process of reckoning had to determine the number of goats, cattle, and horses, respectively; and in an p.

The young couple were then married, and went to reside at a farm called Esgair Llaethdy, near Myddvai, where they lived in prosperity and happiness for several years, and became the parents of three beautiful sons. Once upon a time there was a christening in the neighbourhood to which the parents were invited. When the day arrived the wife appeared reluctant to attend the christening, alleging that the distance was too great for her to walk. Her husband told her to fetch one of the horses from the field.

On another occasion when they were together at a wedding and the assembled guests were greatly enjoying themselves the wife burst into tears and sobbed most piteously. Years passed on, and their children had grown up, and were particularly clever young men. Amidst so many worldly blessings the husband almost forgot that only one causeless blow would destroy his prosperity. Still he was watchful lest any trivial occurrence should take place which his wife must regard as a breach of their marriage contract.

She told him that her affection for him was unabated, and warned him to be careful lest through inadvertence he might p. The four oxen that were ploughing departed, drawing after them the plough, which made a furrow in the ground, and which remains as a testimony of the truth of this story. She is said to have appeared to her sons, and accosting Rhiwallon, her firstborn, to have informed him that he was to be a benefactor to mankind, through healing all manner of their diseases, and she furnished him with prescriptions and instructions for the preservation of health.

Then, promising to meet him when her counsel was most needed, she vanished. On several other occasions she met her sons, and pointed out to them plants and herbs, and revealed to them their medicinal qualities or virtues.

A variant of this tale appears in the form of a letter in the Cambro-Briton , vol. As the tale differs in some particulars from that already given, I will transcribe it. Whenever he visited the lambs, three most beautiful female figures presented themselves to him from the lake, and often made excursions on the boundaries of it. For some time he pursued and endeavoured to catch them, but always failed; for the enchanting nymphs ran before him, and, when they had reached the lake, they tauntingly exclaimed,.

One day some moist bread from the lake came to shore. The farmer devoured it with great avidity, and on the following day he was successful in his pursuit and caught the fair damsels. After a little conversation with them, he commanded courage sufficient to make proposals of marriage to one of them. She consented to accept them on the condition that he would distinguish her from her two sisters p.

This was a new, and a very great difficulty to the young farmer, for the fair nymphs were so similar in form and features, that he could scarcely perceive any difference between them. He observed, however, a trifling singularity in the strapping of her sandal, by which he recognized her the following day. Some, indeed, who relate this legend, say that this Lady of the Lake hinted in a private conversation with her swain that upon the day of trial she would place herself between her two sisters, and that she would turn her right foot a little to the right, and that by this means he distinguished her from her sisters.

Whatever were the means, the end was secured; he selected her, and she immediately left the lake and accompanied him to his farm. Before she quitted, she summoned to attend her from the lake seven cows, two oxen, and one bull. This lady engaged to live with him until such time as he would strike her three times without cause. For some years they lived together in comfort, and she bore him three sons, who were the celebrated Meddygon Myddvai. One day, when preparing for a fair in the neighbourhood, he desired her to go to the field for his horse.

As she now deemed the terms of her marriage broken, she immediately departed, and summoned with her her seven cows, her two oxen, and the bull. The oxen were at that very time ploughing in the field, but they immediately obeyed her call, and took the plough with them. The furrow from the field in which they were ploughing, to the margin of the lake, is to be seen in several parts of that country to the present day.

After her departure, she once met her two sons in a Cwm, p. They were the chief physicians of their age, and they wrote about A. The age of these legends is worthy of consideration. The legend of Meddygon Myddvai dates from about the thirteenth century. Rhiwallon and his sons, we are told by the writer in the Cambro-Briton , wrote about A. Modern experts think that their treatise on medicine in the Red Book of Hergest belongs to the end of the fourteenth century, about to Dafydd ab Gwilym , who is said to have flourished in the fourteenth century, says, in one of his poems, as given in the Cambro-Briton , vol.

It would appear, therefore, that these celebrated physicians lived somewhere about the thirteenth century. They are described as Physicians of Rhys Gryg, a prince of South Wales, who lived in the early part of the thirteenth century. Their supposed supernatural origin dates therefore from the thirteenth, or at the latest, the fourteenth century. The Llanfrothen Legend seems to account for a race of men in Wales differing from their neighbours in certain features.

That a race of men having these characteristics did exist in Wales is undoubted. They were a strong tribe, the men were tall and athletic, and lived by plunder. They had their head quarters at Dinas Mawddwy, Merionethshire, and taxed their neighbours in open day, driving away sheep and cattle to their dens. So unbearable did their depredations become that John Wynn ap Meredydd of Gwydir and Lewis Owen, or as he is called Baron Owen, raised a body of stout men to overcome them, and on Christmas Eve, , succeeded in capturing a large number of the offenders, and, there and then, some hundred or so of the robbers were hung.

Tradition says that a mother begged hard for the life of a young son, who was to be destroyed, but Baron Owen would not relent. On perceiving that her request was unheeded, baring her breast she said: Y bronau melynion hyn a fagasant y rhai a ddialant waed fy mab, ac a olchant eu dwylaw yn ngwaed calon llofrudd eu brawd.

Tradition further tells us that the murderers had gone a distance off before they p. This act was followed by vigorous action, and the banditti were extirpated, the females only remaining, and the descendants of these women are occasionally still to be met with in Montgomeryshire and Merionethshire.

For the preceding information the writer is indebted to Yr Hynafion Cymreig , pp. Carnarvon, and the tradition was told him by the Revd. James, Vicar of Garthbeibio, who likewise pointed out to him the very spot where the Baron was murdered. But now, who were these Gwylliaid? But according to Brut y Tywysogion , Myf. Unfortunately for this beginning of the red-headed banditti of Mawddwy, Tacitus states in his Life of Agricola, ch.

We must, therefore, look for the commencement of a people of this description long before the twelfth century, and the Llanfrothen legend either dates from remote antiquity, or it was a tale that found in its wanderings a resting place in that locality in ages long past. If his tale is true, then, there lived even in that late period a remnant of the aborigines of the country, who had their homes in caves.

The Myddvai Legend in part corroborates this supposition, for that story apparently belongs to the thirteenth century. It is difficult to fix the date of the other legends here given, for they are dressed in modern garbs, with, however, trappings of remote times.

Probably all these tales have reached, through oral tradition, historic times, but in reality they belong to that far-off distant period, when the prehistoric inhabitants of this island dwelt in Lake-habitations, or in caves.

And the marriage of Fairy ladies, with men of a different race, intimates that the more ancient people were not extirpated, but were amalgamated with their conquerors. Many Fairy tales in Wales are associated with lakes. Fairy ladies emerge from lakes and disappear into lakes. In many Fairy stories lakes seem to be the entrance to the abodes of the Fairies. Evidently, therefore, those people were lake-dwellers.

In the lakes of Switzerland and other countries have been discovered vestiges of Lake-villages belonging to the Stone Age, and even to the Bronze Age. Perhaps those that belong to the Stone Age are the most ancient kind of human abodes still traceable in the world.

In Ireland and Scotland these kinds of dwellings have been found. I am not in a position to say that they p. Colliver, a Cornish gentleman, told the writer that whilst engaged in mining operations near Llyn Llydaw he had occasion to lower the water level of that lake, when he discovered embedded in the mud a canoe formed out of the trunk of a single tree.

He saw another in the lake, but this he did not disturb, and there it is at the present day. The late Professor Peter of Bala believed that he found traces of Lake-dwellings in Bala Lake, and the people in those parts have a tradition that a town lies buried beneath its waters—a tradition, indeed, common to many lakes. It is not therefore unlikely that if the lakes of Wales are explored they will yield evidences of lake-dwellers, and, however unromantic it may appear, the Lady of the Van Lake was only possibly a maiden snatched from her watery home by a member of a stronger race.

In these legends the lady does not seem to evince much love for her husband after she has left him. Possibly he did not deserve much, but towards her children she shows deep affection. After the husband is deserted, the children are objects of her solicitation, and they are visited.

The Lady of the Van Lake promised to meet her son whenever her counsel or aid was required. A like trait belongs to the Homeric goddesses. The children of these marriages depart not with their mother, they remain with the father, but she takes with her her dowry. The rape of the Sabine women, who were seized by the followers of Romulus on a day appointed for sacrifice and public games, also serves as a precedent for the action of those young Welshmen who captured Fairy wives whilst enjoying themselves in the dance.

It is a curious fact, that a singular testimony to wife snatching in ancient times is indicated by a custom once general, and still not obsolete in South Wales, of a feigned attempt on the part of the friends of the young woman about to get married to hinder her from carrying out her object. Griffith Jones, Vicar of Mostyn, informed the writer that he had witnessed such a struggle.

The wedding, he stated, took place at Tregaron, Cardiganshire. The friends of both the young people were on horseback, and according to custom they presented themselves at the house of the young woman, the one to escort her to the church, and the other to hinder her from going there.

Jones said, rode furiously and madly, and the struggle presented a cavalry charge, and it was not without much apparent danger that the opposition was overcome, and the lady ultimately forced to proceed to the church, where her future husband was anxiously awaiting her arrival. This strange custom of ancient times and obscure origin is suggestive of the way in which the stronger party procured wives in days of old.

Before the marriage of the Fairy lady to the mortal takes place, the father of the lady appears on the scene, sometimes as a supplicant, and at others as a consenting party to the inevitable marriage, but never is he depicted as resorting to force to rescue his daughter. From this conduct we must, I think, infer that the Fairy race were a weak people bodily, unaccustomed and disinclined to war. Their safety and existence consisted in living in the inaccessible parts of the mountains, or in lake dwellings far removed from the habitations of the stronger and better equipped race that had invaded their country.

In this way they could, and very likely did, occupy parts of Wales contemporaneously with their conquerors, who, through marriage, became connected with the mild race, whom they found in possession of the land. In the Welsh legends the maid consents to wed her capturer, and remain with him until he strikes her with iron.

It has been thought that this implies that the people who immediately succeeded the Fair race belonged to the Iron Age, whilst the fair aborigines belonged to the Stone or Bronze age, and that they were overcome by the superior arms of their opponents, quite as much as by their greater bodily strength. Had the tabooed article been in every instance iron , the preceding supposition would have carried with it considerable weight, but as this is not the case, all that can be said positively is, that the conquerors of the Fair race were certainly acquainted with iron, and the blow with iron that brought about the catastrophe was undoubtedly inflicted by the mortal who had married the Fairy lady.

Why iron should have been tabooed by the Fairy and her father, must remain an open question. But if we could, with reason, suppose, that that metal had brought about their subjugation, then in an age of primitive and imperfect knowledge, and consequent deep superstition, we might not be wrong in supposing that the subjugated race would look upon iron with superstitious dread, and ascribe to it supernatural power inimical to them as a race.

They would under such feelings have nothing whatever to do with iron, just as the benighted African, witnessing for the first time the effects of a gun shot, would, with dread, avoid a gun. By this process of reasoning we arrive at the conclusion that the Fairy race belonged to a period anterior to the Iron Age. With one remark, I will bring my reflections on the preceding legends to an end. Polygamy apparently was unknown in the distant times we are considering.

But the marriage bond was not indissoluble, and the initiative in the separation was taken by the woman. In the preceding legends, we have accounts of men capturing female Fairies, and marrying them. Men captured Fairy ladies, but the Fairies captured handsome men. The oldest written legend of this class is to be found in the pages of Giraldus Cambrensis , pp. The Archdeacon made the tour of Wales in ; the legend therefore which he records can boast of a good old age, but the tale itself is older than The Itinerary through Wales , for the writer informs us that the priest Elidorus, who affirmed that he had been in the country of the Fairies, talked in his old age to David II.

David, of the event. David in , or, according to others, in , and died A. All the days were cloudy, and the nights extremely dark, on account of the absence of the moon and stars. The boy was brought before the King, and introduced to him in the presence of the court; who, having examined him for a long time, delivered him to his son, who was then a boy. These men were of the smallest stature, but very well proportioned in their make; they were all of a fair complexion, with luxuriant hair falling over their shoulders like that of women.

They had horses and greyhounds adapted to their size. They neither ate flesh nor fish, but lived on milk diet, made up into messes with saffron. They never took an oath, for they detested nothing so much as lies. As often as they returned from our upper hemisphere, they reprobated our ambition, infidelities, and inconstancies; they had no form of public worship, being strict lovers and reverers, as it seemed, of truth. The boy frequently returned to our hemisphere, sometimes by the way he had first gone, sometimes by another; at first in company with other persons, and afterwards alone, and made himself known only to his mother, declaring to her the manners, nature, and state of that people.

On recovering from his fall, confounded with shame, and execrating the evil counsel of his mother, he returned by the usual track to the subterraneous road, but found no appearance of any passage, though he searched for it on the banks of the river for nearly the space of a year.

But since those calamities are often alleviated by time, which reason cannot mitigate, and length of time alone blunts the edge of our afflictions and puts an end to many evils, the youth, having been brought back by his friends and mother, and restored to his right way of thinking, and to his learning, in process of time attained the rank of priesthood.

He had made himself acquainted with the language of that nation, the words of which, in his younger days, he used to recite, which, as the bishop often had informed me, were very conformable to the Greek idiom. This legend agrees in a remarkable degree with the popular opinion respecting Fairies. It would almost appear to be the foundation of many subsequent tales that are current in Wales.

Their abode is altogether mysterious, but this ancient description of Fairyland bears out the remarks—perhaps suggested the remarks, of the Rev. In this work, the author promulgates the theory that the Fairies were a people existing distinct from the known inhabitants of the country and confederated together, and met mysteriously to avoid coming in contact with the stronger race that had taken possession of their land, and he supposes that in these traditionary tales of the Fairies we recognize something of the real history of an ancient people whose customs were those of a regular and consistent policy.

This language they either acquired from their conquerors, or both races must have had a common origin; the latter, probably, being the more reasonable supposition, and by inference, therefore, the Fairies and other nations by whom they were subdued were descended from a common stock, and ages afterwards, by marriage, the Fairies again commingled with other branches of the family from which they had originally sprung.

I will now give instances of this belief. The following tale I received from the mouth of Mr. Jones has stored up in his memory many tales of olden times, and he even thinks that he has himself seen a Fairy.

Standing by his farm, he pointed out to me on the opposite side of the valley a Fairy ring still green, where once, he said, the Fairies held their nightly revels.

The scene of the tale which Mr. Jones related is wild, and a few years ago it was much more so than at present. At the time that the event is said to have taken place the mountain was unenclosed, and there was not much travelling in those days, and consequently the Fairies could, undisturbed, enjoy their dances. But to proceed with the tale. Two waggoners were sent from Bryneglwys for coals to the works over the hill beyond Minera.

On their way they came upon a company of Fairies dancing with all their might. The men stopped to witness their movements, and p. One of the men stoutly refused to do so, but the other was induced to dance awhile with them. His companion looked on for a short time at the antics of his friend, and then shouted out that he would wait no longer, and desired the man to give up and come away. He, however, turned a deaf ear to the request, and no words could induce him to forego his dance.

At last his companion said that he was going, and requested his friend to follow him. Taking the two waggons under his care he proceeded towards the coal pits, expecting every moment to be overtaken by his friend; but he was disappointed, for he never appeared. The waggons and their loads were taken to Bryneglwys, and the man thought that perhaps his companion, having stopped too long in the dance, had turned homewards instead of following him to the coal pit.

But on enquiry no one had heard or seen the missing waggoner. One day his companion met a Fairy on the mountain and inquired after his missing friend.

The Fairy told him to go to a certain place, which he named, at a certain time, and that he should there see his friend. A variant of the preceding story appears in the Cambrian Magazine , vol. Two servants of John Pugh, Esq. The next day they inquired of him again about his fellow-servant, but he could not give them any account of him; but at last confessed how and where they had both gone to sleep. His look was like a skeleton, and as soon as he had tasted food he was a dead man.

A story in its main features similar to that recorded in the Cambrian Magazine was related to me by my friend, the Rev. Jones, Rector of Llanycil. I do not think Mr. Jones gave me the locality where the occurrence is said to have taken place; at least, if he did so, I took no note of it.

The story is as follows: A young man, a farm labourer, and his sweetheart were sauntering along one evening in an unfrequented part of the mountain, when there appeared suddenly before them two Fairies, who proceeded to make a circle.

This being done, a large company of Fairies accompanied by musicians appeared, and commenced dancing over the ring; their motions and music were entrancing, and the man, an expert dancer, by some irresistible power was obliged to throw himself into the midst of the dancers and join them in their gambols. The woman looked on enjoying the sight for several hours, expecting every minute that her lover would give up the dance and join her, but no, on and on went the dance, round and round went her lover, until at last daylight appeared, and then suddenly the music ceased and the Fairy band vanished; and with them her lover.

The sun had now risen, and, almost broken-hearted, she returned home and related the events of the previous night. She was advised to consult a man who was an adept in the black art. She did so, and the conjuror told her to go to the same place at the same time of the night one year and one day from the time that her lover had disappeared and that she should then and there see him. She was farther instructed how to act.

The conjuror warned her from going into the ring, but told her to seize her lover by the arm as he danced round, and to jerk him out of the enchanted circle. Twelve months and a day passed away, and the faithful girl was on the spot where she lost her lover. At the very moment that they had in the first instance appeared the Fairies again came to view, and everything that she had witnessed previously was repeated. With the Fairy band was her lover dancing merrily in their midst. The young woman ran round and round the circle close to the young man, carefully avoiding the circle, and at last she succeeded in taking hold of him and desired him to come away with her.

He was greatly annoyed at her conduct, and when told that he had been with the Fairies a year and a day he would not believe her, and affirmed that he had been dancing only a few minutes; however, he went away with the faithful girl, and when he had reached the farm, his friends had the p. The next Fairy tale that I shall give akin to the preceding stories is to be found in Y Brython , vol. The writer of the tale was the Rev. Benjamin Williams, whose bardic name was Gwynionydd.

I do not know the source whence Mr. Williams derived the story, but most likely he obtained it from some aged person who firmly believed that the tale was a true record of what actually occurred. In the Brython the tale is called: The introduction, however, I will not give, as it does not directly bear on the subject now under consideration.

The son of Llech y Derwydd was the only son of his parents and heir to the farm. He was very dear to his father and mother, yea, he was as the very light of their eyes. The son and the head servant man were bosom friends, they were like two brothers, or rather twins.

The two friends fell in love with two young handsome women who were highly respected in the neighbourhood. This event gave the old people great satisfaction, and ere long the two couples were joined in holy wedlock, and great was the merry-making on the occasion.

The servant man obtained a convenient place to live in on the grounds of Llech y Derwydd. About six months after the marriage of the son, he and the servant man went out to hunt. The servant penetrated to a ravine filled with brushwood to look for game, and presently returned to his friend, but by the time he came back the son was nowhere to be seen.

He continued awhile looking about p. By and by he went home to Llech y Derwydd, expecting to find him there, but no one knew anything about him.

Great was the grief of the family throughout the night, but it was even greater the next day. They went to inspect the place where the son had last been seen. His mother and his wife wept bitterly, but the father had greater control over himself, still he appeared as half mad. They inspected the place where the servant man had last seen his friend, and, to their great surprise and sorrow, observed a Fairy ring close by the spot, and the servant recollected that he had heard seductive music somewhere about the time that he parted with his friend.

They came to the conclusion at once that the man had been so unfortunate as to enter the Fairy ring, and they conjectured that he had been transported no one knew where. Weary weeks and months passed away, and a son was born to the absent man. The little one grew up the very image of his father, and very precious was he to his grandfather and grandmother.

In fact, he was everything to them. The old folks died, and also their daughter-in-law. One windy afternoon in the month of October, the family of Llech y Derwydd saw a tall thin old man with beard and hair as white as snow, who they thought was a Jew, approaching slowly, very slowly, towards the house. He came to the door, and entered the house boldly enough, and inquired after his p. The old man looked at everything in the house with surprise and bewilderment, but the little children about the floor took his attention more than anything else.

His looks betrayed sorrow and deep disappointment. He related his whole history, that, yesterday he had gone out to hunt, and that he had now returned. The old man was roused and said that the house was his, and that he would have his rights. To his surprise he saw that things there were greatly changed. After conversing awhile with an aged man who sat by the fire, they carefully looked each other in the face, and the old man by the fire related the sad history of his lost friend, the son of Llech y Derwydd.

They conversed together deliberately on the events of their youth, but all seemed like a dream. However, the old man in the corner came to the conclusion that his visitor was his dear friend, the son of Llech y Derwydd, returned from the land of the Fairies after having spent there half a hundred years. The old man with the white beard believed the story related by his friend, and long was the talk and many were the questions which the one gave to the other.

The visitor was informed that the master of Llech y Derwydd was from home that day, and he was persuaded to eat p. Such is the story. The next tale that I shall relate is recorded by Glasynys in Cymru Fu , pp. The Professor prefaces the tale with a caution that Glasynys had elaborated the story, and that the proper names were undoubtedly his own.

The reverend author informs his readers that he heard his mother relate the tale many times, but it certainly appears that he has ornamented the simple narrative after his own fashion, for he was professedly a believer in words; however, in its general outline, it bears the impress of antiquity, and strongly resembles other Welsh Fairy tales. It belongs to that species of Fairy stories which compose this chapter, and therefore it is here given as translated by Professor Rhys. I will for the sake of reference give the tale a name, and describe it under the following heading.

That day, like many a day before and after, was exceedingly misty. Now, though he was well acquainted with the place, he lost his way, and walked backwards and forwards for many a long hour. At last he got into a low p. He at once recalled the place, and began to fear the worst. He had heard, many hundreds of times, of the bitter experiences in those rings of many a shepherd who had happened to chance on the dancing-place or the circles of the Fair Family. He hastened away as fast as ever he could, lest he should be ruined like the rest; but though he exerted himself to the point of perspiring, and losing his breath, there he was, and there he continued to be, a long time.

At last he was met by a little fat old man with merry blue eyes, who asked him what he was doing. He answered that he was trying to find his way homeward. There was there a narrow path with stairs to be seen here and there, and a sort of whitish light, inclining to grey and blue, was to be seen radiating from the stones. He saw there all kinds of musical instruments and all sorts of things for playing, but he could discern no inhabitant in the whole place; and when he sat down to eat, the dishes on the table came to their places of themselves and disappeared when one had done with them.

This puzzled him beyond measure; moreover, he heard people talking together around him, but for the life of him he could see no one but his old friend. At this point, a fine old lady, with health and benevolence beaming in her face, came to them and slightly smiled at the shepherd.

The mother was followed by her three daughters, who were remarkably beautiful. They gazed with somewhat playful looks at him, and at length began to talk to him, but his tongue would not wag. Then one of the girls came to him, and, playing with his yellow and curly locks, gave him a smart kiss on his ruddy lips.

This loosened the string that bound his tongue, and he began to talk freely and eloquently. There he was, under the charm of that kiss, in the bliss of happiness, and there he remained a year and a day without knowing that he had passed more than a day among them, for he had got into a country where there was no reckoning of time.

But by and by he began to feel somewhat of a longing to visit his old home, and asked the stout man if he might go. She looked sad every time he talked of going away, nor was he himself without feeling a sort of a cold thrill passing through him p.

On condition, however, of returning, he obtained leave to go, provided with plenty of gold and silver, of trinkets and gems. When he reached home, nobody knew who he was; it had been the belief that he had been killed by another shepherd, who found it necessary to betake himself hastily far away to America, lest he should be hanged without delay. But here is Einion Las at home, and everybody wonders especially to see that the shepherd had got to look like a wealthy man; his manners, his dress, his language, and the treasure he had with him, all conspired to give him the air of a gentleman.

He went back one Thursday night, the first of the moon that month, as suddenly as he had left the first time, and nobody knew whither. There was great joy in the country below when Einion returned thither, and nobody was more rejoiced at it than Olwen, his beloved.

The two were right impatient to get married, but it was necessary to do that quietly, for the family below hated nothing more than fuss and noise; so, in a sort of a half-secret fashion, they were wedded.

Einion was very desirous to go once more among his own people, accompanied, to be sure, by his wife. Whilst at home, a son was born to them, to whom they gave the name of Taliesin.

Einion was now in the enjoyment of high repute, and his wife received proper respect. Morris, of Cwm Vicarage, near Rhyl, told the writer the following story. She stated that she had heard it related in her family that one of their people had in childhood been induced by the Fairies to follow them to their country.

This boy had been sent to discharge some domestic errand, but he did not return. He was sought for in all directions but could not be found. His parents came to the conclusion that he had either been murdered or kidnapped, and in time he was forgotten by most people, but one day he returned with what he had been sent for in his hand. But so many years had elapsed since he first left home, that he was now an old grey-headed man, though he knew it not; he had, he said, followed, for a short time, delightful music and people; but when convinced, by the changes around, that years had slipped by since he first left his home, he was so distressed at the changes he saw that he said he would return to the Fairies.

The next tale differs from the preceding, insomuch that the seductive advances of the Fairies failed in their object. I am not quite positive whence I obtained the story, but p. He stopped to listen to the sweet sounds which filled him with a sensation of deep pleasure. He had not listened long ere he perceived that the singers were approaching.

By and by they came to the spot where he was, and he saw that they were marching in single file and consisted of a number of small people, robed in close-fitting grey clothes, and they were accompanied by speckled dogs that marched along two deep like soldiers.

When the procession came quite opposite the enraptured listener, it stopped, and the small people spoke to him and earnestly begged him to accompany them, but he would not. They tried many ways, and for a long time, to persuade him to join them, but when they saw they could not induce him to do so they departed, dividing themselves into two companies and marching away, the dogs marching two abreast in front of each company.

They sang as they went away the most entrancing music that was ever heard. The man, spell-bound, stood where he was, listening to the ravishing music of the Fairies, and he did not enter his house until the last sound had died away in the far-off distance.

Professor Rhys records a tale much like the preceding. See his Welsh Fairy Tales , pp. He approached them and little by little he was led on by the enchanting sweetness of their music and the liveliness of their playing until he got within their circle. Soon some kind of spell passed over him, so that he lost his knowledge of every place, and found himself in a country the most beautiful he had ever seen, where everybody spent his time in mirth and rejoicing.

He turned towards home, but there he found everything changed: In consequence of such changes, he broke his heart, and died in less than a week after coming back. Many variants of the legends already related are still extant in Wales. This much can be said of these tales, that it was formerly believed that marriages took place between men and Fairies, and from the tales themselves we can infer that the men fared better in Fairy land than the Fairy ladies did in the country of their earthly husbands.

This, perhaps, is what might be expected, if, as we may suppose, the Fair Tribe were supplanted, and overcome, by a stronger, and bolder people, with whom, to a certain extent, the weaker and conquered or subdued race commingled by marriage. Certain striking characteristics of both races are strongly marked in these legends.

The one is a smaller and more timid people than the other, and far more p. The ravishing beauty of the Fairy lady forms a prominent feature in all these legends. The Fairies, too, are spoken of as being without religion.

This, perhaps, means nothing more than that they differed from their conquerors in forms, or objects of worship. However this might be, it would appear that their conquerors knew but little of that perfect moral teaching which made the Fairies, according to the testimony of Giraldus, truthful, void of ambition, and honest. It must, however, be confessed, that there is much that is mythical in these legends, and every part cannot well be made to correspond with ordinary human transactions.

It is somewhat amusing to note how modern ideas, and customs, are mixed up with these ancient stories. They undoubtedly received a gloss from the ages which transmitted the tales. In the next chapter I shall treat of another phase of Fairy Folk-lore, which will still further connect the Fair Race with their conquerors. It was firmly believed, at one time, in Wales, that the Fairies exchanged their own weakly or deformed offspring for the strong children of mortals. The child supposed to have been left by the Fairies in the cradle, or elsewhere, was commonly called a changeling.

This faith was not confined to Wales; it was as common in Ireland, Scotland, and England, as it was in Wales. And again, in another of his plays, the Fairy practice of exchanging children is mentioned: Then would I have his Harry, and he mine. In Scotland and other countries the Fairies were credited with stealing unbaptized infants, and leaving in their stead poor, sickly, noisy, thin, babies.

But to return to Wales, a poet in Y Brython , vol. John Williams, an old man, who lived in the Penrhyn quarry district, informed the writer that he could reveal strange doings of the Fairies in his neighbourhood, for often had they changed children with even well-to-do families, he said, but more he would not say, lest he should injure those prosperous families.

It was believed that the Fairies were particularly busy in exchanging children on Nos Wyl Ifan , or St. There were, however, effectual means for protecting children from their machinations. In the Western Isles of Scotland fire carried round a woman before she was churched, and round the child until he was christened, daily, night and morning, preserved both from the evil designs of the Fairies.

And it will be shortly shewn that even after an exchange had been accomplished there were means of forcing the Fairies to restore the stolen child. It can well be believed that mothers who had sickly or idiotic babies would, in uncivilized places, gladly embrace the idea that the child she nursed was a changeling, and then, naturally enough, she would endeavour to recover her own again. The plan adopted for this purpose was extremely dangerous. I will in the following tales show what steps were taken to reclaim the lost child.

Pennant records how a woman who had a peevish child acted to regain from the Fairies her own offspring. In this very century the eighteenth a poor cottager, who lived near the spot, had a child who grew uncommonly peevish; the parents attributed this to the Fairies , and imagined that it was a changeling.

When morning came, they found the child perfectly quiet, so went away with it, quite confirmed in their belief. These people by exposing their infant for a night to the elements ran a risk of losing it altogether; but they acted in agreement with the popular opinion, which was that the Fairies had such affection for their own children that they p.

The following tale exhibits another phase of this belief. The inhabitants of the cottage were a man and his wife, and they had born to them twins, whom the woman nursed with great care and tenderness. But after some time had passed by, the good people began to wonder that the twins did not grow at all, but still continued little dwarfs.

The man would have it that they were not his children; the woman said that they must be their children, and about this arose the great strife between them that gave name to the place. One evening when the woman p. Now there was to be a harvest soon of the rye and oats; so the wise man said to her: On this the mother returned to her house and took the two children, and threw them into the Llyn, and suddenly the goblins in their trousers came to save their dwarfs, and the woman had her own children back again, and thus the strife between her and her husband ended.

The writer of the preceding story says that it was translated almost literally from Welsh, as told by the peasantry, and he remarks that the legend bears a striking resemblance to one of the Irish tales published by Mr.

It is much like that given in the Cambrian Magazine. Once on a time, in the fourteenth century, the wife of a man at Corwrion had twins, and she complained one day to the witch who lived close by, at Tyddyn y Barcut, that the children were not getting on, but that they were always crying, day and night.

Then one observed to the other: The mother then went to the witch and told her what p. The mother went back home again and did as she had been directed.

When she reached home this time, to her astonishment, she found that her own children had been brought back. There is one important difference between these two tales. In the latter, the mother drops the children over the bridge into the waters beneath, and then goes home, without noticing whether the poor children had been rescued by the goblins or not, but on reaching her home she found in the cradle her own two children, presumably conveyed there by the Fairies.

In the first tale, we are informed that she saw the goblins save their offspring from a watery grave. Subjecting peevish children to such a terrible ordeal as this must have ended often with a tragedy, but even in such cases superstitious mothers could easily persuade themselves that the destroyed infants were undoubtedly the offspring of elfins, and therefore unworthy of their fostering care.

The only safeguard to wholesale infanticide was the test applied as to the super-human precociousness, or ordinary intelligence, of the children. Another version of this tale was related to me by my young friend, the Rev. Griffiths, of Clocaenog Rectory, near Ruthin. The tale was told him by Evan Roberts, Ffriddagored, Llanfwrog.

Roberts is an aged farmer. A mother took her child to the gleaning field, and left it sleeping under the sheaves of wheat whilst she was busily engaged gleaning. The Fairies came to the field and carried off her pretty baby, leaving in its place one of their own infants. At the time, the mother did not notice any p.

She mentioned these facts to her neighbours, and she was told to do something strange and then listen to its conversation. She took an egg-shell and pretended to brew beer in it, and she was then surprised to hear the child, who had observed her actions intently, say: This conversation proved the origin of the precocious child who lay in the cradle. But he could not say what was done to the fairy changeling.

There was, it would seem, in Wales, a certain form of incantation resorted to to reclaim children from the Fairies, which was as follows: I have already alluded to the horrible nature of such a proceeding. I will now relate a tale somewhat resembling those already given, but in this latter case, the supposed changeling became the mainstay of his family. I am indebted for the Gors Goch legend to an essay, written by Mr.

Williams, Llanfachreth, Merionethshire, which took the prize at the Liverpool Eisteddfod, , and which appears in a publication called Y Gordofigion , pp. The tale rendered into English is as follows: One night, as usual, they went to bed, but they could not sleep a single wink, because of the noise outside the house. And when they had finished, they commenced singing, and the singing was entrancing.

The dancing and the singing were both excellent. On going away they left behind them money not a little for the use of the house. And afterwards they came pretty often to the house, and received a hearty welcome in consequence of the large presents which they left p.

But at last a sad affair took place which was no less than an exchange of children. The Gors Goch baby was a dumpy child, a sweet, pretty, affectionate little dear, but the child which was left in its stead was a sickly, thin, shapeless, ugly being, which did nothing but cry and eat, and although it ate ravenously like a mastiff, it did not grow. As I have already given more than one variant of the same legend, I will supply another version of the Gors Goch legend which appears in Cymru Fu , pp.

Owen Wyn Jones, Glasynys , and which in consequence of the additional facts contained in it may be of some value. See Y Cymmrodor , vol. One could not at all comprehend what it might be that made a noise that time of night. Both the husband and the wife had waked up, quite unable to make out what there might be there. The children also woke but no one could utter a word; their tongues had all stuck to the roofs of their mouths.

What do you want? As the day was breaking they went away, leaving p. Often afterwards did the Gors Goch folks have the company of this family. But once there happened to be a fine roll of a pretty baby in his cradle.

The Fair Family came, and, as the baby had not been baptized, they took the liberty of changing him for one of their own. They left behind in his stead an abominable creature that would do nothing but cry and scream every day of the week.

The mother was nearly breaking her heart, on account of the misfortune, and greatly afraid of telling anybody about it. But everybody got to see that there was something wrong at Gors Goch, which was proved before long by the mother dying of longing for her child. The other children died broken-hearted after their mother, and the husband was left alone with the little elf without anyone to comfort them.

But shortly after, the Fairies began to resort again to the hearth of the Gors Goch to dress children, and the gift which had formerly been silver money became henceforth pure gold. It will be observed that this latter version differs in one remarkable incident from the preceding tale. In the former there is no allusion to the fact that the changed child had not been baptized; in the latter, this omission is specially mentioned as giving power to the Fairies to exchange their own child for the human baby.

This preventive carries these tales into Christian days. Another tale, which I will now relate, also proves that faith in the Fairies and in the efficacy of the Cross existed at one and the same time. The tale is taken from Y Gordofigion , p. I will first give it as it originally appeared, and then I will translate the story. The wife of Garth Uchaf, Llanuwchllyn, went out one day to make hay, and left her baby in the cradle. Unfortunately , she did not place the tongs crossways on the cradle , and consequently the Fairies changed her baby, and by the time she came home there was nothing in the cradle but some old decrepit changeling, which looked is if it were half famished, but nevertheless, it was nursed.

The reason why the Fairies exchanged babies with human beings, judging from the stories already given, was their desire to obtain healthy well-formed children in the place of their own puny ill-shaped offspring, but this is hardly a satisfactory explanation of such conduct.

In Scotland the difficulty is solved in a different way. Whence sprung the vain conceited lye, That we the world with fools supply? Give our sprightly race away For the dull helpless sons of clay! Besides, by partial fondness shown, Like you, we dote upon our own.

And should we change with human breed, Well might we pass for fools, indeed. Fairies are represented in Wales as possessing all the passions, appetites, and wants of human beings. There are many tales current of their soliciting help and favours in their need from men and women. Just as uncivilized nations acknowledge the superiority of Europeans in p.

There is a class of tales which has reached our days in which the Fairy lady, who is about to become a mother, obtains from amongst men a midwife, whom she rewards with rich presents for her services. Variants of this story are found in many parts of Wales, and in many continental countries. I will relate a few of these legends. The following story I received from the lips of David Roberts, whom I have previously mentioned, a native of Denbighshire, and he related the tale as one commonly known.

As might be expected, he locates the event in Denbighshire, but I have no recollection that he gave names. His narrative was as follows: A well-known midwife, whose services were much sought after in consequence of her great skill, had one night retired to rest, when she was disturbed by a loud knocking at her door.

She immediately got up and went to the door, and there saw a beautiful carriage, which she was urgently requested to enter at once to be conveyed to a house where her help was required. She did so, and after a long drive the carriage drew up before the entrance to a large mansion, which she had never seen before.

She successfully performed her work, and stayed on in the place until her services were no longer required.

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