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Since domestic violence is a pattern of behavior, these incidences may increase in severity and frequency, resulting in an increased probability the children themselves will become victims.
The estimated overlap between domestic violence and child abuse ranges from 30 to 50 percent. Today, corporal punishment of children by their parents remains legal in most countries, but in Western countries that still allow the practice there are strict limits on what is permitted. The first country to outlaw parental corporal punishment was Sweden parents' right to spank their own children was first removed in ,  and it was explicitly prohibited by law from July As of , parental corporal punishment is banned in 51 countries.
Historically, domestic violence has been seen as a heterosexual family issue and little interest has been directed at violence in same-sex relationships ,  but domestic violence can occur in same-sex relationships as well. Studies on abuse between gay male or lesbian partners usually rely on small convenience samples such as lesbian or gay male members of an association.
A analysis of nineteen studies of partner abuse concluded that "[r]esearch suggests that lesbians and gay men are just as likely to abuse their partners as heterosexual men. Gay and lesbian relationships have been identified as a risk factor for abuse in certain populations.
People in same-sex relationships face special obstacles in dealing with the issues that some researchers have labeled "the double closet". A Canadian study by Mark W. Lehman suggests similarities include frequency approximately one in every four couples ; manifestations emotional, physical, financial, etc.
At the same time, significant differences, unique issues, and deceptive myths are typically present. This service structure can make LGBTQ victims feel even more isolated and misunderstood than they may already because of their minority status.
DV is among the most underreported crimes worldwide for both men and women. By contrast, fear and avoidance of legal consequences, the tendency to blame their partner, and a narrative focus on their own needs and emotions reduced the likelihood of self-reporting perpetration in men.
Men face additional gender related barriers in reporting, due to social stigmas regarding male victimization, and an increased likelihood of being overlooked by healthcare providers. Social views on domestic violence vary from person to person, and from region to region, but in many places outside the West, the concept is very poorly understood. This is because in most of these countries the relation between the husband and wife is not considered one of equals, but instead one in which the wife must submit herself to the husband.
This is codified in the laws of some countries — for example, in Yemen , marriage regulations state that a wife must obey her husband and must not leave home without his permission. According to Violence against Women in Families and Relationships , "Globally, wife-beating is seen as justified in some circumstances by a majority of the population in various countries, most commonly in situations of actual or suspected infidelity by wives or their "disobedience" toward a husband or partner.
While beatings of wives are often a response to "inappropriate" behaviors, in many places extreme acts such as honor killings are approved by a high section of the society. In one survey, This survey was carried in the capital of Jordan, which is much more liberal than other parts of the country; the researchers said that "We would expect that in the more rural and traditional parts of Jordan, support for honor killings would be even higher".
In a news story, The Washington Post reported, "The Reuters TrustLaw group named India one of the worst countries in the world for women this year, partly because domestic violence there is often seen as deserved. A report by UNICEF found that 57 percent of Indian boys and 53 percent of girls between the ages of 15 and 19 think wife-beating is justified.
In conservative cultures, a wife dressing in attire deemed insufficiently modest can suffer serious violence at the hands of her husband or relatives, with such violent responses seen as appropriate by most of the society: According to Antonia Parvanova , one of the difficulties of dealing legally with the issue of DV is that men in many male dominated societies do not understand that inflicting violence against their wives is against the law.
She said, referring to a case that occurred in Bulgaria, "A husband was tried for severely beating his wife and when the judge asked him if he understood what he did and if he's sorry, the husband said "But she's my wife". He doesn't even understand that he has no right to beat her. Victim blaming is also prevalent in many societies, including in Western countries: There is controversy regarding the influence of religion on domestic violence.
Judaism, Christianity and Islam have traditionally supported male-dominant households and "socially sanctioned violence against women has been persistent since ancient times. The Catholic Church has been criticized for opposing divorce, and therefore trapping victims of violence in abusive marriages.
At the same time, religious leaders can play an important role in preventing and treating domestic violence, when they provide abusers with guidance and treatment option information, and offer their support to those who have been subject to abuse.
Views on the influence of religion on domestic violence differ. While some authors, such as Phyllis Chesler , argue that Islam is connected to violence against women, especially in the form of honor killings,  others, such as Tahira Shahid Khan, a professor specializing in women's issues at the Aga Khan University in Pakistan, argue that it is the domination of men and inferior status of women in society that lead to these acts, not the religion itself.
Local customs and traditions are often responsible for maintaining certain forms of DV. Such customs and traditions include son preference the desire of a family to have a boy and not a girl, which is strongly prevalent in parts of Asia , which can lead to abuse and neglect of girl children by disappointed family members; child and forced marriages; dowry ; the hierarchic caste system which stigmatizes "lower castes" and "untouchables", leading to discrimination and restricted opportunities of the females and thus making them more vulnerable to abuse; strict dress codes for women that may be enforced through violence by family members; strong requirement of female virginity before the wedding and violence related to non-conforming women and girls; taboos about menstruation leading to females being isolated and shunned during the time of menstruation; female genital mutilation FGM ; ideologies of marital 'conjugal rights' to sex which justify marital rape; the importance given to ' family honor '.
In recent years, there has been progress in the area of addressing customary practices that endanger women, with laws being enacted in several countries. The Inter-African Committee on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children is an NGO which works on changing social values, raising consciousness, and enacting laws against harmful traditions which affect the health of women and children in Africa.
Laws were also enacted in some countries; for example the Criminal Code of Ethiopia has a chapter on harmful traditional practices — Chapter III — Crimes committed against life, person and health through harmful traditional practices. In cultures where the police and legal authorities have a reputation of corruption and abusive practices, victims of DV are often reluctant to turn to formal help. A forced marriage is a marriage where one or both participants are married without their freely given consent.
As in the case of child marriage, the customs of dowry and bride price contribute to this phenomenon. Forced and child marriages are associated with a high rate of domestic violence. UNFPA states, "Despite near-universal commitments to end child marriage, one in three girls in developing countries excluding China will probably be married before they are One out of nine girls will be married before their 15th birthday.
WHO states that women in violent relations have difficulty negotiating safer sex with their partners, are often forced to have sex, and find it difficult to ask for appropriate testing when they think they may be infected with HIV. Research by Heintz and Melendez found that same-sex individuals may have difficulty breaching the topic of safe-sex for reasons such as "decreased perception of control over sex, fear of violence, and unequal power distributions Barriers to safer-sex included fear of abuse, and deception in safe-sex practices.
Furthermore, these incidents create additional fear and stigma surrounding safe-sex conversations and knowing ones STD status. Lack of adequate legislation which criminalizes domestic violence, or, alternatively legislation which prohibits consensual behaviors, may hinder the progress in regard to reducing the incidence of DV. The ability of victims of domestic violence to leave the relationship is crucial for preventing further abuse.
In traditional communities, divorced women often feel rejected and ostracized. In order to avoid this stigma, many women prefer to remain in the marriage and endure the abuse.
Discriminatory marriage and divorce laws can also play a role in the proliferation of the practice. When she separates from her husband or when he dies, she risks losing her home, land, household goods and other property. Failure to ensure equal property rights upon separation or divorce discourages women from leaving violent marriages, as women may be forced to choose between violence at home and destitution in the street.
The legal inability to obtain a divorce is also a factor in the proliferation of domestic violence. The custom of bride price also makes leaving a marriage more difficult: In advanced nations like the United Kingdom domestic violence victims may have difficulties getting alternative housing which can force them to stay in the abusive relationship. The way the individual rights of a family member versus the rights of the family as a unit are balanced vary significantly in different societies.
This may influence the degree to which a government may be willing to investigate family incidents. What is viewed as an undue expression of personal autonomy is condemned as unacceptable. In these cultures the family predominates over the individual, and where this interacts with cultures of honor , individualistic choice that may damage the family reputation in the community may result in extreme punishment, such as honor killings.
This can lead to persons being trapped in violent relations — such persons may risk deportation if they attempt to separate they may be accused of having entered into a sham marriage. Domestic violence may happen in immigrant communities, and often there is little awareness in these communities of the laws and policies of the host country. A study among first generation South Asians in the UK found that they had little knowledge about what constituted criminal behavior under the English law.
The researchers found that "There was certainly no awareness that there could be rape within a marriage". Of the most important factors in domestic violence is a belief that abuse, whether physical or verbal, is acceptable.
Other factors include substance abuse , unemployment , mental health problems, lack of coping skills, isolation, and excessive dependence on the abuser. Walker presented the model of a cycle of abuse which consists of four phases. First, there is a buildup to abuse when tension rises until a domestic violence incident ensues. During the reconciliation stage, the abuser may be kind and loving and then there is a period of calm.
When the situation is calm, the abused person may be hopeful that the situation will change. Then, tensions begin to build, and the cycle starts again. A common aspect among abusers is that they witnessed abuse in their childhood, in other words they were participants in a chain of intergenerational cycles of domestic violence.
Researchers supporting this theory suggest it is useful to think of three sources of domestic violence: People who observe their parents abusing each other, or who were themselves abused may incorporate abuse into their behaviour within relationships that they establish as adults. Research indicates that the more children are physically punished , the more likely they will be as adults to act violently towards family members, including intimate partners.
Such research has shown that corporal punishment of children e. In some patrilineal societies around the world, a young bride moves with the family of her husband. As a new girl in the home, she starts as having the lowest or among the lowest position in the family, and is often subjected to violence and abuse, and is, in particular, strongly controlled by the parents-in-law: These factors include genetics and brain dysfunction and are studied by neuroscience.
Personality traits include sudden bursts of anger , poor impulse control , and poor self-esteem. Various theories suggest that psychopathology is a factor, and that abuse experienced as a child leads some people to be more violent as adults.
Correlation has been found between juvenile delinquency and domestic violence in adulthood. Studies have found high incidence of psychopathology among domestic abusers. Dutton has suggested a psychological profile of men who abuse their wives, arguing that they have borderline personalities that are developed early in life. He argues that social factors are important, while personality traits, mental illness, or psychopathy are lesser factors.
An evolutionary psychological explanation of domestic violence is that it represents male attempts to control female reproduction and ensure sexual exclusivity. Social theories look at external factors in the offender's environment, such as family structure, stress, social learning, and includes rational choice theories.
Social learning theory suggests that people learn from observing and modeling after others' behavior. With positive reinforcement , the behavior continues. If one observes violent behavior, one is more likely to imitate it.
If there are no negative consequences e. Resource theory was suggested by William Goode Dependency means that they have fewer options and few resources to help them cope with or change their spouse's behavior.
Couples that share power equally experience lower incidence of conflict, and when conflict does arise, are less likely to resort to violence. If one spouse desires control and power in the relationship, the spouse may resort to abuse  This may include coercion and threats, intimidation, emotional abuse, economic abuse, isolation, making light of the situation and blaming the spouse, using children threatening to take them away , and behaving as "master of the castle".
Stress may be increased when a person is living in a family situation, with increased pressures. Social stresses, due to inadequate finances or other such problems in a family may further increase tensions.
Theory suggests that when he is unable to economically support his wife, and maintain control, he may turn to misogyny , substance abuse , and crime as ways to express masculinity. Same-sex relationships may experience similar social stressors. Additionally, violence in same-sex relationships has been linked to internalized homophobia, which contributed to low self-esteem and anger in both perpetrator and victim. Similarly, heterosexism can play a key role in domestic violence in the LGBT community.
As a social ideology that implies "heterosexuality is normative, morally superior, and better than [homosexuality],"  heterosexism can hinder services and lead to an unhealthy self-image in sexual minorities. Heterosexism in legal and medical institutions can be seen in instances of discrimination, biases, and insensitivity toward sexual orientation. For example, as of , seven states explicitly denied LGBT individuals the ability to apply for protective orders,  proliferating ideas of LGBT subjugation, which is tied to feelings of anger and powerlessness.
Power and control in abusive relationships is the way that abusers exert physical, sexual and other forms of abuse to gain control within relationships. A causalist view of domestic violence is that it is a strategy to gain or maintain power and control over the victim. This view is in alignment with Bancroft's "cost-benefit" theory that abuse rewards the perpetrator in ways other than, or in addition to, simply exercising power over his or her target s.
He cites evidence in support of his argument that, in most cases, abusers are quite capable of exercising control over themselves, but choose not to do so for various reasons. Sometimes, one person seeks complete power and control over their partner and uses different ways to achieve this, including resorting to physical violence. The perpetrator attempts to control all aspects of the victim's life, such as their social, personal, professional and financial decisions.
Questions of power and control are integral to the widely utilized Duluth Domestic Abuse Intervention Project. They developed a "Power and Control Wheel" to illustrate this: Critics of this model argue that it ignores research linking domestic violence to substance abuse and psychological problems. Some modern research into predictors of injury from domestic violence suggests that the strongest predictor of injury by domestic violence is participation in reciprocal domestic violence.
Nonsubordination theory, sometimes called dominance theory, is an area of feminist legal theory that focuses on the power differential between men and women.
Nonsubordination theory tackles the issue of domestic violence as a subset of the broader problem of violence against women because domestic violence victims are overwhelmingly female. Proponents of nonsubordination theory propose several reasons why it works best to explain domestic violence. First, there are certain recurring patterns in domestic violence that indicate it is not the result of intense anger or arguments, but rather is a form of subordination.
Critics of nonsubordination theory complain that it offers no solutions to the problems it points out. For example, proponents of nonsubordination theory criticize certain approaches that have been taken to address domestic violence in the legal system, such as mandatory arrest or prosecution policies. Opponents argue that it undermines a victim's autonomy, discourages the empowerment of women by discounting other resources available and puts victims at more risk for domestic abuse.
Sociologist Andrew Glover critiques non-subordination theory on the grounds that domestic violence occurs among homosexual couples at the same rate as heterosexual couples. So it cannot be caused by, or exist to perpetuate, power differentials between the sexes. There has been an increase in acknowledgment that a child who is exposed to domestic abuse during their upbringing will suffer developmental and psychological damage.
Some emotional and behavioral problems that can result due to domestic violence include increased aggressiveness, anxiety, and changes in how a child socializes with friends, family, and authorities. Additionally, in some cases the abuser will purposely abuse the mother or father  in front of the child to cause a ripple effect, hurting two victims simultaneously.
Bruises, broken bones, head injuries, lacerations, and internal bleeding are some of the acute effects of a domestic violence incident that require medical attention and hospitalization.
New research illustrates that there are strong associations between exposure to domestic violence and abuse in all their forms and higher rates of many chronic conditions.
Among victims who are still living with their perpetrators high amounts of stress, fear, and anxiety are commonly reported. Those who are battered either emotionally or physically often are also depressed because of a feeling of worthlessness. These feelings often persist long-term and it is suggested that many receive therapy for it because of the heightened risk of suicide and other traumatic symptoms.
In addition to depression, victims of domestic violence also commonly experience long-term anxiety and panic , and are likely to meet the diagnostic criteria for Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Panic Disorder. PTSD as experienced by victims is characterized by flashbacks , intrusive images, exaggerated startle response , nightmares , and avoidance of triggers that are associated with the abuse. Several studies have shown that maternal interpersonal violence-related posttraumatic stress disorder PTSD can, despite traumatized mother's best efforts, interfere with their child's response to the domestic violence and other traumatic events.
Once victims leave their perpetrator, they can be stunned with the reality of the extent to which the abuse has taken away their autonomy. Due to economic abuse and isolation, the victim usually has very little money of their own and few people on whom they can rely when seeking help. This has been shown to be one of the greatest obstacles facing victims of DV, and the strongest factor that can discourage them from leaving their perpetrators.
In addition to lacking financial resources, victims of DV often lack specialized skills, education, and training that are necessary to find gainful employment, and also may have several children to support. In , thirty-six major US cities cited DV as one of the primary causes of homelessness in their areas. If a victim is able to secure rental housing, it is likely that her apartment complex will have "zero tolerance" policies for crime; these policies can cause them to face eviction even if they are the victim not the perpetrator of violence.
Women and children experiencing domestic violence undergo occupational apartheid ; they are typically denied access to desired occupations. Oftentimes the victims are very isolated from other relationships as well such as having few to no friends, this is another method of control for the abuser.
An analysis in the US showed that of the officer killings between and occurred during domestic violence interventions. Management of domestic violence may take place through medical services, law enforcement,   counseling, and other forms of prevention and intervention. Participants in domestic violence may require medical treatment, such as examination by a family physician , other primary care provider,  or emergency room physicians.
Counseling is another means of managing the effects of domestic violence. For the victim of abuse, counseling may include an assessment of the presence,  extent and types of abuse. Counseling may be used by offenders to minimize the risk of future domestic violence,   or to stop the violence and repair the harm it has caused. These are delivered in a group format, one or two hours per week, over a set time period.
Programme facilitators guide participants through a curriculum of adult-education style modules, which draw on a variety of therapeutic approaches, but predominantly cognitive behavioural therapy and psycho-education. A debate on the effectiveness of these programmes is on-going.
While some ex- partners of offenders have experienced improvements in their situation, others have not, and there also appears to be a risk of doing harm. Prevention and intervention includes ways to prevent domestic violence by offering safe shelter , crisis intervention , advocacy, and education and prevention programs. Community screening for domestic violence can be more systematic in cases of animal abuse, healthcare settings, emergency departments, behavioral health settings and court systems.
Tools are being developed to facilitate domestic violence screening such as mobile apps. Domestic violence hotlines offer advice, support and referral services to those in abusive relationships. There exist several strategies that are being used to attempt to prevent or reduce DV.
It is important to assess the effectiveness of a strategy that is being implemented. Reforming the legislation in order to ensure that domestic violence falls under the scope of the law is important. This may imply repealing existing laws which discriminate against women: UN Women has stated that the legislation should ensure that "a perpetrator of domestic violence, including marital rape, cannot use the fact that he paid bride price as a defence to a domestic violence charge". Gender norms that promote the inferiority of women may lead to the abuse of women by intimate partners.
The WHO writes that, "Dismantling hierarchical constructions of masculinity and femininity predicated on the control of women, and eliminating the structural factors that support inequalities are likely to make a significant contribution to preventing intimate partner and sexual violence". According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , "A key strategy in preventing domestic violence is the promotion of respectful, nonviolent relationships through individual, community, and societal level change.
In Australia, domestic violence refers to occurrences of violence in domestic settings between people in intimate relationships. Although there is no way of defending the so-called "great" traditions of Islam as libertarian and egalitarian with regard to women, we may draw a line between the Quranic texts and the corpus of avowedly misogynic writing and spoken words by the mullah having very little or no relevance to the Quran.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Domestic abuse. Sexual abuse , Marital rape , and Sexual violence by intimate partners.
Domestic violence against men. Parental abuse by children. Countries where parental child corporal punishment is outlawed. Domestic violence in same-sex relationships. Christianity and domestic violence and Islam and domestic violence. Forced marriage and Child marriage. Abusive power and control. Effects of domestic violence on children. Vicarious traumatization and Burnout psychology. Management of domestic violence. Outline of domestic violence. The examples and perspective in this section may not represent a worldwide view of the subject.
You may improve this article , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new article , as appropriate. June Learn how and when to remove this template message. Domestic violence portal Adult-to-adult narcissistic abuse Athletes and domestic violence Child abuse Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women Narcissistic parent Outline of domestic violence Parental abuse by children Parental bullying of children Women's police station Women's shelter.
Hayes by West Virginia governor Henry M. Mathews following the outbreak of strikes and riots: There is acknowledgment that many victims are not actually married to the abuser, but rather cohabiting or in other arrangements. Other forms of abuse may be constantly occurring, while physical abuse happens occasionally. These other forms of abuse, that are not physical, also have the potential to lead to mental illness , self-harm , and even attempts at suicide. A Case Study of Bangladesh: Mullender and Morley state that 'Domestic violence against women is the most common form of family violence worldwide.
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