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Wat U-Mong Thera Chan. Wat Muen Ngnoen Kong. Wat Pa Prow Nai. Wat Kuan Ka Mah. Wat Umong Suan Putthatham. Wat Phra That Doi Suthep. Wat Sri Don Chai Muang. Wat Phrathat Doi Kham Muang. Wat Muen San Muang. Wat Thon Kwain Hang Dong. Wat Hang Dong Hang Dong. Wat Nong Kwai Hang Dong. Wat Khamphaeng Ngam Hang Dong. Wat Namtok Mae Klang. Wat Puttha En Mae Chaem. Wat Kong Karn Mae Chaem. Wat Yang Luang Mae Chaem. Wat Pa Daet Mae Chaem. Wat Om Khud Mae Chaem. Wat Ban Thap Mae Chaem. Wat Bo Sang San Kamphaeng.
Wat Doi Saket Doi Saket. Wat Ta Kham Mae Taeng. Angkhang Shrine Doi Angkhang. Ancient City of Wiang Kum Kam. Wat Mandalay Mae Sariang.
Wat Sri Bunruang Mae Sariang. Wat Chong Sung Mae Sariang. Wat Kittiwong Mae Sariang. Wat Supphannarangsi Mae Sariang. Wat Chom Thong Mae Sariang. Wat To Phae Khun Yuam. Wat Muay Tor Khun Yuam. Wat Ban Hua Na Pai. Wat Nam Hoo Pai. Thus independent from any public transportation and therefore without much interference with other tourists. Equipped with a huge variety of maps in Thai and English as well as information from the web we went mainly on small roads and highways and stopped at every place, which looked interesting.
Some were planned, like Chiang Mai, but others were discovered as we went, like Wat Phra Puttha Phat Pha Nam , which we just happened to come across, slammed on the brakes and hiked up the hill. My favourite was really everything outside of Chiang Mai, which turned out to be a bit too touristy, specially the mountain temple of Wat Phra That Doi Suthep. We almost couldn't even park our car, but then most of the tourists were luckily Thais. The few Westerners we saw where rather embarrassing examples of our own kind.
Despite the many hints in tour guide books and signs posted, they arrived in shorts and 'muscle shirts' without having the body to wear them. They were handed sarongs , or skirt-like looking clothes, by the temple officials, to cover up their naked legs.
Unfortunately they took them off again and were then visiting one of the most sacred temples of Thailand laughing, screaming and almost not even dressed. Despite my initial fears the Elephant Training Camps proofed to be a worthwhile trip and experience, especially due to the natural setting in the forests and hills around Chiang Mai. It was also much less touristy than I thought and seems to provide a good source of income for the now 'work-less' Elephants.
And then there were the places, which only Thai people go to. Cave temples in the surrounding hills of Chiang Mai. A very special experience, walking up the steep stairways through the forest in the hot and humid climate and then into a cool cave, filled with Buddha Statues and smoke from incense sticks. We were so busy seeing everything on the way up and in and around Chiang Mai, that we had to put off our initially planned continuation to Mae Hong Son. We'll have to come back for this!
We also were in Uttaradit, but could not find Wat Tha Thanon, despite looking for it on two separate days. So, we thought it was not meant to be and left again. We went to those provinces during the rice harvest and had some great impressions from the hard working people of Lanna.
A lot of the work there still happens manually and not with machines. We also had to master several roads through mountains, some of which had not even been on any maps we brought along. Along the border of Myanmar were several spots were we prayed that our breaks continue to work but had some really great views into Myanmar territory.
There were also a lot of police and army check points along the way, checking for drugs and illegal goods. The Lanna-style architecture of the temples up here is really amazing.
We also had several Burmese temples on our plan and we voted for Wat Nantharam in Phayao province as our most favorite temple. It is located so far off the normal track going North and the trip over the mountains consumed so much time, that I really worried that we would miss it.
Luckily we made it in time and the eagle eye of our Thai friend managed to see the hidden sign to the temple. All this effort awarded us with one of the most beautiful wooden temples in Northern Thailand with a beautiful Mandalay-style Buddha image.
On this second trip to Lanna we visited 53 temples, burned hundreds of incense sticks, lit many candles and drove over km. The three of us going took a combined pictures and I managed to run out of space on my new 4GB flash card.
And already on the way back we discussed going back to Chiang Mai on one of our next trips. For the thousands of curves on mountain roads we had to buy a new car which was a very worthwhile investment. It allowed us to see some remote country temples along the border country.
During Songkran of we spent almost 3 weeks in Chiang Mai and while celebrating one of the best New Year's ever, we had the chance to extensively visit Chiang Mai's temples in the city and other districts. It also allowed us to take part in three important ceremonies during the New Year celebrations with Phra Phutta Sihing being brought outside the temple and seeing it being carried around the city in colorful processions.
Currently we are running out of space on the 8GB card with a 4GB card for backup but as you will notice the quality of the pictures continues to change. When we started this web site, digital camera's were not even on the market yet, while in we shot with over 10 megapixels.
Having read Carol Strattons amazing book "Buddhist Sculpture of Northern Thailand" in we realized how many great and important temples and Buddha statues exist in the province of Phayao, a province which we only passed through on the way North before. We therefore planned a special trip to Phayao to do some indepth day trips to Mae Chai, Chiang Kham, Chun and other districts. We were amazed to see so many beautiful temples and Buddha images and actually ran out of time but still managed to visit over 30 temples.
From Phayao we went further up to Chiang Rai again and visited one of the most impressive temples we had seen in all our years of travel - Wat Tham Pa Asha Thong , the temple of the Golden Horse. Wat Phra That Cho Hae. Wat Phra That Chom Chaeng. Wat Phra Bat Ming Muang. Wat Sa Po Kaeo. Wat Phrathat Sri Don Kam. Wat Phrathat Laem Li. Wat Phrathat Phu Tab. Wat Phrathat Suthon Mongkon Kiri. Wat Phra That Chae Haeng. Wat Phrathat Khao Noi. Wat Mueang Chang Dtai. Wat Si Phan Ton. Wat Hua Wiang Dtai.
Wat Ton Laeng Pua. Wat Nong Daeng Pua. Wat Phrathat Beng Sakat Pua. Wat Bun Yuen Wiang Sa. Wat Rong Ngae Pua.
Wat Klang Thung Chang. Wat Ratcha Bamrung Thung Chang. Wat Bo Luang Bo Kluea. Wat Nak Lum Bo Kluea. Wat Nantharam Chiang Kham.
However, train fare is cheaper than taxi fare, seats costing between 40 and baht depending on the class and speed of the train. For more information, call Tel: The approximately kilometers drive between Bangkok and Hua Hin can be traveled in 2 to 3 hours.
Fares for first class bus seats cost around baht. The less than one hour flight aboard a Cessna aircraft costs just over 3, baht for a one way ticket.
Getting Around in Hua Hin: Within the town center visitors can get around Hua Hin by foot or on rental bicycles and motorbikes, which allow visitors to explore the area more quickly. Within Hua Hin, many hotels and guesthouses are located near the town center; those farther away typically provide shuttle service to and from town.
Taxis and tuk-tuks are easily found and are reasonably priced for those who wish to explore the nearby attractions, though visitors may also rent cars, motorbikes, and even bicycles to tour the area on their own. For getting from Hua Hin town to nearby beaches, songtaews covered pick-up trucks with benches in the back act as local buses for trips between Hua Hin and Khao Takiab, Khao Tam, and Suan Son.
Songtaew service runs approximately from 6am to 6pm By Tuk Tuk: To get more quickly between destinations in and around town, tuk tuks are quite prevalent and can be hired for a single journey or a full day, the fares for both of which should be agreed upon before setting out.
For around to baht per day you can hire your own motorbike, which will typically require you to leave your passport as a deposit. Be sure to inspect bikes prior to rental and drive with extreme caution as rental motorbikes are not normally insured and accidents are frequent. Helmets are required by Thai law. Local buses from Hua Hin to Pranburi and other destinations within the province are also available for very reasonable prices. For boat service to nearby Koh Singtoh, local boat charters are available for around baht a day, either at the Hua Hin Pier or at Hat Takiab, where it is possible to get a slightly cheaper rate.
The town is also known for its gingerbread-house railway station; a lively bar and transvestite show scene; and a cool, relatively rain-free climate.
Germans are among the most numerous foreigners. Just down the coast at Takiab Bay visitors can take seaside horseback rides and visit a hilltop Buddhist temple with a spectacular view. In central Hua Hin, make sure to check out the Sofitel Central, a renovated version of the town's classic colonial-era Railway Hotel, famed for its topiary gardens full of bushes shaped like elephants and its wide, curved balconies.
Gardeners obsessively trim the bushes with clippers so small they look like nail scissors. Spas in Hua Hin: The Hua Hin area set the world record for the largest group massage. See Spas Under Facts. I peek into Hua Hin Thai Massage, a small shop near a beach market selling towels and trinkets.
The massage parlor truly feels like a family affair. Local women sit in circles massaging one another's feet and gossiping about their clients.
Hat Hua Hin is a 5-kilometer white sandy beach lined with a wide range of accommodations, from bungalows to five-star hotels and resorts. Located at the sunrise side of the city, the beach runs from a rocky headland which separates it from a tiny fishing pier, and gently curves for some three kilometers to the south where the Giant Standing Buddha Sculpture is located at the foot of Khao Takiap. While offering a tranquil atmosphere, the beach is also the place for fun-filled activities ranging from jogging, walking, sun bathing, horse riding, kite boarding, and other kinds of water sports.
Khao Takiap 4 kilometers from Hua Hin is a hill is situated at the southern end of Hua Hin, only from the town. It can be easily reached by local minibus. Visitors can go up the hilltop to enjoy a bird's eye view of Hua Hin, which is one of the delightful views either during the day or night. There is a temple call Wat Khao Takiap situated on top of the hill. The nearby Khao Takiap Beach offers mostly bungalow accommodations.
The giant golden Buddha Statue standing against the cliff has become a landmark of Khao Takiap. Khao Tao between kilometers and markers, 13 kilometers south of Hua Hin is a small beach at the foot of Khao Tao Hill. It is located on a pine-fringed beach and is more secluded than Hua Hin. The signature of the place is a large Buddha image which faces out to the sea. Khao Sam Roi Yot National Park 53 kilometers south of Hua Hin embraces limestone hills, mangroves and caves and is home to species of bird.
Established in as the first coastal national park of Thailand. The name Khao Sam Roi Yot means Mountains with peaks, which describes the landscape of the park quite well. The limestone hills are a subrange of the Tenasserim Hills that rises directly at the shore of the Gulf of Thailand, with the highest elevation Khao Krachom meters above sea level. Between the hills are freshwater marshes. However several of these marshes were converted into shrimp farms, as only 36 square kilometers of the total 69 square kilometers of marshes are part of the national park.
Hat Laem Sala is 17 kilometers away from the park's head quarters and can be reached from the village Ban Pu either by boat or by climbing up and down over a hill for nearly 30 minutes. There are also some outstanding caves in the park.
Tham Kaew is illuminated by a collapsed sinhole ad reached by a permananet ladder. Some of the stalactites and stalagmites glisten like icicles thanks to calcite crystals in them. Rare animals in the park include serow, dusky langurs and birds such as species black-headed ibis, painted stork and purple swamp hen.
In the ocean occasionally Irrawaddy dolphins show up. It is known for its hot spirngs, mangrove forests, dense tropical greenery, picturesque waterfalls and coastal areas dotted with small island. From Ranong it is possible to take a day trip into Myanmar. Ranong is a rainy province filled with pristine natural beauty that serves as a gateway to southern Myanmar. Because it is affected Indian Ocean monsoons as well the rainy season to the east it has a long rainy season, which lasts for 8 months each year.
As a result the mountains are covered with dense forests. The city of Ranong is a major fishing and trading port. It was originally settled by the Hokkian Chinese, and their strong influence remains evident in the town. Colorful longboats ferry produce and people across the narrow divide that separates Thailand and Myanmar.
The traffic is even heavier these days since a casino opened at Victoria Point in Myanmar. Just outside of Ranong town are the famous Ranong hot springs, where an arboretum and various first-class hotels cater to visitors eager to benefit from the medicinal properties of the mineral waters.
Ranong also features 62 islands, many fine beaches, unspoiled forests, and refreshing waterfalls, many of which are incorporated in national parks or wildlife sanctuaries. It lies on the narrowest point on the Malayan Peninsula.
Both Ranong city and some areas along the coast have accommodation for visitors, including luxury hotels, guesthouses, beach resorts, and bungalows. Ranong can be reached from Bangkok by taking Highway No. Both air-conditioned and non air-conditioned buses depart from Bangkok's Southern Bus Terminal to Ranong everyday.. For a current schedule and further information, please call the Southern Bus Terminal at tel: There are currently no regularly scheduled flights to Ranong.
Ranong airport is 20 kilometers south of town, off Hwy 4 but is serviced only by small charter aircraft. Sights in the Ranong Area: Hot Springs and Raksawarin Public Park 2 kilometers east of the provincial office have been a popular tourist spot ever since King Rama V visited Ranong in , and named the road to the hot springs 'Chon Ra-u', meaning 'hot water'.
Koh Phayam two hours by boat from the Ranong Pier is famous for both its long fine white sandy beaches and for the cashew nuts which are grown on the island. To get to Ko Phayam, visitors can charter boats from Ranong Pier for about 1, baht per trip. Visitors can also charter speedboats from Ko Phayam Resort. Prices range from 2, to 4, baht, depending on the size of the boat. Reservations can be made by calling 0 , 0 Ban Phon Rang Hot Springs in the Ngao Waterfall National Park are surrounded by natural beauties, such as towering mountains, dazzling streams and aromatic flowers, which will make your hot spring experience enjoyable and delightful.
The blooms of tropical pitcher plants Dendrobium Formasum, a kind of wild orchid which is the symbolic flower of Rayong are spread out throughout the entire area. Raksawarin Thermal Springs are regarded as a spa for natural therapy. As they are closer to downtown than any other thermal springs, the place is bustling with tourists. Laem Son National Park turn off 58 kilometers from Ranong covers square kilometers, including 20 silands and the longest protected shore in Thailand.
On much of the coast are dense mangroves, home to a variety of birds, crab-eating macaques and deer. The islands occupy a total area of approximately 84, rai out of which about 20, rai is an on land area. The Surin Islands reportedly have greatest variety of corals while the Similans have the greatest variety of fish. Sea gypsies are still active in the waters off the islands. Surin Islands National Park is a marine national park that embraces five islands: The shallow corals at this national park are various and stunning offering a perfect place to experience snorkeling.
As well as the marine attractions, the park is covered with The central part of Pha-yam Island is covered by mountains, and forests. There are many animals, such as birds, monkeys and boars. The locals earn a living from coconut, rubber and cashew nuts. The shore is embraced by coves, reefs and sandy beaches.
Travelling around the area of Surin Islands National Parks can be separated into four choices. This is a good choice for tourists who love camping. Surin Island National Park offers long-tailed boats for tourists to go snorkeling. These can be found at Bon Bay.
The Moken people emigrated from Myanmar before these islands became a national park. Formerly, they lived on boats around Chong Kad Bay. The most thrilling thing is the chance to see big whale sharks. Fees, Contact, Accommodation and Transport Info: Catch a boat at Kuraburi Pier. If leaving from at Ranong Province, take route no. The pier can be found before Kuraburi District. About nine kilometers at kilometers , turn right for about two kilometers.
Then, take a boat various kinds of boat available. It is about 1. At the island, there are resorts, tents, and restaurants around Chong Kad Bay. At Mai Ngam Bay, there are just tents available. It offers ideal spots for snorkelling to admire coral reefs in the shallows, especially at Koh Torinla and Koh Pachumba. An ideal spot for scuba diving is the Richeliu Rock, 10 kilometers to the southwest of Koh Surin.
This is a site of fertile undersea nature, habitat of various kinds of fish, colourful corals, and where whale shark, the kind Giant of the Sea, is frequently encountered. The most suitable period for a visit is between November and April whereas from May to October is the period of monsoons when there are heavy rainfalls and windy wavy sea.
There are both large and small bays scattered around the islands, all with distinctively beautiful beaches and sea water. There is a Tourist Service Centre, bungalows, camping site, and long-tailed boats for rent to visit various islands. Ao Chong Khat is located south of Koh Surin Nuea and has a camping spot on a clean white sandy beach suitable for swimming.
There are also coral reefs and various kinds of fish such as the colourful parrotfish and wrasse. It is the largest island in the Surin Archipelago with coral reefs in the shallows. They believe in Indian icons carved out of wood which are regarded as their sacred items.
Ao Luek is to the southeast of Koh Surin Nuea and offers coral reefs in the shallows, seaweeds, anemones, sea fans, schools of clown fish, and various kinds of colourful fish. Ao Chak is to the north of Koh Surin Nuea and offers a white powdery beach and snorkelling spot to admire coral reefs in the shallows. It is a large bay with a long curving beach, beautiful coral reefs, and various kinds of colourful fish.
Moreover, there is Ao Mai Ngam Nature Trail through an evergreen forest along the beach, with nature interpretation signs along the 2-kilometers route, taking approximately 1 hour.
Along the route, various species of wildlife and flora such as mouse deer, flying lemur, and rare birds like Nicobar pigeon and pied imperial pigeon can be seen.
Ao Tao is located east of Koh Surin Tai and a habitat of a large number of sea turtles near the coral reefs. It offers a snorkelling spot to view soft corals and sea fans. Ao Phak Kat is to the south of Koh Surin Tai and offers a snorkelling spot to view staghorn coral reefs, and also a scuba diving spot. Ao Suthep is to the north of Koh Surin Tai and offers a snorkelling spot to view beautiful coral reefs. Koh Pachumba or Koh Klang is situated north of Koh Surin Tai and offers clean white powdery beaches and intact coral reefs where Manta rays, various species of fish, and lobsters which are rare to be seen are so abundant that the bay is called Ao Mangkon after the Thai name of lobster, Kung Mangkon.
It is also a spawning site for sea turtles. To the east of the island, there is a very long stretch of coral reefs that are still in perfect condition and ideal for scuba diving. Mu Koh Surin National Park. Amphoe Khura Buri, Phang-nga , Tel. Admission to the Park is Baht for adults and Baht for children. Diving gear is available at Baht. Travelling to Mu Ko Surin can be initiated from several different points: Khura Buri is some kilometers north of Phang-nga.
A boat trip takes around 3 hours. There is no regular boat service for travellers to Ko Surin. Boats leaving from Khura Buri are suitable for group tours. For more information Contact: Amphoe Kapoe Pier is in Ranong Province. The trip takes 7 hours. Visitors may contact Chansom Tara Hotel tel: The best way for individual travellers is to join a trip out of Phuket that includes Mu Ko Surin on the itinerary.
This typically lasts at least 3 days and includes visits to Mu Ko Similan. For further information, please call the Bangkok Office, Tel. Lignite Tour Company Limited operates a daily bus leaving Bangkok at 7. To Get to Thap Lamu Pier: Then, take a motorcycle to Thap Lamu Pier. Then, take a motorcycle to the pier. Ferry and Charter Boat: Visitors travelling in groups may contact a ferry or charter boat at: For a ferry, visitors may contact any travel agency nearby.
Koh Phra Thung accessible from the Surin Islands and neighbor islands contain nesting sites for four species of sea turtle. They are also home to Naycrates conservation project for sea turtles. The nesting season extends from id December to late March.. The number of nest has been reduced by 85 percent in the last 20 years.
Ko Phra Thong is perfect for those who love a tranquil retreat. Not only is the natural beauty so spectacular, but under the water is also well worth a look. A gorgeous beach, crystal clear sea water and a coral reef awaits your visit. Additionally, there are ferryboats to Ko Ra in the northern part of the island. In addition to this, there is a beach stretching along the west coast, and mangrove swamps on the northern and eastern part of the island.
It comprises grassland, a melaleuca forest and a peat swamp forest that is home to a large variety of animals. Such an atmosphere reminds tourists of an African safari, the habitat of various animals, and this makes the island incomparably fascinating.
The broad area of Ko Phra Thong is a plain without any hills. The eastern side is an adjoining area of mangrove swamps; whilst the plain in the west is mainly occupied by a secondary forest of melaleuca trees alternating with spacious fields like an African savannah. Apart from this, there are several kinds of exotic plants, and more importantly, it is the habitat of various mammals, such as sixty wild deer, boar, dusky langur, macaque monkeys, palm civet, otter, armadillo, pallas squirrel, grey-bellied squirrel, flying fox, flying lemur and island mouse.
This area is suitable for camping as well. Campers find it an ideal place to pitch their tents and spend the night observing various nocturnal lives of animals, mainly deer and boars. After enjoying nature and spectacular wildlife trekking, for those who like seaside or water activities, the beach, which lies, from the north to the south of the island is recommended.
When the tide of the sparkling blue sea goes out it reveals a white, long and sandy beachfront for various seaside activities. In the area where the beach is close to mangrove swamps, ecological diversity is a compensation for the unclear water.
Take state highway number 4 from Bangkok to Kura Buri district, and then catch a motorbike or a minibus to Kura Buri pier, the main port that takes you to the Surin islands. By the tourist information centre on the Surin islands sits Nang Yon pier.
It provides ferries from the Surin islands to Ko Phra Thong which takes only 30 minutes. This site contains copyrighted material the use of which has not always been authorized by the copyright owner.
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If you are the copyright owner and would like this content removed from factsanddetails. Home Southeast Asia Thailand - Places. Findings can inform state-level policies on human trafficking and assist child protection and juvenile justice agencies in developing prevention and intervention responses to commercial sexual exploitation. Sex -specific factors for bone density in patients with schizophrenia. Patients with schizophrenia are susceptible to low bone mineral density BMD.
Many risk factors have been suggested. However, it remains uncertain whether the risk factors differ between men and women. In addition, the study of bone density in men is neglected more often than that in women. This study aims to examine specific risk factors of low BMD in different sexes.
Clinical and laboratory variables including blood levels of prolactin, sex and thyroid hormones, cortisol, calcium, and alkaline phosphatase were collected. BMD was measured using a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometer.
Men had lower BMD than women. Physicians should pay particular attention to bone density in men with hyperprolactinemia and postmenopausal women. Further prospective studies in other populations are warranted to confirm these findings. Data on demographic characteristics, sexual and injecting risk behaviours were collected from them and were tested for HIV, Syphilis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis.
RDS-weighted univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the factors associated with HIV seropositivity. In multivariate analysis, factors found to be independently associated with HIV included lifetime injecting drug use, initiating sexual intercourse before the age of 15 years, positive test result for one or more STIs and having been widowed. Because of lower consistent condom use among them, FSWs may act as bridge for HIV transmission to general population from injecting drug users IDU through their sexual clients.
The Yerelon clinic in Burkina Faso has provided combined preventative and therapeutic services, including anti-retroviral therapy ART , for FSWs since , with evidence suggesting it has decreased HIV prevalence and incidence in this group. No data exists on the costs of such a combined prevention and treatment intervention for FSW. This study aims to determine the mean cost of service provision per patient year for FSWs attending the Yerelon clinic, and identifies differences in costs between patient groups.
Methods Field-based retrospective cost analyses were undertaken using top-down and bottom-up costing approaches for Expenditure and service utilisation data was collated from primary sources. Patient specific service use data was extracted. Sensitivity analyses considered removal of all research costs, different discount rates and use of different ART treatment regimens and follow-up schedules. Conclusion Whilst FSWs may require specialised services to optimise their care and hence, the public health benefits, our study shows that the cost of ART provision within a combined prevention and treatment intervention setting is comparable to providing ART to other population groups.
Transactional sex among men who have sex with men in the French Antilles and French Guiana: Some population groups such as men who have sex with men MSM , especially those involved in transactional sex , are thought to be particularly vulnerable to HIV but few data exist to help characterize their health-related needs and thus implement relevant prevention interventions.
Our objectives were to compare social and demographic characteristics and sexual behaviours between MSM engaging in transactional sex and MSM not engaging in transactional sex and to identify factors associated with transactional sex involvement using a logistic regression model. Their behaviour and social and demographic characteristics were different from other MSMs' and they were more exposed to factors that are recognized to potentiate HIV vulnerability, at the individual, community, network and structural levels.
Provides findings of a study in which it was found that asymmetries in the size of the two feet were strongly related to sex and handedness; right-handed males having larger right feet and right-handed females having larger left feet, the reverse being seen in non-right-handed individuals. Differences were apparent in children even younger than….
Role theory predicts that when expectations are disconfirmed, the perception of persons who do not conform to the stereotypes may be distorted. Factors mediating HIV risk among female sex workers in Europe: There were three objectives: Associations between HIV prevalence and selected structural-level indicators were assessed using linear regression models. Future epidemiological and intervention studies of HIV among vulnerable populations need to better.
Despite potential sex differences in base rates, predictors, and maintaining processes for children's externalizing behaviors, little prospective research has examined sex differences in the relations between concurrent, proximal family risk factors and children's externalizing behaviors. The current study examined the relations among maternal…. This study examined the sex role orientations endorsed by male and female students majoring in computer science, a male-dominated college degree program.
The relations among sex role orientation and academic achievement and social cognitive factors influential in career decision-making self-efficacy were explored. Micro-level social and structural factors act synergistically to increase HIV risk among Nepalese female sex workers.
Sex workers face stigma, discrimination, and violence across the globe and are almost 14 times more likely to be HIV-infected than other women in low- and middle-income countries.
In Asia, condom campaigns at brothels have been effective in some settings, but for preventive interventions to be sustainable, it is important to understand micro-level social and structural factors that influence sexual behaviours of sex workers.
This study assessed the syndemic effects of micro-level social and structural factors of unprotected sex and the prevalence of HIV among female sex workers FSWs in Nepal. This quantitative study included FSWs who were recruited using two-stage cluster sampling from September to November in 22 Terai Highway districts of Nepal. Rapid HIV tests and face-to-face interviews were conducted to collect biological and behavioural information.
A count of physical sexual violence and other undesirable events , social poor social support and condom negotiation skills , and economic unprotected sex to make more money factors that operate at the micro-level was calculated to test the additive relationship to unprotected sex. For each additional adverse physical, social, and economic condition, the probability of non-use of condoms with clients increased substantially: Published by Elsevier Ltd..
The neurotrophin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor BDNF , is recognized as a key component in the regulation of central nervous system ontogeny, homeostasis and adult neuroplasticity.
The importance of BDNF in central nervous system development and function is well documented by numerous reports from animal studies linking abnormal BDNF signaling to metabolic disturbances and anxiety or depressive-like behavior. Despite the diverse roles for BDNF in nearly all aspects of central nervous system physiology, the regulation of BDNF expression, as well as our understanding of the signaling mechanisms associated with this neurotrophin, remains incomplete.
However, links between sex hormones such as estradiol and testosterone, as well as endogenous and synthetic glucocorticoids, have emerged as important mediators of BDNF expression and function. Examples of such regulation include brain region-specific induction of Bdnf mRNA in response to estradiol. Additional studies have also documented regulation of the expression of the high-affinity BDNF receptor TrkB by estradiol, thus implicating sex steroids not only in the regulation of BDNF expression, but on mechanisms of signaling associated with it.
In addition to gonadal steroids, further evidence also suggests functional interaction between BDNF and glucocorticoids, such as in the regulation of corticotrophin-releasing hormone and other important neuropeptides. In this review, we provide an overview of the roles played by selected sex or stress hormones in the regulation of BDNF expression and signaling in the central nervous system PMID: The current study examined the effects of physical attractiveness and sexual interest cues on men's sexual perceptions of women and whether increases in sexual perceptions of a woman would lead to decreases in labeling of subsequent nonconsensual sex as sexual assault.
The vignette ends with the male character physically forcing sexual intercourse with the female character. After reading the vignette, participants' labeling of the nonconsensual sex as sexual assault was addressed. Participants' perceptions of the female character's sexual interest in the male character prior to the nonconsensual sex was assessed as a dependent variable during stopping points in the vignette, prior to sexual assault. Both physical attractiveness and interest cues had a significant positive influence on men's perception of the female character as sexually interested.
In addition, perceptions of sexual interest had a direct negative effect on sexual assault labeling. These results indicate that increases in physical attractiveness and interest cues increase perceptions of sexual interest, in turn decreasing the labeling of nonconsensual sex as sexual assault.
This experimental research contributes to the literature on misperception of sexual interest and sexual assault labeling. These findings provide implications for intervention programs and for forensic issues related to sexual assault. The moderating impact of lifestyle factors on sex steroids, sexual activities and aging in Asian men. A better understanding of this complex interrelationship is important in helping the formulation of modalities for a holistic approach to the management of aging men.
The results showed that age is a major determinant for many physiological parameters, including sleep, hormonal and metabolic parameters, some lifestyle factors and sexual activities.
High-intensity exercise and longer duration of sleep were associated with higher concentrations of T and BioT. T was shown to be associated positively with men who were engaged in masturbation. DHEAS was associated with men wanting more sex and with good morning penile rigidity. Older Singaporean men tended to sleep for shorter duration, but exercised more intensely than younger men.
Coital and masturbation frequencies decreased with age, and a significantly greater number of younger men were engaged in masturbation. Relationship between the partners is a key determinant of sexuality in men. It appears that T may have a limited, while dehydroepiandrosterone DHEA have a greater role than previously suggest, as a motivational signal for sexual function in men.
Both biological and psychosocial factors interact with each other to influence sexual functions in men. Hence, a biopsychosocial approach may be more appropriate for a more lasting resolution to sexual dysfunctions in men. Youth paying for sex: Findings from a cross-sectional study in Cambodia. At-risk male youth in Cambodia who purchase sex are at greater risk for HIV compared to the general population.
Factors associated with paying for sex among youth are poorly studied, both globally and in Cambodia. This study aimed to identify specific factors associated with transactional sex with women among most-at-risk male youth in Cambodia.
This cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted with sexually active male youth aged recruited at 'hotspots' in the capital city of Phnom Penh and seven provinces. We collected data on demographic factors , sexual behaviors, HIV testing and other potential factors. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with transactional sex.
In total, this study included male youth with a mean age of Of the total respondents, This study highlights the high proportion of Cambodian male youth who paid for sex and the potential challenges to addressing this issue. While the majority of HIV prevention interventions surrounding sex work are aimed at female sex workers themselves, targeting the demand side of sex work, particularly the local demand, may be an important next step towards a sustainable HIV prevention.
The prediction of future gender identity i. However, sex of rearing is the strongest predictor of gender identity for the majority of individuals with various DSD conditions. When making decisions regarding sex of rearing biological factors e.
Information on gender identity outcomes across a range of DSD diagnoses is presented to aid in sex of rearing assignment. Factors influencing abstinence, anticipation, and delay of sex among adolescent boys in high-sexually transmitted infection prevalence communities. Abstinence is a core pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection STI prevention strategy. We explore the attitudinal, behavioral, and family contexts relating to abstinence and the decision to delay sex among adolescent boys.
Adolescent boys ages years were recruited from community sites using a venue-based sampling method. All eligible boys at venues were invited to participate in an electronic survey. Question items included sexual behaviors, attitudes related to sex , relationships, masculine values, and family contextual items. We enrolled participants, mean age Abstinent participants were younger and less likely to report non-coital behaviors, and reported lower conventional masculine values.
Participants with lower conventional masculine values and more religious or moral motivations for abstinence were more likely to plan to delay sex. Abstinence among boys is common, even in high-STI risk communities. For these boys, abstinence appears to be a complex behavioral decision influenced by demographic, behavioral, attitudinal, and contextual factors such as age, race, non-coital sexual behaviors, and masculine values.
Understanding the attitudes and contexts of abstinence, including plans to delay sex , can inform the development of public health programs for early fatherhood and STI prevention. Social factors and aromatase gene expression during adult male-to-female sex change in captive leopard grouper Mycteroperca rosacea. Social factors and aromatase gene expression in the leopard grouper Mycteroperca rosacea was studied when captive fish were separated by sex during the reproductive April-June and post-reproductive July-September seasons.
Monosex females, monosex males, and mixed- sex , held in social sextet units were analyzed for sex steroids throughout confinement. At the end of the experiment, the gonad- sex was defined by histology, and gonad and brain aromatase gene expressions were quantified.
Only males held in the monosex social units changed sex. Histology showed one male remained unchanged, six were found in a transitional sexual stage, in which two had intersex-predominantly-testes, and four had a more defined intersex ovo-testes pattern, and 11 were immature de novo females neofemales. Neofemales and most intersex fish did not survive. In spring, ketosterone showed a specific male profile, which suggests that male-to-female sex change was not triggered during the reproductive season.
The low steroid levels in summer made it impossible to associate the sex change to a gonad hormonal shift; in September, gonad aromatase gene expression was not significantly different among groups. However, brain aromatase expression in intersex fish was significantly higher than monosex females, mixed- sex females, and neofemale groups. These results suggest that in the absence of female hormonal compounds, and at a time when male gonad steroidogenesis was diminished, the brain mediated male-to-male social-behavioral interactions, including stress, by increasing aromatization, resulting in derived intersex-male, which triggered more aromatization, followed by a sex change.
This present study was to examine the prevalence and determinants of one-night-stand behavior among young men who have sex with men YMSM. Data was gathered through anonymous questionnaire. Binary logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with one-night-stand behavior.
Of the YMSM, Of the ones having had casual sex , These figures were lower than those of YMSM not having casual sexual contacts [with anal sex as YMSM who had engaged in casual sex , practicing unprotected sex or having multiple sexual partners, were recognized as high risk population.
Targeted intervention programs are needed to decrease the one-night-stand behavior. Internet intervention strategy seemed an important method to serve the purpose. Factors associated with establishment-based female sex workers accessing health care services in Shanghai. Female sex workers are a priority population for HIV prevention and health promotion in China.
This paper examines the patterns of and factors associated with the utilisation of HIV-related and general health services by establishment-based sex workers in Hongkou District, Shanghai.
Participants were recruited through a three-stage sampling strategy and invited to self-complete a brief survey in Participants were mostly internal migrants, more than half had lived in Shanghai for six months or longer and nearly two-thirds were working in an establishment with a total of less than five female sex workers.
Routine physical examination and HIV testing were the most commonly accessed health services in the previous 12 months. Altogether, women Scaling-up of free and integrated health services provided by community-based health service providers in metropolitan areas in China and beyond holds. To investigate the status and factors associated with commercial sexual behavior among men who have sex with men MSM in Shenzhen.
A convenience sampling method was used to recruit MSM in Shenzhen from to Questionnaire-based interviews were conducted on a one-on-one basis. Blood samples 5 ml were taken and tested for treponema pallidum and HIV antibodies. The rate of MSM serving as male sex workers among different age groups was analyzed using the Cochran-Armitage trend test. Factors associated with commercial sexual behavior were analyzed by univariate logistic regression and multivariate unconditional logistic regression.
Among the 3 MSM recruited, The prevalence rates of syphilis, HIV, and syphilis-HIV co-infection among those who served as male sex worker were Identifying sex -specific risk factors for low bone mineral density in adolescent runners. Adolescent runners may be at risk for low bone mineral density BMD associated with sports participation.
Few prior investigations have evaluated bone health in young runners, particularly males. To characterize sex -specific risk factors for low BMD in adolescent runners.
Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Training characteristics, fracture history, eating behaviors and attitudes, and menstrual history were measured using online questionnaires. A food frequency questionnaire was used to identify dietary patterns and measure calcium intake. G fat mass ratio. G ratio, being shorter, and the combination of interaction between current menstrual irregularity and a history of fracture all P Sex Differences in Obesity Prevalence and Cardiometabolic Factors among Western Alaska Native People.
Background and Aims Obesity is associated with increased risks of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and other chronic diseases. Prevalence estimates for metabolic disorders are well documented in many populations, but Alaska Native groups are understudied. The Western Alaska Tribal Collaborative for Health Study combines data from three Alaska Native study cohorts to assess differences in obesity prevalence and associations with cardiometabolic risk factors by sex.
Prevalence of obesity and metabolic risk factors was assessed according to nationally recognized guidelines. Regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors , including lipids, blood pressure and glucose. Conclusion The high prevalence of obesity and central adiposity among AN women is an important public health concern.
Differences in associations between obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors by sex warrants further investigation to develop effective intervention programs. Brain derived neurotrophic factor BDNF is a member of the neurotrophin family that plays a critical role in numerous neuronal activities.
Recent studies report that some functions or action mechanisms of BDNF vary in a sex -dependent manner. In particular, BDNF content in some brain parts and the tendency of developing BDNF-deficient-related diseases like depression is higher in female animals.
With the support of other relevant studies, it is suggested that sex hormones or steroids can modulate the activities of BDNF, which may account for its functional discrepancy in different sexes. Indeed, the cross-talk between BDNF and sex steroids has been detected for decades and some sex steroids like estrogen have a positive regulatory effect to BDNF expression and signaling.
Thus, the sex of animal models used is critical when studying the functions of BDNF in vivo. In this review, we will summarize our current findings on the difference in expression, signaling, and functions of BDNF between sexes. We will also discuss the potential mechanisms in mediating these differential responses with a specific emphasis on sex steroids. By presenting and discussing these findings, we encourage taking sex influences into consideration when designing experiments, interpreting results and drawing conclusions.
The problem of demonstrating invariance of factor structures across criterion groups is addressed. Procedures are outlined which combine the replication of factor structures across sex -race groups with use of the coefficient of invariance to demonstrate the level of invariance associated with factors identified in a self concept measure.
Intergenerational sex as a risk factor for HIV among young men who have sex with men: An emerging body of evidence suggests that intergenerational sexual partnerships may increase risk of HIV acquisition among young men who have sex with men YMSM.
However, no studies have comprehensively evaluated literature in this area. This study identified several individual, micro-, and meso-system factors influencing HIV risk among YMSM in the context of intergenerational relationships: These thematic groups can be used to frame future research on the role of age-discrepant relationships on HIV risk among YMSM, and to enhance public health HIV education and prevention strategies targeting this vulnerable population.
Sex differences in risk factor management of coronary heart disease across three regions. Objective To investigate whether there are sex differences in risk factor management of patients with established coronary heart disease CHD , and to assess demographic variations of any potential sex differences. Age-adjusted regression models were used to estimate odds ratios for women versus men in risk factor management.
Compared with men, women were less likely to achieve targets for total cholesterol OR 0. In contrast, women had better control of blood pressure OR 1. Overall, women were less likely than men to achieve all treatment targets OR 0.
Sex disparities in reaching treatment targets were smaller in Europe than in Asia and the Middle East. Women in Asia were more likely than men to reach lifestyle targets, with opposing results in Europe and the Middle East. Conclusions Risk factor management for the secondary prevention of CHD was generally worse in women than in men.
The magnitude and direction of the sex differences varied by region. To investigate whether there are sex differences in risk factor management of patients with established coronary heart disease CHD , and to assess demographic variations of any potential sex differences.
Risk factor management for the secondary prevention of CHD was generally worse in women than in men. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted. Help-seeking intention for depression in early adolescents: Associated factors and sex differences. Seeking help from others is an essential behavioural intention for humans to adapt to the social environment. Transgenerational and gender-related mechanisms of how this intention is shaped is an important but unresolved question in adolescent development.
This study aimed to comprehensively examine the factors promoting or inhibiting intention to seek help for depression in year-olds, including transgenerational factors , and to investigate the sex differences in the effect of these factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a community of year-old children and their parents using self-report questionnaires and face-to-face interviews. The dependent variable was intention of seeking help for depression, which was assessed using a depression case vignette.
Girls were more likely to seek help than boys. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that factors promoting help-seeking intention included the recognition of a need for help, emotional openness, tendency to help classmates, parents' positive intention of seeking help for depression, and the number of people to consult.
The inhibiting factors included depressive symptoms, psychotic-like symptoms, and gender norms regarding problem solving. Gender norms inhibited intention of seeking help for depression more strongly in boys than in girls. Parents' and children's help-seeking intention were correlated to each other. Actions should be considered against gender norms presuming that boys should solve their own problems.
Further, these actions should target adults as much as adolescents. Published by Elsevier B. Sex -Role Stereotyping and Women's Studies. This document was developed to assist educators in the ongoing task of developing a learning environment that is free from sex -role stereotyping, and a curriculum that accurately depicts the roles of women. As a resource guide, this document actively supports a number of Ontario's Ministry of Education guidelines concerning the education of….
Analysis of vehicle classification data, including monthly and seasonal ADT factors , hourly distribution factors , and lane distribution factors. It appears that seasonal factors can estimate AADT as well as monthly factors , and it is recommended that seasonal fact Sex -specific risk factor profile in oesophageal adenocarcinoma. A nationwide Swedish case—control study of men and 63 women with adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus and gastro-oesophageal function and men controls and women investigated whether sex differences in aetiology contribute to male predominance.
Malaria parasites must undergo a round of sexual reproduction in the blood meal of a mosquito vector to be transmitted between hosts. Developing a transmission-blocking intervention to prevent parasites from mating is a major goal of biomedicine, but its effectiveness could be compromised if parasites can compensate by simply adjusting their sex allocation strategies.
Recently, the application of evolutionary theory for sex allocation has been supported by experiments demonstrating that malaria parasites adjust their sex ratios in response to infection genetic diversity, precisely as predicted.
Theory also predicts that parasites should adjust sex allocation in response to host immunity. Whilst data are supportive, the assumptions underlying this prediction - that host immune responses have differential effects on the mating ability of males and females - have not yet been tested.
Here, we combine experimental work with theoretical models in order to investigate whether the development and fertility of male and female parasites is affected by innate immune factors and develop new theory to predict how parasites' sex allocation strategies should evolve in response to the observed effects. Specifically, we demonstrate that reactive nitrogen species impair gametogenesis of males only, but reduce the fertility of both male and female gametes.
Therefore, our experiments demonstrate that immune factors have complex effects on each sex , ranging from reducing the ability of gametocytes to develop into gametes, to affecting the viability of offspring.
We incorporate these results into theory to predict how the evolutionary trajectories of parasite sex ratio strategies are shaped by sex differences in gamete production, fertility and offspring development. We show that medical interventions targeting offspring development are more likely to be 'evolution. Whilst data are supportive, the assumptions underlying this prediction — that host immune responses have differential effects on the mating ability of males and females — have not yet been tested.
We fitted both first order common factor models and second order common factor models. The latter include general intelligence "g" as a second order common factor. Three studies are presented that examine performance factors. In Study 1, analyses of the performance of a large number of subjects…. The Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Hormone therapy HT is associated with increased risk of both venous and arterial thrombosis, which are multifactorial in origin.
Our objectives were twofold: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of postmenopausal women enrolled in a large multiethnic community-based cohort study, The Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. We hypothesized that higher levels of estrogen-related sex hormones would be associated with biomarkers of thrombosis, suggesting mechanisms for differences in thrombotic risk from HT. HT nonusers had far more prothrombotic associations between elevated serum sex hormone levels and thrombotic biomarkers when compared with HT users.
An Examination by Race and Sex. This study examines race and sex differences in the latent structure of 10 psychosocial measures and the association of identified factors with self-reported history of coronary heart disease CHD. Participants were 4, older adults from the Chicago Health and Aging Project. Exploratory factor analysis EFA with oblique geomin rotation was used to identify latent factors among the psychosocial measures.
Multi-group comparisons of the EFA model were conducted using exploratory structural equation modeling to test for measurement invariance across race and sex subgroups. A factor -based scale score was created for invariant factor s.
Logistic regression was used to test the relationship between the factor score s and CHD adjusting for relevant confounders. Effect modification of the relationship by race— sex subgroup was tested.
Depressive symptoms, neuroticism, perceived stress, and low life satisfaction loaded on Factor I. Social engagement, spirituality, social networks, and extraversion loaded on Factor II. Only Factor I, re-named distress, showed measurement invariance across subgroups.
This study identified two underlying latent constructs among a large range of psychosocial variables; only one, distress, was validly measured across race— sex subgroups.
This construct was robustly related to prevalent CHD, highlighting the potential importance of latent constructs as predictors of cardiovascular disease. To determine the prevalence of high risk sex behaviors and associated factors in years old men in Chengdu.
Methods An anonymous questionnaire survey was conducted in years old men selected by multi-stage random sampling in Chengdu. Data of respondents who reported having sex contacts were analyzed. Having multiple sexual partners is the main high risk sex behavior of young men in Chengdu. Childhood sexual abuse and early start of sexual intercourse are the major predictors of having multiple sexual partners. The PWL system includes pay factors that are based on pavement performance indicators such as rutting and cra Factors associated with sex work among at-risk female youth in Cambodia: In Cambodia, despite great achievements in reducing the prevalence of HIV in the general population, reducing new HIV infections among young at-risk women remains a challenge.
This study was designed to examine the prevalence of risky behaviors of sexually active female youth in Cambodia and to explore risk factors associated with engagement in transactional sex. We surveyed sexually active female youth aged enrolled at risk "hotspots" in eight provinces in Cambodia.
We collected data on demographic factors , sexual behavior, and factors hypothesized to be associated with transactional sex. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify associations between demographic and sexual behavior and transactional sex. Of the respondents, the mean age was After adjustment, at-risk females who were never have been married adjusted odds ratio AOR 3. Our findings suggest that prevention strategies for female youth at risk of engagement in sex work should include upstream structural interventions that aim to encourage girls' education and empowerment.
In addition, tailored sex education and behavior change messaging about the risks of heavy drinking, condom use with romantic partners, and the importance of frequent HIV testing for at-risk youth and sex workers should be designed and delivered to youth currently engaging in sex work.
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This menu's updates are based on your activity. The data is only saved locally (on your computer) and never transferred to us. You can click these links to clear your history or disable it. Nong Khai Railway Station is a railway station located in Mi Chai Subdistrict, Nong Khai City, Nong Khai. It is a class 1 railway station located km ( mi) from Bangkok Railway Station. Ban Chai Ban Chan Ban Chit Ban Hin Ngom Ban Khok Samran Ban Lao Ban Muang Ban Na Phu Ban Nam Phon Ban Non Wai Ban Nong Hai Ban Nong Kung Ban Nong Lak Ban Nong Mek Ban Nong Na Kham Ban Nong O Ban Nong Phai Ban Nong Wa Ban Nong Ya Sai Ban Pa Kho Ban Phak Top Ban Pho Ban Pho Si Samran Ban Prong Ban Sabaeng Ban Saelae Ban Sam Phrao Ban Soephoe Ban.