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In , when James Danckert was 18, his older brother Paul crashed his car into a tree. He was pulled from the wreckage with multiple injuries, including head trauma. The recovery proved difficult. Paul had been a drummer, but even after a broken wrist had healed, drumming no longer made him happy.
Over and over, Danckert remembers, Paul complained bitterly that he was just—bored. A few years later, when Danckert was training to become a clinical neuropsychologist, he found himself working with about 20 young men who had also suffered traumatic brain injury. Thinking of his brother, he asked them whether they, too, got bored more easily than they had before. Those experiences helped to launch Danckert on his current research path.
Now a cognitive neuroscientist at the University of Waterloo in Canada, he is one of a small but growing number of investigators engaged in a serious scientific study of boredom. There is no universally accepted definition of boredom. It seems to be a specific mental state that people find unpleasant—a lack of stimulation that leaves them craving relief, with a host of behavioural, medical and social consequences.
In studies of binge-eating, for example, boredom is one of the most frequent triggers, along with feelings of depression and anxiety. In a study of distractibility using a driving simulator, people prone to boredom typically drove at higher speeds than other participants, took longer to respond to unexpected hazards and drifted more frequently over the centre line. That's about the same percentage as is attributed to innate intelligence.
Researchers hope to turn such hints into a deep understanding of what boredom is, how it manifests in the brain and how it relates to factors such as self-control. In particular, investigators need better ways to measure boredom and more reliable techniques for making research subjects feel bored in the lab.
Still, the field is growing. In May , the University of Warsaw drew almost 50 participants to its second annual conference on boredom, which attracted international speakers from social psychology and sociology.
And in November, Danckert brought together about a dozen investigators from Canada and the United States for a workshop on the subject. Researchers in fields from genetics to philosophy, psychology and history are starting to work together on boredom research, says John Eastwood, a psychologist at York University in Toronto, Canada.
But decades passed with only a few people taking a serious interest in the subject. Instead, they could ask how much participants agreed or disagreed with statements such as: The statements came from interviews and surveys that Sundberg and Farmer had conducted on how people felt when they were bored.
A participant's aggregate score would give a measure of his or her propensity for boredom. The BPS opened up new avenues of research and made it apparent that boredom was about restlessness as much as apathy, the search for meaning as much as ennui.
It has served as a launching point for other boredom scales, a catalyst for making the field more important and a tool for connecting boredom to other factors, including mental health and academic success. But it also has some widely acknowledged flaws, says Eastwood. One is that the BPS is a self-reported measure, which means that it is inherently subjective. Another is that it measures susceptibility to boredom—'trait boredom'—not the intensity of the feeling in any given situation, which is known as state boredom.
Studies consistently show that these two measures are independent of each other, yet researchers are only beginning to tease them apart.
This can be particularly confounding in educational settings. The BPS has often been misused to measure both forms of boredom at the same time, yielding answers that are likely to be misleading, says Eastwood.
Scientists are still hashing out how to improve on the BPS. And that, Eastman hopes, will give it a better shot at revealing what boredom is for everybody. But to measure boredom, researchers must first make sure that study participants are bored. And that is a whole different challenge. The most boring video ever One way to create a particular mood, used for decades in psychology, is to show people a video clip. There are scientifically validated videos for inducing happiness, sadness, anger, empathy and many other emotions.
So when she was working on her dissertation at Waterloo in , Colleen Merrifield decided to make a video that would bore most people to tears. In Merrifield's video, two men stand in a white, windowless room.
Silently, they take clothes from a pile between them and hang them on a white rack—a camisole, a shirt, a sweater, a sock. The seconds tick by: The men keep hanging laundry.
One of the men asks the other for a clothes peg. They keep hanging laundry. Shown on a loop, the video can last for as long as five and a half minutes. Perhaps unsurprisingly, the people to whom Merrifield showed this found it stupefyingly dull. But then she tried using the video to study how boredom affected the ability to focus and pay attention.
Her protocol called for participants to carry out a classic cognitive attention task—watching for star-like light clusters to appear or disappear on a monitor—then to sit through the video to get good and bored, and finally to do the task again so that she could see how boredom affected their performance. But she found that she had to redesign the experiment: This was not entirely unexpected. Previous studies of boredom had often used tasks instead of videos.
But it also demonstrated the problem. There are so many ways for researchers to bore people with tasks—asking them to proofread address labels, say, or to screw nuts and bolts together—that it had always been difficult to compare individual studies. For instance, different studies have found boredom to be correlated with both rising and falling heart rate.
But without a standardized method for inducing boredom, it is impossible to work out who is right. It compared six different boredom inductions, representing three broad classes—repetitive physical tasks, simple cognitive tasks, and video or audio media—as well as a control video. The researchers used the MSBS to see how intensely each task elicited boredom, and a measure called the Differential Emotion Scale to see whether each task elicited boredom alone, or a number of other emotions.
All six tasks were significantly more boring than the control and all six caused boredom almost exclusively. The best of the bunch was a task that required participants to click a mouse button to rotate a computer icon of a peg a quarter of a turn clockwise, over and over.
Instead, he will rely on behavioural tasks. The inexactness of the tools leaves holes in what researchers can reasonably say about boredom. For instance, many real-world problems that are highly correlated with boredom are connected to the idea of self-control, including addiction, gambling and binge-eating. The more self-control you have, the less likely you are to be bored. But does this mean that self-control and boredom are measures of the same thing?
Even Danckert is uncertain. Consider people with a history of traumatic brain injury. But in Danckert's research sample of people with traumatic brain injury—who are predominantly in their 40s—ageing seems to have weakened the link between boredom and self-control. In data that are not yet published, Danckert says, his patients report levels of self-control no lower than those of the general population, but their boredom-proneness scores are much higher.
By contrast, Danckert's brother seems to demonstrate the opposite effect. He struggled for years with self-control issues, but eventually became less bored and reclaimed his love of music. So there is reason to suspect that boredom and self-control can exist independently—but there is not yet enough evidence to understand much beyond that. Painfully dull Despite all this uncertainty, researchers see themselves as laying a foundation, creating tools and standards that will allow them to tackle really important questions.
Defining boredom is an important part of that. Different researchers have different pet definitions: But most workers in the field agree that, at least some of the time, people will work very hard to relieve boredom. This not only presents a more active version of boredom than most people are probably used to, but also has tangible connections to efforts to address boredom in the real world. Lench and Bench are testing whether the drive to become un-bored is so strong that people might be willing to choose unpleasant experiences as an alternative.
This idea builds on research that has shown a correlation between sensation-seeking behaviour, even risky behaviour, and high boredom-proneness scores. In the first study, researchers asked people to sit in a room with nothing to do for as long as 15 minutes at a time. The second paper described two experiments: Participants ate more when they were bored—but they also gave themselves more shocks. Even when it is not very pleasant, apparently, novelty is better than monotony.
Novelty might also have a role in overcoming boredom in the classroom. The team found evidence of a cycle in which boredom begot lower exam results, which resulted in more disengagement from class and higher levels of boredom.
Those effects were consistent throughout the school year, even after accounting for students' gender, age, interest in the subject, intrinsic motivation and previous achievement. But other studies suggest that novelty can disrupt this cycle. When the system was programmed to insult those who got questions wrong and snidely praise those who got them right, says Schatz, some students, especially adult learners, saw improved outcomes and were willing to spend longer on the machines.
Schatz thinks that this could be because the insults provided enough novelty to keep people engaged and less prone to boredom. Looking to the future, researchers such as Eastwood are intent on finding better ways to understand what boredom is and why it is correlated to so many other mental states.
They also want to investigate boredom in people who aren't North American college students. That means testing older people, as well as individuals from diverse ethnic and national backgrounds.
And, given the impact that boredom may have on education, it also means developing versions of the BPS and MSBS that can be administered to children. Many researchers likewise hope to expand on the types of study being done. To get beyond self-reported data, Danckert wants to start looking at brain structures, and seeing whether there are differences between people who score highly on the BPS and those who don't.
These data could help him to understand why boredom manifests so strongly in some people with traumatic brain injury. There's also a need, Danckert says, for more scientists to realize that boredom is fascinating. Sign up for our email newsletter.
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Home Health and Fitness Ellipticals. Compare Brands Elliptical considerations Types of ellipticals Who purchases ellipticals Expert reviews. Not sure how to choose?
Thank you, you have successfully subscribed to our newsletter! Enjoy reading our tips and recommendations. What to consider when choosing an elliptical Top. How much space you have Space is an important consideration when you plan to buy an elliptical, especially if you are buying one for home or office use. Compact ellipticals are ideal for home and work spaces.
Some elliptical trainers only include pedals, without any handlebars, which can easily be stored in a closet or even under a desk. These can be great space-saving and cost-effective options for anyone looking for an easy way to burn extra calories throughout the day. Those who want a full-size elliptical but still need to save space will want to look for a foldable elliptical.
These machines have all the functionality of a full-size elliptical, but with the added benefit of easy storage. Homeowners with dedicated space and commercial facilities that are not concerned with saving space will want to buy a full-size, non-folding elliptical.
These machines are durable and heavy, so they typically have a higher weight capacity than other types of elliptical trainers. Workout type The types of workouts you intend to do on your elliptical will factor into the type of elliptical you buy. They may not be as concerned about the amount of resistance levels as people who are using ellipticals for more intense training. They will want a magnetic resistance elliptical, which is easy to adjust and requires less effort than an air resistance elliptical.
Users who want intense training sessions on their ellipticals will want an elliptical with a high resistance level. They may want an air resistance elliptical, which can offer a more intense and challenging workout. Low intensity workout throughout the day: People who are looking for a way to burn calories all day long doing low intensity workouts will benefit from compact strider machines that can be stored easily.
These machines use the same feet movement as a full size elliptical, but they can be used while seated at a desk to burn additional calories throughout the day. Drive type The drive system of an elliptical impacts the overall feel and experience of your workout. Also called a center drive system, front drive ellipticals have the most stable platforms.
The front drive adjusts the lower and the upper body motions so they are in sync throughout your workout. More expensive ellipticals, typically those found in commercial facilities, are rear drive ellipticals. On this type of elliptical, the drive system is located behind the user. They have fewer moving parts than front drive ellipticals, and they also have a smoother pedal movement that is more similar to the natural motion of walking or running than front drive ellipticals.
Console types For many people, the amount of entertainment options available during a workout is more important than any other feature. A traditional console keeps track of vital information, including speed, incline, calories burned, time spent exercising and distance, throughout your workout.
This is the console included with most ellipticals. Users who want their console to do more than just track their workout will want to upgrade to an entertainment console. These consoles have a variety of features. Some are web-enabled, allowing users to surf the Internet and watch TV while also keeping track of their workout progress. Tablet and book holders: These are handy for anyone who likes to read while they workout and can be a cost-effective way to add entertainment value.
Stride length The stride length on an elliptical is an important factor to consider, since getting one that is too long or too short can severely impact the effectiveness of your workout and even cause injury. Ellipticals with a range of inches, and even those that extend to 20 inches, are good for people who are under five foot three. This length gives shorter people room for a comfortable stride without risking overreaching.
People taller than five foot four should choose an elliptical with at least a 20 inch stride, preferably one that can adjust to a longer stride if needed. This gives taller users space for a comfortable stride. Up to 26 inches: Users who are very tall, over six foot seven, may want to consider ordering a special elliptical trainer with a stride length that ranges up to 26 inches.
Adjustability To get the most out of your elliptical, make sure you find one that has adjustability features. Some ellipticals also feature an adjustable decline, which simulates running downhill.
Adjusting resistance allows users to push themselves during workouts. Most ellipticals use variable magnetic resistance, which makes it simple for users to change their resistance level. Ellipticals with adjustable pedals allow users to add variety to workouts. It also allows users of different heights to use the same machine, since they can easily make the pedals comfortable for their needs every time they use it.
Types of ellipticals Top. Hybrid Hybrid elliptical machines combine an elliptical trainer with another type of cardio machine, such as a stationary bike or stair stepper. Cross trainer Cross trainer ellipticals feature movements for both the upper and lower body.
Magnetic resistance Magnetic resistance ellipticals allow users to change settings digitally and are quieter than air resistance ellipticals. Air resistance Air resistance ellipticals are driven by air, so the faster a user works, the harder the resistance becomes.
People with knee pain Ellipticals are a popular option for people who have knee pain. Runners Runners frequently use ellipticals to cross train, since these machines mimic the motions of running. Gym owners Gym owners will want to buy commercial-grade ellipticals, since these are constructed to be more durable than ellipticals designed for home use.
Elliptical expert reviews Top. This machine is part elliptical, part step machine. It gives users a lower body workout that is easy on the joints and hips and features 20 levels of resistance.
It is compact for easy storage when it is not in use. Designed for commercial use, this elliptical is most often found in smaller commercial facilities. It features an extra smooth ride, Bluetooth capability and a stride length up to 20 inches. Customers who are not happy with their purchase can receive a full refund of the purchase price and freight charges within 30 days of receiving their elliptical. SOLE will match any advertised price of the same model elliptical if it is lower than their advertised price.
Find out more by calling a SOLE representative. Most SOLE ellipticals now feature Bluetooth capability, making it simple to transfer workout data directly from your elliptical to your smart device. You can also track your fitness progress on the SOLE mobile app. SOLE ellipticals are best for serious trainers and light commercial facilities. This elliptical model has 29 performance training programs along with a free app-based tool to track your workouts and monitor your progress.
It also has a pound weight limit and a inch stride length. This model is similar to the E, but it has additional technological features to enhance your workout experience. It has a inch stride length. This model features bi-directional pedaling, giving users more options for targeted workouts.
It has 16 magnetic resistance levels, 20 programs and an inch stride length. Nautilus ellipticals are best for recreational home elliptical users. Diamondback Fitness ellipticals come with a limited lifetime warranty on frame and brake, a three year warranty on parts and electronics, a one year warranty on labor and a 90 day warranty on wear items.
Note that these warranties only apply to first time owners and cannot be transferred to new owners. Fast and free shipping: All Diamondback Fitness equipment bought through their site is shipped for free within the 48 contiguous United States, and most items can be received within days. Items can be shipped internationally and to Hawaii or Alaska for an additional shipping charge.
Diamondback only sells one elliptical, the EF elliptical trainer. This elliptical is designed for home gyms and features 20 resistance levels, built-in reading rack, custom programs, a personal trainer function, a inch stride length and more. Buy accessories for your elliptical from Diamondback Fitness to enhance your workout. Accessories include a rectangular non-stick mat to go under your elliptical and a heart rate monitor that is compatible with the EF elliptical.
And because nothing is more important than your safety, Intelli-Guard, a patented LifeSpan feature, ensures user protection by automatically pausing belt motion 20 seconds after you step away from the treadmill deck.
The 20" by 56" running surface is perfect for walking, jogging, or running, and is supported by 6 compression shock absorbers to provide safe cushioning for your knees, back, and joints. To help track your workout, the treadmill automatically records your exercise data to a USB storage device for upload to your Club account.
Simply fold up the treadmill with EZfold for unobtrusive, compact storage. Backed with a lifetime frame and motor warranty, a three-year warranty, and a one-year labor warranty. Would you like to tell us about a lower price? Ships from and sold by Amazon. Scheduled delivery Delivery will be scheduled during checkout. Include Add a Protection Plan: Other Sellers on Amazon. Have one to sell? Image Unavailable Image not available for Color: Add both to Cart Add both to List. Buy the selected items together This item: Customers also shopped for.
Page 1 of 1 Start over Page 1 of 1. Customers who bought this item also bought. LifeSpan Treadmill Starter Kit. Special offers and product promotions Style Name: No interest if paid in full within 12 months with the Amazon.
Don't see what you're looking for? There was a problem completing your request. Please try your search again later. Relentlessly Capable The robotically-welded, all-steel frame is precision-engineered to simulate real-world conditions over miles of use. EZfold Technology The effort stops the moment your workout is over.
Programmed for Results View larger. Connected to Your Results Keeping track of your exercise data has never been easier. Exclusive Capabilities Guided console navigation, built-in safety features, and patented step-counting abilities make the TRi a force to be reckoned with.
Product details Style Name: BEW7Q8 Item model number: TR i Average Customer Review: For warranty information about this product, please click here [PDF] Would you like to tell us about a lower price?
See questions and answers. Share your thoughts with other customers. Write a customer review. Is this feature helpful? Thank you for your feedback. Read reviews that mention heart rate put together fitness club bells and whistles easy to assemble highly recommend speed and incline big deal cup holders happy with this purchase works great great treadmill rate monitor make sure lifespan fitness love this treadmill even though usb drive every day times a week.
There was a problem filtering reviews right now. Please try again later. This product has so much positive review. However, I hesitated to buy this product at first due to the bad review on the customer service. Now I'm glad I did, since Lifespan offer one of the best customer service ever.
This treadmill is very sturdy and solid -- just like what the other reviews said. Unfortunately, the communication cable came with the broken shell out of the box.
Since it doesn't seem like a big deal, we decided to keep it and assembled the machine. At this point, Amazon refunded us partial credit for the the broken piece. The product was sold by Amazon. We have been using the machine for 30 min everyday for two weeks already. So far the machine works great. However, we notice the heart rate monitor didn't work right. It always shows the number around bpm far lower than what shown in my forerunner Then I went online lifespanfitness.
I filled out the form, left a massage, and was informed to expect the response within one day. I'm ok with one day wait, but Lifespan representative called me back within one hour. Then the local technician called me in the next hour to explain the procedure and how to schedule the service.
And the replacement cable was mailed to me in the same hour. Everything is done in the couple hours in the afternoon. The customer service team is very easy to reach, so reliable and super fast. I'm very impressed on my investment on the machine so far. I would like to review more after I meet the technician and have the cable fixed. The mail was delivered in the next three days, then we scheduled the technician to come in.
The cable was fixed within a week. I'm very happy with the customer service of Lifespan. We have been using the machine for almost three months now, and it runs great. This is a great treadmill. To get anything noticably better, you will need to spend two or three times as much. Delivery through CEVA was great. Be aware of that if you are ordering through Prime. The delivery date you see is the date it gets to the shipper.
You then get a call to schedule delivery. You will not get it on the date shown by Amazon. The CEVA delivery is "doorstep" delivery. They leave it outside your house. The guy said he is "not allowed" to go inside. The box is large and VERY heavy. Do not underestimate that. Check the dimensions against doorways, etc.
Sometimes called a cross trainer, the elliptical machine first came onto the market in and is named for the elliptical pattern the foot makes during one cycle. If you look carefully around the web, you’ll read scores of articles about the desire to retire early. You’ll notice some early retirees incessantly bragging about their . Infants cry as a form of basic instinctive communication. A crying infant may be trying to express a variety of feelings including hunger, discomfort, overstimulation, boredom, wanting something, or loneliness.