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Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. Full Text Available Precise long-term deformation monitoring of causeways and bridges is of vital task for maintenance and management work related to transportation safety. The InSAR observations are then used to construct a settlement compaction model for the cross section at the distance of 4 km from the most western edge of the causeway, using a 2D Finite Element Model.

Our FEM results suggest that settlement of the embankments will continue in the future due to consolidation phenomenon. The hydrogeochemical and isotopic investigations of the two-layered Shiraz aquifer in the northwest of Maharlou saline lake , south of Iran. Maharlou saline lake is the outlet of Shiraz closed basin in southern Iran , surrounded by several disconnected alluvial fresh water aquifers. These aquifers in the west and northwest of the lake are recharged by karstic anticlines such as Kaftarak in the north and Barmshour in the south.

Here groundwater salinity varies along the depth so that better quality water is located below brackish or saline waters. The aim of this study is to investigate the reason for the salinity anomaly and the origin of the fresher groundwater in lower depth.

Hence, the change in groundwater salinity along depth has been investigated by means of a set of geoelectrical, hydrogeological, hydrogeochemical, and environmental isotopes data. The interpretation of geoelectrical profiles and hydrogeological data indicates that the aquifer in the southeast of Shiraz plain is a two-layer aquifer separated by a fine-grained silt and clay layer with an approximate thickness of 40 m at the depth of about m. Hydrgeochemistry showed that the shallow aquifer is recharged by Kaftarak karstic anticline and is affected by the saline lake water.

The deep aquifer is protected from the intrusion of saline lake water due to the presence of the above-mentioned confining layer with lake water fraction of zero. The stable isotopes signatures also indicate that the 'fresh' groundwater belonging to the deep aquifer is not subject to severe evaporation or mixing which is typical of the karstic water of the area.

It is concluded that the characteristics of the deep aquifer are similar to those of the karstic carbonate aquifer. This karstic aquifer is most probably the Barmshour carbonated anticline buried under the shallow aquifer in the southern part. It may also be the extension of the Kaftarak anticline in the northern part.

Investigation of land subsidence due to climate changes in surrounding areas of Urmia Lake located in northwest of Iran using wavelet coherence analysis of geodetic measurements and methodological data. Urmia Lake salt lake in northwest of Iran plays a valuable role in environment, wildlife and economy of Iran and the region, and now faces great challenges for survival.

The Lake is in immediate and great danger and rapidly going to become salty desert. During the recent years and new heat wave, Iran , like many other countries are experiencing, is faced with relativity reduced rain fall. From a few years ago environment activists warned about potential dangers. This paper investigates the relation between subsidence and climate changing in the area, using the wavelet coherence of the data of permanent GPS stations and daily methodological data.

The results show that there is strong coherence between the subsidence phenomena induced by GPS data and climate warming from January up to end of August Full Text Available Urmia Lake , with a surface area between to km2, is a hypersaline lake located in northwest Iran.

It is the saltiest large lake in the world that supports life. Urmia Lake National Park is the home of an almost endemic crustacean species known as the brine shrimp, Artemia urmiana. Other forms of life include several species of algae, bacteria, microfungi, plants, birds, reptiles, amphibians and mammals.

As a consequence of this unique biodiversity, this lake has been selected as one of the 59 biosphere reserves by UNESCO. This paper provides a comprehensive species checklist that needs to be updated by additional research in the future. Agricultural crop mapping and classification by Landsat images to evaluate water use in the Lake Urmia basin, North-west Iran. Access to accurate and up-to-date information on the extent and distribution of individual crop types, associated with land use changes and practices, has significant value in intensively agricultural regions.

Explicit information of croplands can be useful for sustainable water resources, land and agriculture planning and management. Remote sensing, has been proven to be a more cost-effective alternative to the traditional statistically-based ground surveys for crop coverage areas that are costly and provide insufficient information.

Satellite images along with ground surveys can provide the necessary information of spatial coverage and spectral responses of croplands for sustainable agricultural management. This study strives to differentiate different crop types and agricultural practices to achieve a higher detailed crop map of the Lake Urmia basin.

The mapping approach consists of a two-stage supervised classification of multi-temporal multi-spectral high resolution images obtained from Landsat imagery archive.

Irrigated and non-irrigated croplands and orchards were separated from other major land covers urban, ranges, bare-lands, and water in the region by means of maximum Likelihood supervised classification method. The field data collected during and land use maps generated in and Google Earth comparisons were used to form a training data set to perform the supervised classification. In the second stage, non-agricultural lands were masked and the supervised classification was applied on the Landsat images stack to identify seven major croplands in the region wheat and barley, beetroot, corn, sunflower, alfalfa, vineyards, and apple orchards.

The obtained results can be of significant value to the Urmia Lake restoration efforts which. Regionalization of precipitation characteristics in Iran 's Lake Urmia basin. To improve the understanding of regional differences in water availability throughout the region and to refine the existing information on precipitation variability, this study investigated the spatial pattern of precipitation for the Lake Urmia basin.

Daily rainfall time series from precipitation stations with different record lengths were used to extract 15 statistical descriptors comprising 25th percentile, 75th percentile, and coefficient of variation for annual and seasonal total precipitation. Principal component analysis in association with cluster analysis identified three main homogeneous precipitation groups in the lake basin. The first sub-region group 1 includes stations located in the center and southeast; the second sub-region group 2 covers mostly northern and northeastern part of the basin, and the third sub-region group 3 covers the western and southern edges of the basin.

Results of principal component PC and clustering analyses showed that seasonal precipitation variation is the most important feature controlling the spatial pattern of precipitation in the lake basin. Summer and spring precipitation variations are the most important variables in the second and third rotated principal components, respectively.

Seasonal variation in precipitation amount and seasonality are explained by topography and influenced by the lake and westerly winds that are related to the strength of the North Atlantic Oscillation. Despite using incomplete time series with different lengths, the identified sub-regions are physically meaningful. Seroepidemiology of toxoplasmosis in childbearing women of Northwest Iran.

Toxoplasma gondii causes the most common parasitic infection in the world. Congenital transmission, prenatal mortality and abortion are major problems of T. Prevalence of toxoplasmosis is high in Iran , especially in Azerbaijan.

The current literature reviewed in this paper reveal results pertaining to various regions of Iran. The present cross-sectional e-study was designed to evaluate the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in childbearing women in Northwest Iran. Women aged between 20 and 40 years and seeking prenatal care were enrolled in the study. The subjects' sera were probed with indirect fluorescent antibody IFA.

A total of subjects were examined. Titres ranged from 1: In all, subjects The highest frequency of seropositivity was shown in 1: There was a direct linear relationship between seropositivity and age p 0. Increasing seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis with age was a predictable result due to longer exposure to the parasite. The relationship between increasing seroprevalence and lower educational level as well as living in rural areas is in line with the latest epidemiological findings, which also show such relationships due to lower socioeconomic status.

Incidence of Leukemia in the Northwest of Iran. Full Text Available Background: Leukemia is cancer of the blood or bone marrow, characterized by an unusualincrease in white blood cells. It is the sixth most common malignancy in the country in bothmales and females. The aim of this study was to document some epidemiological features ofleukemia in the Northwest of Iran. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals were calculated to assessthe statistical significance of the data.

Annual incidence of leukemia was 3. Myeloid leukemia C92 and Hematopoetic and Reticuloendothelial system C42 accounted proportionally formore than 47 percent of cases in the region.

Over the study period, the annual occurrence ofleukemia in the region increased from 3. Conclusions- The data from this cross-sectional study of leukemia in the North-West of Iranmay be used as the baseline information to establish a population-based registry of hematologicdisorders in the area for health care and research purposes. However, more investigationsare needed to develop effective strategies to control the relevant disorders in high-riskgroups.

Lake Urmia, one of the world's largest hyper saline lakes located in northwest of Iran , is a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve and Ramsar site, protected as a national park and, supports invaluable and unique biodiversity and related ecosystem services for the region's 6.

Due to increased development of the region's water resources for agriculture and industry and to a certain extent climate change, the lake has started to shrink dramatically since and now is holding less than 30 percent of its volume. Rapid development in agricultural sector and land-use changes has resulted in immense construction of dams and water diversions in almost all lake feeding rivers, intensifying lake shrinking, increasing salinity and degrading its ecosystem. Recently, lake 's cultural and environmental importance and social pressure has raised concerns and brought government attention to the lake restoration plans.

Along with poor management, low yield agriculture as the most water consuming activity in the region with, rapid, insufficient development is one of the most influential drivers in the lake desiccation.

Part of the lake restoration plans in agricultural sector is to restrict the agricultural areas in the main feeding river basins flowing mostly in the southern part of the lake and decreasing the agricultural water use in this area. This study assess the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed plans and its influence on the lake level rise and its impacts on economy in the region using a system dynamics model developed for the Lake consist of hydrological and agro-economical sub-systems.

The effect of decrease in agricultural area in the region on GDP and region economy was evaluated and compared with released water contribution in lake level rise for a five year simulation period. Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Familial Mediterranean Fever, an autosomal recessive disorder, is the most common and well known periodical fevers syndrome.

The aim of this study was to estimate the carriers rate of FMF common mutations in healthy control people. Results can be potentially useful to estimate prevalence of disease. After taking consent, DNA was extracted from blood samples of these groups.

For 2 other mutations, no mutant alleles were found. The total allelic frequency for these four common mutations was 0. The carriers rate was This study showed that EQ has high mutation frequency relative to other mutations in North-West of Iran.

Stroke subtypes, risk factors and mortality rate in northwest of Iran. Stroke is the second most common cause of death and first cause of disability in adults in the world. So far, the data on stroke epidemiology have been limited in Iran. Therefore, this study was focused on stroke demographic A retrospective study was done in two university tertiary referral hospitals in Tabriz, northwest of Iran , from March to April Patients diagnosed with stroke were enrolled in the study.

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By , the economic climate had changed dramatically. Gold could be retrieved profitably from the goldfields only by medium to large groups of workers, either in partnerships or as employees.

By the mids, it was the owners of these gold-mining companies who made the money. Also, the population and economy of California had become large and diverse enough that money could be made in a wide variety of conventional businesses. Once extracted, the gold itself took many paths. First, much of the gold was used locally to purchase food, supplies and lodging for the miners. It also went towards entertainment, which consisted of anything from a traveling theater to alcohol, gambling, and prostitutes.

These transactions often took place using the recently recovered gold, carefully weighed out. The gold then left California aboard ships or mules to go to the makers of the goods from around the world. A second path was the Argonauts themselves who, having personally acquired a sufficient amount, sent the gold home, or returned home taking with them their hard-earned "diggings".

As the Gold Rush progressed, local banks and gold dealers issued "banknotes" or "drafts"—locally accepted paper currency—in exchange for gold, [] and private mints created private gold coins. A study attributes the record-long economic expansion of the United States in the recession-free period of — primarily to "a boom in transportation-goods investment following the discovery of gold in California.

The Gold Rush propelled California from a sleepy, little-known backwater to a center of the global imagination and the destination of hundreds of thousands of people. The new immigrants often showed remarkable inventiveness and civic-mindedness. For example, in the midst of the Gold Rush, towns and cities were chartered, a state constitutional convention was convened, a state constitution written, elections held, and representatives sent to Washington, D.

Large-scale agriculture California's second "Gold Rush" [] began during this time. Between and , the population of San Francisco increased from to , The Panama Railway , spanning the Isthmus of Panama, was finished in One ill-fated journey, that of the S.

Central America , [] ended in disaster as the ship sank in a hurricane off the coast of the Carolinas in , with approximately three tons of California gold aboard. The human and environmental costs of the Gold Rush were substantial. Native Americans, dependent on traditional hunting, gathering and agriculture, became the victims of starvation and disease, as gravel, silt and toxic chemicals from prospecting operations killed fish and destroyed habitats.

Later farming spread to supply the settlers' camps, taking more land away from the Native Americans. In some areas, systematic attacks against tribespeople in or near mining districts occurred. Various conflicts were fought between natives and settlers. After his killing, the sheriff led a group of men to track down the Indians, whom the men then attacked. Only three children survived the massacre that was against a different band of Wintu than the one that had killed Anderson.

Historian Benjamin Madley recorded the numbers of killings of California Indians between and and estimated that during this period at least 9, to 16, California Indians were killed by non-Indians, mostly occurring in more than massacres defined as the "intentional killing of five or more disarmed combatants or largely unarmed noncombatants, including women, children, and prisoners, whether in the context of a battle or otherwise".

The state government, in support of miner activities funded and supported death squads , appropriating over 1 million dollars towards the funding and operation of the paramilitary organizations.

While we cannot anticipate the result with but painful regret, the inevitable destiny of the race is beyond the power and wisdom of man to avert. After the initial boom had ended, explicitly anti-foreign and racist attacks, laws and confiscatory taxes sought to drive out foreigners—not just Native Americans—from the mines, especially the Chinese and Latin American immigrants mostly from Sonora, Mexico and Chile. The Gold Rush stimulated economies around the world as well. Farmers in Chile , Australia, and Hawaii found a huge new market for their food; British manufactured goods were in high demand; clothing and even prefabricated houses arrived from China.

The increase in gold supply also created a monetary supply shock. Within a few years after the end of the Gold Rush, in , the groundbreaking ceremony for the western leg of the First Transcontinental Railroad was held in Sacramento. The line's completion, some six years later, financed in part with Gold Rush money, [] united California with the central and eastern United States.

Travel that had taken weeks or even months could now be accomplished in days. California's name became indelibly connected with the Gold Rush, and fast success in a new world became known as the "California Dream.

Brands noted that in the years after the Gold Rush, the California Dream spread across the nation:. The old American Dream The new dream was the dream of instant wealth, won in a twinkling by audacity and good luck. Overnight California gained the international reputation as the "golden state".

California farmers, [] oil drillers, [] movie makers, [] airplane builders , [] and "dot-com" entrepreneurs have each had their boom times in the decades after the Gold Rush. In addition, the standard route shield of state highways in California is in the shape of a miner's spade to honor the California Gold Rush.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the film, see California Gold Rush film. Prospectors working California gold placer deposits in Crushing quartz ore prior to washing out gold. San Francisco Bay Area portal California portal.

After , California gold mining changed and is outside the 'rush' era. A Bibliography of Periodical Articles". California State University, Stanislaus. Archived from the original on July 1, Retrieved January 23, Archived from the original on July 27, Retrieved August 22, Retrieved December 3, History of California, Volume History of California, — Rush for riches; gold fever and the making of California. Oakland, California, Berkeley and Los Angeles: Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.

The age of gold: Another route across Nicaragua was developed in ; it was not as popular as the Panama option. Oakland Museum of California. Retrieved February 26, History of Siskiyou County, California.

Life amongst the Modocs: Heyday Books; reprint edition January So Much to Be Done. Rooted in barbarous soil: The California Gold Rush. Retrieved May 12, Retrieved October 22, Other estimates range from 70, to 90, arrivals during ibid. Archived from the original on May 13, African American Literature of the Gold Rush. Women in Early San Francisco". Retrieved March 7, They saw the elephant: Women in the California Gold Rush. Here, the rough-and-tumble saloons of the Gold Rush developed into dance halls, honky-tonks, and bawdy houses that provided a space for men to gamble, dance, and satisfy their sexual desires University of Oklahoma Press.

Mapping Region in Early American Writing, There were fewer than 1, U. The Shirley Letters from the California Mines, — Heyday Books, Berkeley, California. Retrieved July 31, The letters were originally published in — by The Pioneer magazine. Congress finally legalized the practice in the " Chaffee laws " of and the "placer law" of See also John F. Burns, and Richard J. Orsi, eds; Taming the Elephant: Archived from the original on May 14, The term "ounces" used in this article to refer to gold typically refers to troy ounces.

There are some historical uses where, because of the age of the use, the intention is ambiguous. See Roman-era gold mines in Spain. Roman engineers built extensive aqueducts and reservoirs above gold-bearing areas, and released the stored water in a flood so as to remove over-burden and expose gold-bearing bedrock, a process known as hushing. The bedrock was then attacked using fire and mechanical means, and volumes of water were used again to remove debris, and to process the resulting ore.

The gold recovered using these methods was used to finance the expansion of the Roman Empire. Hushing was also used in lead and tin mining in Northern Britain and Cornwall. There is, however, no evidence of the earlier use of hoses, nozzles and continuous jets of water in the manner developed in California during the Gold Rush.

Retrieved February 19, Evidence from the California Gold Rush". Journal of Economic History. Duke University Press Books. Lick's fortune was used to build Lick Observatory. Huntington , Mark Hopkins and Charles Crocker , Sacramento area businessmen later known as the Big Four who financed the western leg of the First Transcontinental Railroad , and became very wealthy as a result.

The social world of the California Gold Rush. Other estimates are that there were 7,—13, non-Native Americans in California before January See Starr, Kevin , p.

The Journal of Economic History. By , California had over flour mills, and was exporting wheat and flour around the world. Americans and the California dream: New York and Oxford: Central America information ; Final voyage of the S.

Retrieved April 25, All hands and passengers were saved, along with the cargo of gold, but the ship was a total loss. Archived from the original on March 12, Indian Country Today Media Network.

Archived from the original on April 18, Retrieved April 7, California Secretary of State. Archived from the original on February 1, Retrieved March 23, Genocide in northwestern California: California's Native American Genocide, — Joaquin Murrieta was a famous Mexican bandit during the Gold Rush of the s. Editorial Universitaria , Chile. Federal Reserve Bank of New York. Retrieved August 8, The gold rush constituted a positive monetary supply shock because the United States was on the gold standard at the time.

The nation had switched from a bimetallic gold and silver standard to a de facto gold standard in Under the latter, the U. That commitment anchored prices, but the large gold discovery functioned like a monetary easing by a central bank, with more gold chasing the same amount of goods and services.

The increase in spending ultimately led to higher prices because nothing real had changed except the availability of a shiny yellow metal. Americans and the California Dream, — See Burchell, Robert A. Archived from the original on October 10, Retrieved October 10, Retrieved September 7, In the s, green and white CA signs that resemble miners' spades replaced the black and white U.

Archived from the original on October 19, Complete map of historic Hwy 49". Retrieved December 30, While critics have long recognized Harte's interest in gender constructs, Harte's depictions of Western partnerships also explore changing dynamics of economic relationships and gendered relationships through terms of contract, mutual support, and the bonds of labor.

Bancroft, Hubert Howe Clappe, Louise Amelia Knapp Smith []. Heyday Books , Berkeley, California. Clay, Karen; Gavin Wright April Explorations in Economic History. Gaither, Chris; Chmielewski, Dawn C. Archived from the original PDF on June 16, Harper's New Monthly Magazine March , volume 10, issue 58, p. The destruction of California Indians. University of Nebraska Press. Gold fever and the making of California. Johnson, Susan Lee Levy, JoAnn [].

Heyday Books ; reprint edition January So much to be done: Women settlers on the mining and ranching frontier, 2d ed. Early spring grasses in the mowed zone, such as Poa annua, P compressa, P.

Later-flowering grasses like Dactylis glomerata, Phleum pratense, Sporobolus cryptandrus, and Agropyron repens are often lopped off too short to be recognizable; it is only the few that send up new shoots between mowings that get counted, though an educated guess can be made from growth habits. Later low- and fast-growing grasses, Agropyron repens recognizable though barely flowering , Agrostis hyemalis, Digitaria ischaemum, Eragrostis pectinacea, and Panicum spp.

Saponaria officinalis is readily noted in spring by its early leaves but appears to die back in the mowed zone throughout the summer while blooming freely in the edge and right-of-way zones. Most of these plants are readily found on nearby roadsides, waste areas and bordering agricultural fields. Several factors may influence this absence. Regular mowing may prevent lateseason plants from growing to maturity, thus reducing their ability to reseed or reach significant height to generate enough nourishment to sustain growth for underground spreading.

The trail-bed soil is calcium-rich along much of the trail, and would retard weeds preferring acidic soils. The trail bed and mow-zone soils are tightly packed, difficult to dig, and stable, no longer being regularly turned as would occur on graded roadsides and in farm fields just beyond the right-ofway.

This lack of disturbance would prevent species from germinating that can lie dormant as seeds for many years. The numerous hedgerow-like stands of trees within the right-of-way reduce prevailing winds and, with fast-moving vehicles no longer using the trail, there is no vortex to draw wind-dispersed seeds along the corridor.

For example, Sonchus arvensis lines the shoulder of the nearby Northland Drive that parallels the trail, but is seldom seen far off the edge of that road and only rarely along the trail.

We also made the general observation that up-slope trail banks cuts through rises and hills of natural local soil and down-slope trail banks fills through valleys where recent dirt fill has been added or more recently worked are well vegetated with shrubs and forbs while down-slope trail banks of railroad fill are poorly vegetated and particularly deficient of forbs.

The fill soil is probably heavily influenced by slag and clinkers used in the fill a few were found on sides of the banks, particularly in the larger fills and lime leaching from the rail bed. Shade from overstory trees may have some influence but even here, up-slope wooded areas exhibited a lusher ground layer than similar down-slope situations.

Unique habitat of the cinder sidings Curtis noted the uniqueness of habitats high in sulfurous coal cinders rail sidings in trail segments 2, 4, and 6. We found these habitats to contain mostly stunted grasses, a few shrubby trees particularly Ulmus pumila , and other similar plants common to dry habitats elsewhere along the trail.

The two species peculiar to this habitat were Selaginella rupestris and Euphorbia cyparissias. Ambrosia psilostachya Western Ragweed was found between the rail bed and the cinder sidings, but not within the cinder soil.

All three species can be found in other county soils, though none are common anywhere in the county. Three calciphiles exist in the county only along the White Pine Trail: Alliaria petiolata, Acinos arvensis and Chaenorrhinum minus. They are present only where the majority of the soil contains limestone ballast, the presence of which was confirmed by testing with dilute hydrochloric acid.

The location of several Alliaria plants along the trail marks the first observance of this troublesome weed in Mecosta County. Rhamnus purshiana a state record plant known only from this location is represented by only six plants on the trail. Tradescantia ohiensis appears south and north of Morley and in trail segment 6, with only a few plants found off the trail along Northland Drive near the Washington Road crossing at the south end of Trail section 1.

Medicinal Uses Along the trail, species The heightened interest in herbal medicine seems to know no limit. Since passage of the Dietary Supplement Health Education Act by Congress in , herbal medicines and use of other complementary and alternative therapies that employ botanicals have generated billions of dollars of sales. Lyke, USFWS plant biologist, and an overall increase in protective activity for these types of plants. Included are the recent efforts of the U.

Indicators of Rarity and Threat for Species," as well as the U. Having conducted the survey, we next compared our findings with the above three references and to U. Forty-five species of medicinal plants found along the trail were listed in Lyke's "Medicinal Plants Native to the United States: Indicators of Rarity and Threat for Species. Only four of these cited medicinal species were abundant along the trail Equisetum arvense, Equisetum hymenale, Monarda fistulosa and Zanthoxylum americanum and only a very few species were locally common or common in a single section Sanguinaria canadensis, Asarum canadense,.

Collection is not allowed along the trail without permit , but protection of these species could prove difficult as the trail is seldom patrolled. Beckwith lists the following stages in his study of succession on abandoned farmland in Washtenaw County, Michigan: Mosses and foliose lichens 4. Annuals and biennials years after abandonment 5.

Grass and other perennials 3 years after abandonment 6. Mixed herbaceous perennials years after abandonment, predominant at years 7. Shrubs years after abandonment, predominant years 8. Shade-intolerant trees sown soon after last cultivation, predominant years 9. Mid-tolerant trees sown soon after last cultivation, predominant at 25 years plus Shade-tolerant trees sown soon after last cultivation, predominant at 25 years plus.

A subjective view of this process along the trail indicates general agreement with this order and time frame. Stages one, two, and three are essentially absent along the trail except in several small patches in trail sections , in bare sandy areas in the right-of-way.

This zone disappears completely due to perennial-plant encroachment in the open areas. Zimdhal points out that the composition of a plant community is dependent on "local soils, their nutrient content, water capacity, and aeration" resulting in populations that may be limited to a few isolated plants. This appears to be true along the trail, as a number of aggressively weedy species Capsella bursa-pastoris, Silene spp.

The roadbed soil is tightly compacted and very difficult to dig into, but appears to retain a surprisingly high water content not far below the surface. At the same time, plants in the right-of-way may be exhibiting signs of drought-stress wilting. The perennial grass stage is the first of the stages noted by Beckwith to be truly operating within the WPT right-of-way. The alien species along the trail correspond well with the analysis of species found in the agrestal weeds present in cultivated corn and grain-crop winter wheat and alfalfa agriculture ad.

At present, all but a small portion of the adjoining agricultural land bordering the trail is planted in corn and other grain. Though crops are rotated, winter wheat, pasture grasses, and alfalfa were seen only in a few fields during our season study. Meyers indicates that a continual invasion of plants occurs, with a few becoming naturalized to an area. Many of the invasive weeds and escapes from cultivation that reach an area will fail to become established, and may persist only through continual reintroduction due to human activity.

Many of the agrestal and ruderal weeds have lengthy dormancy periods often decades , and so are in prime position to begin germination and growth soon after exposure.

During major disturbance, such as the removal of the tracks and ties and subsequent leveling of the trail during preparation for public use, to such small perturbations as around holes dug for signage, these seeds are unearthed and grow. These processes as detailed in Beckwith and Meyers appear to be operating now.

While it is not possible to determine the exact origin of the alien weeds along the trail, early agriculture is the most likely source of many, primarily influenced by the railroad as a means of transport.

Agricultural seed contamination with alien weeds was often quite high prior to pure-seed laws Fogg ; Beckwith ; Mack Agrostemma githago was often considered a favorable weed among the early corn crops, for its large seeds could be used to pad the weight of the crop in poor corn-yield years Beckwith ; Holzner Not to be overlooked either, as a source of weeds, are the various early state roads, the first of which was in progress by Such roads there were three by when the last of the railroads entered the county were built with hand labor and draftanimal-pulled wagons and graders, much in the manner that the railroads were bedded.

In his analysis of the offerings in early seed catalogs, Mack makes a convincing case that many of our alien weeds were introduced through mailorder purchases that became popular just after the Civil War, a time when rail and improved postal services provided more rapid and reliable delivery. Many of the seeds available in these catalogs were common weeds used for pot herbs, garden vegetables, medicinals, and ornamentals, and contained a high percentage of contaminant weeds.

Travelers also likely carried a number of alien seeds for sale. John Chapman, "Johnny Appleseed," for instance, was known to carry with him seeds of "mullein, motherwort, dandelion, wintergreen, pennyroyal, and mayweed and was expert in their use," along with his famous apple seeds Pollan Additionally, many alien seeds associated with areas surrounding railroad grain elevators in Canada have been documented by Alex He also attributes many alien seed introductions to 1.

Settlers trading seeds carried with them, 2. The spread of seeds screened from seed purification businesses sold as livestock feed, 3. Farmers purchasing unscreened feed grain for livestock, then using the seed for planting because it was cheaper, and finally 4. Seeds introduced by spreading green manure on fields. Another major source of weed seeds was in the ballast used in rail cars, which.

Presently, road work where county roads cross the trail turns over dormant seeds already present or adds new weeds when dirt is dumped to maintain the roads and trail crossings.

A few final and probably minor sources of weeds along the trail are: Amish buggy wheels and horses' hooves may carry more seeds to the trail than might be thought. A dozen weed species Pastinaca sativa, Lathyrus tuberosus, and Lotus corniculata, as examples are found on the trail only in the Amish farm area. The general habitat structure of the trail seems to be stable except where disturbed, with the most apparent spread of weedy plants appearing there.

The greatest concentration of species is found in the most stable habitat zones, the edge and right-of-way. Habitat structure ranges from small areas of bare soil to nearly climax woodland. Weed structure in the four vegetation zones trail bed, mown area, edge and right-of-way appears to follow quite closely that detailed in Beckwith , except that the bare soil through annual stages are small in area or poorly represented.

Many weeds of nearby agricultural and roadside sites were found either in small, scattered populations or absent. Ruderal weeds as a group are common along the trail, mow, and edge zones, though many are poorly represented.

They reach their greatest abundance in the most recently disturbed areas, such as around new signage, dirt dumps, diggings, grading, etc. Perennials dominate the right-of-way in all habitats. A wide variety of human-influenced sources is responsible for the introduction and distribution of the alien weed and weedy native species along the trail.

The authors found no discernible evidence of natural arrival of these species to the trail environment, though some animal and wind distribution along the trail may occur.

A general succession toward a woodland structure is apparent throughout the trail where left undisturbed and allowed to progress naturally. The listing of these species is not intended to be an herbal or medicinal guide to their use, only their presence and location along the White Pine Trail.

Furthermore, the reader is advised that no collecting of these species along the trail is allowed without a permit from the State of Michigan. Biology and Ecology of Weeds. Ecological succession on abandoned farm lands and its relationship to wildlife management. Ecological Monographs 24 4: On the trail of 'Sang' poachers. Audubon Magazine 2: Alien Species in North America and Hawaii: Impacts on Natural Ecosystems. Island Press, Washington D.

Colorado Weed Management Association. Access on 13 November Weed Immigration into Michigan. Report of the Michigan Academy of Science: Weeds of Lawn and Garden: University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia.

History of weed introductions. Wilson and Charles L. Academic Press, New York. Peterson Field Guide Series No. Concepts, categories and characteristics of weeds. Medicinal Wild Plants of the Prairie: University Press of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas.

Medicinal Plants Native to the U. Access 19 February The Commercial Seed Trade: Economic Botany 45 2: Access on 19 February Edgewood Press, Clare, MI. Changes in the alien flora in two west central Illinois counties during the past years.

Medicinal Plants of Native America. Access on 10 October The Botany of Desire: A Plant's-eye View of the World. Random House, New York. Common Weeds of the United States. Dover reprint, New York.

Soil Survey of Mecosta County. Access on 12 March Voss, E. From Coastal Wilderness to Fruited Plain: Cambridge University Press, New York. How to save biodiversity.

The Nature Conservancy 52 1: Where are the principal exotic weed pests? The gymnosperms and angiosperms follow the order used in Voss , , , but the species are listed in alphabetical order within families. Vernacular names generally follow these authors. Bolded species are non-native to North America. Specifically used species are cited. In a few exceptions, species are correlated to a simple genus citation only by the authority.

These plants may be in groups of singles or clusters at one point or a few points on the trail but widely separated by distance. Any of the species above, except those marked with an R, may be common elsewhere in the county. The authority, however, notes the genus. Non-native species, Species with medicinal value as noted in literature, In the listing below, the data are given in the following sequence: Mow, edge; damp and dry soils. Mow, edge; damp to dry rail bed soil. Rt-way; wet ditches south of Paris.

Rt-way; rich, damp, shaded woods. Rt-way; low, damp, shaded soil. Edge, rt-way; dry semishaded soils. Rt-way; rich damp woodland soils. Rt-way; damp well-shaded woods. Rt-way; damp shaded cedar soil. Edge; shaded under shrubbery. Edge, rt-way; damp shaded woods. Rtway; damp rich woods. Rt-way; dry sandy soils. Rt-way; wet and damp soils.

Rt-way; dry open area in field. Rt-way; dry partially shaded areas. Edge, rt-way; ornamental mostly, and natural in cedar swamp south of Paris. Edge rt-way; wet depressions. Rt-way; well-shaded wet ditch south of Paris. Mow, edge; dry open soil. Agrostis hyemalis Walter BSP. Trail, mow; open dry soil. Edge, rt-way; dry gravelly soil. Brachyelytrum erectum Roth P. Rt-way; shaded woods edge. Bromus inermis Leysser; Smooth Brome. Edge, rt-way; open gravelly soil. Bromusjaponicus Murray; Japanese Brome.

Edge; open gravelly soil. Highly disturbed area, in dry sand along a crossing driveway. Edge, rt-way; dry open ground. Digitaria ischaemum Schreber Muhl. Trail, mow; dry, gravelly, open areas.

Disturbed area around signage. Edge; open to semi-shade. Trail, mow; dry disturbed soil. Rt-way; wet open depressions. Rt-way; semi-shade, wet areas. Edge; damp shaded soil. Edge; as mix for erosion control. Edge; shaded rich woodland soil. Edge; dry, gravelly, open areas. Panicum linearifolium Britton; Panic Grass. Edge; dry open areas. Rt-way; damp-wet open areas. Mow, edge, rt-way; dry open areas.

Trail, mow; open gravelly soils. Mow, edge; as a soil stabilizer. Trail, mow, edge, disturbed areas; dry soil. Sporobolus cryptandrus Torrey Gray; Dropseed Mo. Trail, mow; dry gravelly soil. Edge; shaded gravelly soil. Edge; dry, open soil among low grasses. Carex bebbii Bailey Fern. Rt-way; damp railbed, several clumps north of Angling Road. Rt-way; dry shaded grassy area north of Baldwin St.

Edge; damp gravelly soil. Rt-way; low, shady, damp ground. Edge, rt-way; damp ground. Rt-way; edges of wet ground. Rt-way; shady damp ground. Edge; just off tarmac between Colburn and Taft St.

Rt-way; dry shaded woods. Rt-way; damp to wet soils. Cyperus rivularis Kunth; Nut Grass. Rt-way; damp ground streams, depressions. Rt-way; shaded and semi-shaded wet ground. Rt-way; semi-shaded wet ground. Rt-way; damp shady soil. Rt-way; wet ditches, depressions. Edge; damp ditch-edge soil. Trail; damp trail middle. Rt-way; escaped from cultivation. Edge, rt-way; damp shady woods.

Edge, rt-way; dry open areas. Rt-way; rich woodland soil. Rt-way; damp shaded soil. Rt-way; damp, rich, woodland soil. Edge; dry, gravelly soil. Rt-way; shaded areas in damp soil and banks. Rt-way; rich, well-shaded bank soil. Rt-way; deeply shaded rich soil.

Rt-way; rich woodland soils. Rt-way; Big Rapids, Morley. Rt-way; rich damp shaded soil. Rt-way; dry bank in deep shade. Habenaria Platanthera hyperborea L. Rt-way; cedar bottom next to stream. Edge, rt-way; cultivated planting. Edge, rt-way; dry soil. Edge, rt-way; damp soil. Edge, rt-way; damp open ground. Edge, rt-way; damp soil, wet ditches. Edge; top of high bank in gravelly soil. Rt-way; dry soil under oak and aspen. Rt-way; damp soil at edge of wetlands.

Rt-way; very dry sandy soil. Koch; Shagbark Hickory Mo. Rt-way; dry open soils. Rt-way; stream edge at crossings. Betula alleghaniensis Britton; Yellow Birch. Rt-way; damp soil on bank. Rt-way; damp soil, banks. Betula pendula Roth; European Birch. Rt-way; Washington Rd, White's Bridge. Rt-way; rich, shaded woods. R-way; gravelly, dry, open soil. Ostrya virginiana Miller K. Rt-way; rich shaded woods.

Edge, rt-way; dry soils. Edge, rt-way; dry soils mostly on banks. Edge, rt-way; damp to dry areas, many dead. Edge, rt-way; most often lining trail in towns. Rt-way; damp bank soil. Rt-way; stream edge and depressions. Gray; Clearweed FD, Mo. Stinging Nettle FD, Mo. Has a European component indistinguishable from North American species, Voss Edge, rt-way; damp shaded soil.

Highly disturbed mostly at crossings. New and Old World Polygonum convolvulus L. Edge; semi-shade in gravelly soil. Rt-way; large clumps in semi-shade.

Rt-way; edge of old beaver dam. Trail, edge; disturbed areas. Highly disturbed areas; dirt dumps. Gray; Great Water Dock. Edge; Big Rapids at Baldwin St. Trail, edge; highly disturbed areas. Mow; dry ground, heavily cut. Mow, edge; dry open soils. Edge; on several dirt dumps. Highly disturbed soil; Big Rapids. Western Asia, but also considered native. Edge; few in Paris, rare in county but increasing.

Edge; dry shady soil. Dry trail, edge, rt-way; shade and open areas. Central Asia to Central Europe. Edge, rt-way; dry open soil. Mow; highly disturbed ground. Edge; dry soil, just south of 4 Mile Road. Silene latifolia Poiret; Silene pratensis of older works ; White Campion. Edge, rtway; open field soil. Silene vulgaris Moench Garcke; Bladder Campion. Mow, edge; open gravelly soil. Rt-way; dry semi-shaded soil. Edge, rt-way; gravelly and field soil.

Actaea rubra Aiton Willd. Edge, rt-way; damp shady areas. Edge, rt-way; shady areas. Edge; dry shaded soil. Edge, rt-way; shady damp to dry soil. Rt-way; mostly at stream crossings. Edge, rt-way; damp shady woods edge. Edge; damp deep shady woods.

Edge, rt-way; damp shaded areas. Edge, rt-way; damp to dry open areas. Europe Ranunculus hispidus Michx. Rtway; several in one wet depression north of Washington Road. Edge, rt-way; rich, damp, woodland soils. Rt-way; rich, damp, shaded soil. Rtway; vining through shrubbery. Nees; Sassafras FD, Mo. Edge, -rt-way; semi-shaded areas. Rt-way; damp, rich, shaded woodland soil. Rt-way; rich shaded soil. Edge; dry, gravelly soil in semi-shade. Adventive from western US.

Mow; dry open, partially shaded soil. Edge; dry sandy and disturbed soil. Rt-way; dry partial shade soil. Trail, edge, rt-way; dry soil. Edge; dry disturbed soil. Trail, mow, edge; dry gravelly soil.

Rt-way; streams and ditches. Edge; in weeds at trail side in Paris. Rt-way; deeply shaded damp soil. Rt-way; marshy areas in semi-shade. Edge, rt-way; damp gravelly bank and marshy soil. Edge, rt-way; damp shaded soils. Rt-way; damp shaded areas. Ribes rubrum sativum L. Edge; escape from cultivation in Paris. Edge, rt-way; shaded rich soil. Rt-way; generally shaded woods. Amelanchier sanguinea Pursh DC.

Crataegus spp We made no attempt to identify these to species. Most had flowers in poor condition after several storms and a late frost at the onset of our study; a two-month drought during the summer resulted in a very paltry crop of fruits by fall; there was also poor fruiting in Rubus, Vitis, and Parthenocissus.

Four species might occur, to judge from differences in leaf shape ; Crabapple FD, Mo. Mow, edge; shaded areas. Edge, rt-way; field soils. Edge; shaded woodland areas. Rt-way; in variety of open and shaded areas. Edge, rt-way; shaded shrubby areas. Edge; dry gravelly soil. Edge, rt-way; shady gravelly soil. Rt-way; Big Rapids about 0. Edge, rt-way; dry semi-shaded soil. Rosa multiflora Murray; Multiflora Rose. Rt-way; shade at road crossing overhung by shrubbery. Rt-way; several large flowered canes in shaded hedgerow.

An often-cultivated western species. Not determinable to species for certain Voss, pers. Edge, rt-way; dry to damp semi-shaded soils. Edge, rt-way; dry to damp semishaded soils. Rt-way; open wet depression. Rt-way; damp open ground. Edge, rt-way; dry shaded soil. Edge, rt-way; persisting after use as ground cover. Edge; deeply shaded rich soil. Rt-way; persisting after use as soil stabilizer.

Lathyrus ochroleucus Hooker; Pale Vetchling Mo. Rt-way; dry shaded woods-edge soil. Rt-way; dry, grassy area. Rt-way; dry soil south of Arnold Road.

Many plants have been listed as “attractive to butterflies” by credible .. According to Nectar and Pollen Plants of the Pacific Northwest .. Nettleleaf Giant Hyssop, Horse-mint. Larval host for Comstock's Giant Skipper ( Agathymus comstocki, .. Noctuidae: Howell's Pussy-toes is a likely foodplant for the. That the horse has gone through these. ~tages of .. white or black according as the veins beneath the tongue of the ram are white The Vagina. The vagina is a passage extending horizontally () and Comstock and Winters () found that swine and the Poland China for the Duroc Jersey at the Northwest. have contributed specimens of cotton mice at various times. I am also in . spermatozoa in the epididymis was determined by wet smears. These smears were.