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Most countries that permit polygamy are Muslim-majority countries in which polygyny is the only form permitted. Polyandry is the practice of a woman having two or more husbands. In some countries where polygamy is illegal, and sometimes even when legal, at times it is known for men to have one or more mistresses , whom they do not marry.

The status of a mistress is not that of a wife, and any children born of such relationships were and some still are considered illegitimate and subject to legal disadvantage. Today, polygyny is more widespread in Africa than in any other continent. Throughout the African polygyny belt stretching from Senegal in the west to Tanzania in the east, as many as a third to a half of married women are in polygynous unions, and polygyny is found especially in West Africa.

In India it was known to have been practiced during ancient times. Boserup [7] was the first to propose that the high incidence of polygyny in sub-Saharan Africa is rooted in the sexual division of labor in hoe-farming and the large economic contribution of women. In some regions of shifting cultivation where polygyny is most frequently recorded, labor is often starkly divided between genders.

In many of these cases, the task of felling trees in preparation of new plots, the fencing of fields against wild animals, and sometimes the initial planting of crops, is usually done by men and older boys along with hunting, fishing and the raising of livestock.

An elderly cultivator, with several wives and likely several young male children, benefits from having a much larger workforce within his household. By the combined efforts of his young sons and young wives, he may gradually expand his cultivation and become more prosperous. A man with a single wife has less help in cultivation and is likely to have little or no help for felling trees.

According to Boserup's historical data, women living in such a structure also welcome one or more co-wives to share with them the burden of daily labor.

However, the second wife will usually do the most tiresome work, almost as if she were a servant to the first wife, and will be inferior to the first wife in status. Polygyny is considered an economic advantage in many rural areas. In some cases, the economic role of the additional wife enables the husband to enjoy more leisure. Anthropologist Jack Goody 's comparative study of marriage around the world, using the Ethnographic Atlas , demonstrated a historical correlation between the practice of extensive shifting horticulture and polygyny in the majority of Sub-Saharan African societies.

This favoured polygamous marriages in which men sought to monopolize the production of women "who are valued both as workers and as child bearers.

Goody's observation regarding African male farming systems is discussed and supported by anthropologists Douglas R. White and Michael L. Burton in "Causes of Polygyny: Ecology, Economy, Kinship, and Warfare", [15] where the authors note: He notes Dorjahn's comparison of East and West Africa, showing higher female agricultural contributions in East Africa and higher polygyny rates in West Africa, especially in the West African savanna, where one finds especially high male agricultural contributions.

Goody says, "The reasons behind polygyny are sexual and reproductive rather than economic and productive" Most research into the determinants of polygyny has focused on macro-level factors.

Widespread polygyny is linked to the kinship groups that share descent from a common ancestor. According to scientific studies, the human mating system is considered to be moderately polygynous, based both on surveys of world populations, [19] [20] and on characteristics of human reproductive physiology. Scholars have argued that in farming systems where men do most of the agriculture work, a second wife can be an economic burden rather than an asset.

In order to feed an additional wife, the husband must either work harder himself or he must hire laborers to do part of the work. In such regions, polygyny is either non-existent or is a luxury which only a small minority of rich farmers can indulge. Under this tenure system, an additional wife is an economic asset that helps the family to expand its production.

Polygynous countries usually have a higher fertility rate, fewer savings reserves, and a lower GDP. Polygynous societies have a higher concentration of men investing into methods of mating with women, whereas monogamous men invest more into their families and other related institutions.

Despite the expenses of polygynous marriages, men benefit from marrying multiple wives through the economic and social insurance that kinship ties produce.

With a large network of in-laws, these men have the ties they need to compensate for other economic shortages. Some analysts have posited that a high libido may be a factor in polygyny, [26] although others have downplayed its significance. Some research that show that males living in polygynous marriages may live 12 percent longer.

Other research shows that polygyny is widely practised where societies are destabilized, bloodier, more likely to invade neighbours and more likely to fail. A study has also shown that, after controlling for other factors, African children in polygynous families were more likely to die young.

Inequality between husbands and wives are common in countries where polygyny is more frequently practiced because of limited education. Polygyny continues to enforce the male domination that has been seen in societies all over with the belief that women are inferior to men with the exclusion of few matriarchal societies. In Africa polygyny was believed to be part of the way to build an empire. It was not until the post colonialism era in Africa that polygyny began to be viewed as unjust or taboo.

According to Natali Exposito, "in a study of the Ngwa Igbo Clan in Nigeria identified five principal reasons for men to maintain more than one wife: In Egypt, feminists have fought for polygamy to be abolished, but it is viewed as a basic human right so the fight has been unsuccessful. In countries where polygyny is practiced less frequently, women have more equality in the marriage and are better able to communicate their opinions about family planning.

Women participating in polygynous marriages share common marital problems with women in a monogamous marriage; however, there are issues uniquely related to polygyny which affects their overall life satisfaction and have severe implications for women's health.

Some view polygyny as a means to prevent men from taking random sexual partners and potentially introducing STDs into relationships. Interviews conducted with some of the Logoli tribe in Kenya suggested they feared polygynous marriages because of what they have witnessed in the lives of other women who are currently in such relationships. The observed experiences of some of the women in polygynous unions tend to be characterized by frequent jealousy, conflicts, competition, tensions, and psychological stresses.

Some of the husbands fail to share love and other resources equally; and envy and hatred, and sometimes violent physical confrontations become the order of the day among co-wives and their children.

This discourages women from entering a polygynous marriage. Findings show that the wife order can affect life satisfaction. According to Bove and Valeggia, women who are senior wives often misuse their position to obtain healthcare benefits in countries one wife can become a recipient.

The conflict between co-wives can attribute to the higher rates of mental health disorders such as anxiety, depression, and paranoia. Various methods have been used to reduce the amount of jealousy and conflict among wives. These include sororal polygyny, in which the co-wives are sisters; and hut polygyny, in which each wife has her own residence and the husband visits them in rotation.

A clear status hierarchy among wives is also sometimes used to avoid fighting by establishing unequivocally each wife's rights and obligations. Also, wives share companionship and support with co-wives. Polygynous marriages play a huge role in maintaining the hold of gender roles across the continent of Africa. Even though African women make up more than half of the continent's population, women hold subordinate positions in comparison to African men.

Polygyny helps uphold inequality between the two genders by creating a legal bond through marriage that binds women into a subordinate role. Women across the continent are responsible for a large portion of the production of farming sustainable and cash crops yet, men married to these women reap the benefits and are allowed to redistribute their gains throughout the family as they would like. Polygyny occurred even in areas of where monogamy was prevalent. Wealth played a key role in the development of family life during these times.

Wealth meant the more powerful men had a principal wife and several secondary wives, known as resource polygyny. Local rulers of villages usually had the most wives as a sign of power and status. Conquerors of villages would often marry the daughters of the former leaders as a symbol of conquest. The practice of resource polygyny continued with the spread and expansion of Islam in Africa and Southeast Asia.

Children born into these households were considered free. Children born to free or slave concubines were free, but had lesser status than those born to wives. Living arrangements varied between areas. In Africa, each wife usually had their own house, as well as property and animals. The idea that all property was owned by the husband originated in Europe and was not recognized in Africa. In many other parts of the world, wives lived together in seclusion, under one household. A harem also known as a forbidden area was a special part of the house for the wives.

Polygynous marriage was preferred among the Logoli and other Abalulya sub ethnic groups. Taking additional wives was regarded as one of the fundamental indicators of a successfully established man.

Large families enhanced the prestige of Logoli men. Logoli men with large families were also capable of obtaining justice, as they would be feared by people, who would not dare to use force to take their livestock or other goods from them. Interviews with some of the contemporary Logoli men and women who recently made polygynous marriages yielded data which suggest that marrying another wife is usually approached with considerable thought and deliberation by the man.

It may or may not involve or require the consent of the other wives and prospective wife's parents. A type of " surrogate pregnancy " arrangement was reported to have been observed, in which some wives who are unable to bear children, find fulfillment in the children and family provided by a husband taking additional wives.

Some of the young polygynous men indicated that they were trapped in polygyny because of the large number of single women who needed and were willing to take them as husbands although they were already married.

Most of those second and third wives were older women who had not yet married. Customary law, one of the three legal systems in operation in Nigeria The other two being Nigerian common law and Sharia law allows for the legal marriage of more than one woman by a single man.

Unlike those marriages recognised by Sharia, there is no limit to the number of legal wives allowed under customary law. Currently polygyny is most common within royal and noble families within the country, and is largely practiced by the tribes native to its north and west. Although far less popular there, it is nonetheless also legal in Nigeria's east and south. Many majority- Muslim countries retain the traditional sharia , which interprets teachings of the Quran to permit polygamy with up to four wives.

Turkey and Tunisia are countries with overwhelmingly Muslim populations that enforce secularist practices by law. In the 21st century, a revival of the practice of polygamy in the Muslim World has contributed to efforts to re-establish its legality and legitimacy in some countries and communities where it is illegal.

Proposals have been made to re-legalize polygamy in other ex-Soviet Muslim republics, such as Kazakhstan , Azerbaijan and Uzbekistan. Both terms indicate the orthodox nature and hierarchy. The child of the concubine addressed the big mother as "aunt". This word was also used in both Korea and Japan. Polygamy in India is, in general, prohibited and the vast majority of marriages are legally monogamous. Polygyny among Christians was banned in the late 19th century, while The Hindu Marriage Act, banned polygyny for Hindus.

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Serving as an example of the highest level of what a nurse should be, Davette is knowledgeable, humble, conducts herself with the utmost integrity and is bursting with compassion. Her diligence to the healthcare profession has been recognized frequently throughout her tenure in Nevada. Davette is highly respected by both colleagues and patients.

Gentle and caring, she is a natural leader, caregiver and patient advocate, going above and beyond to make sure patients receive the care they need and avoid unnecessary hospitalization.

She taught pharmacology, acute care and primary care theory to family nurse practitioner students. Today, Kim works at the Orvis School of Nursing at the University of Nevada, Reno, serving as an assistant professor and associate director of undergraduate programs.

In addition, Kim serves as simulation coordinator for the school, working on integrating high fidelity simulation into graduate and undergraduate curriculum, with emphasis on inter-professional education. The program connects university-based faculty specialists to primary care providers in rural and under served areas. This award reflects her high standards, instructional abilities and, more importantly, her commitment to student learning.

Kim has also been nominated for the F. This is due, in large part, to her ability to combine conceptual material with real life examples that highlight the practical and ethical issues students will face professionally.

He is responsible for overseeing future doctors as the program director for the University of Nevada, School of Medicine Emergency Medicine Residency. As a result, his contribution to healthcare in our community extends beyond his skilled and compassionate bedside manner as he works to educate new physicians.

Known for taking a personal interest in the education of his residents, Dr. Berkeley is leading by example, encouraging the next wave of physicians to practice with the highest standards of care and never stop searching for new and innovative advances in technology, medicine and procedures that can improve patient outcomes.

Berkeley also puts an incredible amount of preparation and purpose into his didactic sessions rendering them invaluable for residents. He uses hands-on teaching modalities utilizing cadaver and simulation labs. This environment gives residents a unique opportunity to practice rare but life-saving procedures.

Berkeley serves as a role model for residents through attention to detail and empathy for his patients. He believes physicians must focus on personal care with open communication, rather than just treating symptoms. His residents are reminded of this daily as they observe Dr. Because of his uniquely engaging and constructive teaching style, his mentoring has led to the publication of case reports in peer-reviewed journals, gaining UMC national recognition.

Northern Nevada Andrea L. While pursuing academic interests, Gregg also served as research analysis faculty for an Osteoporosis Prevention Study, working closely with the school of medicine.

Throughout her career, Andrea has been passionate about healthcare workforce development, public health, education and fitness. After receiving a certificate in non-profit management, she successfully developed Project Prevent, a community and peer education based program, reaching thousands of youth and encouraging them to adopt healthy decision-making skills and lifestyles.

Translating that passion into skill, Andrea became certified by the Health Care Partnership at the University of Arizona in in basic skills for medical and allied healthcare professionals. She also is certified in assessment and brief intervention for tobacco use and exposure and basic skills for maternal and child health MCH in addition to serving as an instructor for classes at the center.

In , she became a certified personal trainer by the National Council for Certified Personal Trainers and has turned her dedication to health and fitness into becoming a co-owner of a Kaia FIT franchise.

She develops programs that support enhancement to healthcare access and quality through the provision of education and outreach services throughout Northern Nevada. He is responsible for supporting the recruitment, retention and expansion of healthcare professionals and businesses to Nevada. Considered an expert in the health and human services field, Vance has over 12 years of research experience.

Additionally, the program will test new technologies in a civilian setting helping to establish new advances in telemedicine. He hopes to give Nevadans access to care they could not otherwise experience, especially in rural communities. Vance is also working on residency programs within the state. Nevada currently ranks seventh in the country in its ability to retain physicians that complete their medical residency programs within the state.

For Vance, focusing on primary care, behavioral health and targeted sub-specialties and increasing the number of residency programs in Nevada is a top priority and a critical step forward in training the number of physicians needed to provide quality healthcare to Nevadans.

As a result of his extraordinary dedication and commitment, Vance has been appointed by Governor Brian Sandoval to serve as a commissioner for the Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education. Graduating from medical school at 23, she has dedicated her life to healthcare. With a focus on patient and community health and research, Dr.

Her dedication to the study and practice of infection control drives her to continue to develop and share her expertise for the public good. She seeks to educate others and has published several articles, including a thorough look at molecular genetic characterization of group A streptococci isolated from children with upper respiratory tract infectious diseases. Mnatsakanyan and her family relocated to Reno. Pursuing a life-long love of learning and soon after moving here, Dr.

Mnatsakanyan began her most recent scholastic pursuit at the University of Nevada, Reno. She received her Masters of Public Health degree, specializing in epidemiology, in and obtained her board certification in infection control CIC last year. As an active member of her community, Dr. Mnatsakanyan is dedicated to continuing her efforts to significantly impact the quality of healthcare through advancement in infection control.

Chenin Orthodontics , a father and son practice headed by Drs. Stephen left and David Chenin, has provided dental care to the Las Vegas Valley for many years and is highly respected. The practice has become known for quality patient care, cutting edge techniques and technology. Along with clinical orthodontic excellence, the doctors create personal connections with their patients, give generously and support the community as well as those in need.

A native of Las Vegas, Dr. Stephen has over 25 years of clinical experience and is often recognized as one of the top dental practitioners in the community.

Stephen is a community advocate who works with local schools, sponsors soccer and little league teams and gives his time to the Southern Nevada Dental Society. David is also a philanthropist who volunteers his talents to underserved children and low income dental clinics.

He recently traveled to San Salvador with a medical team to treat and rehabilitate patients with cleft lip and palates among other craniofacial anomalies and syndromes.

Stephen and David Chenin are known for their compassion for others and their personal dedication to the community as well as underpriveledged patients throughout the world. She is known for her engagement, whether working with patients or participating in a number of community events.

She is respected by the physicians and staff for her energy, commitment and availability as a pediatric expert and resource. Her support and dedication to the program ensures that children with asthma have access to the highest level of quality care. She has been integral to the ongoing success through leadership and participation in a number of committees including the Pediatric Physician Quality Committee and the Renown Regional Housewide Shared Governance Quality Committee. She holds their hands, literally and metaphorically, as they journey back to health.

Southern Nevada Mario J. Gaspar de Alba is a board certified developmental behavioral pediatrician and fellow of the American Academy of Pediatrics. He is devoted to educating residents and medical students about early child development and the vital importance of early intervention and its impact on future quality of life issues.

Gaspar de Alba strongly believes that children with special needs are best served through interdisciplinary collaboration and a family focused approach. Gaspar de Alba has been a speaker at several professional development and community meetings and parent organizations in an effort to improve collaboration and strengthen family support. His personal and professional commitment to caring for children with autism coupled with his advocacy efforts have been paramount to improving access to care for families in Southern Nevada.

Under his leadership, REMSA carried out community health programs with the aim of reducing non-urgent visits to emergency departments across the community.

Jim and his team continue to develop programs that help ensure patients who enter the emergency medical services system with urgent, low-acuity medical conditions receive the safest and most appropriate levels of quality care. In cooperation with community healthcare partners, these programs improve patient-centered care, reduce ambulance transports, emergency department visits, hospital readmissions, overall healthcare costs and improve patient satisfaction.

It is free and available to all Washoe County residents regardless of their insurance status. It is staffed with registered nurses who are specially trained to assist patients with non-emergency medical issues over the phone. Another is the Ambulance Transport Alternatives program, which provides alternative pathways of care for patients. Instead of transporting all patients to an emergency room, this program transports patients with low-acuity medical conditions to urgent care centers and clinics.

A technique that Dr. The man to whom he introduced himself looked like a totally straight and conservative engineering professor, and when Fadiman asked if he could take the interdisciplinary course, Harman replied that it was already full for the quarter, and perhaps he should think about it for the next quarter.

The professor walked across the room, shut his office door, and said, "We'd better talk. He was able to talk to the students about things that Harman felt he couldn't. He also soon became the youngest researcher at the newly founded International Foundation for Advanced Study, Myron Sto-laroff's project for continuing his research on the uses of LSD. Experiments were already being conducted at the Veterans' Administration Hospital in Menlo Park, and the Palo Alto Mental Research Institute had also begun introducing local psychiatrists and psychologists, and even writers such as Allen Ginsberg, to psychedelic drugs.

Engineers rather than medical professionals led the project, and the clinic was intent on charging a five-hundred-dollar fee for each experience. An early local newspaper report described the foundation's goals as being "partly medical, partly scientific, partly philosophical, partly mystical. They worked with several psychologists, including Fadiman , as well as the mysterious Al Hubbard, who was a mentor to both Harman and Stolaroff and who became a member of the board of directors.

Fadiman, who soon was teaching at San Francisco State, finished his Ph. The foundation was not far from Roy Kepler's bookstore and a short walk from the hole-in-the-wall store where the Midpeninsula Free University store and print shop were to locate in the mid-sixties.

About a mile away from the truck store, the original People's Computer Company settled and in turn was the catalyst for the Homebrew Computer Club in the mids. The club itself served to ignite the personal-computer industry. Most of the Bay Area was comfortably oblivious. Beginning in , for a period of more than four years, the International Foundation for Advanced Study led more than people through LSD experiences. Among the participants were Dr. Charles Savage, a physician who had conducted medical experiments for the U.

Navy in the early s, exploring the use of psychedelics as a truth serum , In his hunt for subjects for the foundation's creativity studies, Fadiman called George Leonard, a California-based editor for Look. The magazine was at work on a special issue entitled "California: A New Game with New Rules.

However, the June 28,, edition of Look introduced the rest of the world to the social and cultural changes that were ripping through California. On the cover was a photo of Jim and Dorothy Fadiman, locked in a deep embrace amid a field of California poppies. A backlash was inevitable.

Fadiman continued to oversee the LSD creativity research with scientists and engineers, until one day, while he was at the office with a group of four scientists lying on the floor listening to music in preparation for work on their technical problems while under a low dose of LSD, he opened an official-looking letter from the Food and Drug Administration. He knew what was coming.

It was July , and the government was looking for ways to show that it was acting to stop teenage drug use. The letter was an order to immediately stop the foundation's research. Fadiman turned to his colleagues and said, "I think we opened this letter tomorrow. In and , LSD was seeping out of an isolated bohemian niche and into the mainstream of America. It would even permeate SRI, the largely military funded research center that sat just blocks away from offices of the foundation and the Whole Earth Truck Store.

She co-founded the Sequoia Seminar, an organization promoting nonviolent conflict resolution. The organization was a forerunner of the Foundation for Global Community. Stolaroff, the former Ampex executive, noted in that LSD was the most important invention of the last 1, years.

No intelligent well-informed person would disagree. Berkeley was world headquarters for LSD, a substance which the government conservatively estimates more than 90 million people have taken.

In a ranking DEA official, Gene Haislip, stated that the entire global supply was controlled by a group of approximately people in the bay area. Mullis famously attributes his invention to the fact that he took LSD in Berkeley. The waitress at the Buttercup was Suze Orman , who went on to become the bestselling financial author. She was frequently annoyed at the 2 customers, Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak , who were poor and tried to get free coffee.

The reason, of course, was Leary's advocacy of LSD. In the words of a popular song from that time "San Francisco [be sure to wear some flowers in your hair]" by Scott Mckenzie, To produce 5- to million hit of any other psychedelic, you would have to have the resources of Upjohn Corporation. I mean it's an industrial scale undertaking. Because LSD is active in the microgram range, it is unique in that you're not simply able to get your neighborhood or your campus high, you are a political force at the national level.

If you're sitting on to million hits of LSD, you have a gun poised at the head of the establishment, and they react to it that way. You have some strong ties to the Bay Area; tell us about them. In , I came to Berkeley from Illinois and slept in my van on Hearst Avenue for four months while I worked in the hills for a tree service helping cut down eucalyptus trees.

E-mail Carolyn Said at csaid sfchronicle. C San Francisco Chronicle http: Gobind Khorana that allows the amplification of specific DNA sequences. Mullis earned a Bachelor of Science degree in chemistry[2] from the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta in , during which time he got married and started a business. After receiving his PhD, Mullis left science to write fiction, but quit and became a biochemist at a medical school in Kansas City.

A lot of people were doing that in Berkeley back then. And I found it to be a mind-opening experience. It was certainly much more important than any courses I ever took. I seriously doubt it.

California Monthly Berkeley, CA: California Alumni Association 1: Yesterday a Hillary operative ate his words faster than a stoner gobbling a smoldering roach when the fuzz kicks in the door. Did you ever give drugs to anyone? Did you sell them to anyone? She wants no discussion of youthful drug experiments. Reasons that go back to the Clintons' Berkeley Summer of Love in -- if not before. Reasons that I know well because I was in Berkeley in that summer of I was living about four blocks away from where Bill and Hillary were, in the parlance of the time, "shacked up.

I know what went down. It was non-stop sex, drugs, rock and roll, and activism. And while I don't remember everything, I remember a lot. More than I should given the quantity, quality, and diversity of the drugs that were on the scene, on the street, and in the bodies of all of us at the time in that place.

Of course, Mr Gerstein makes no accusations of drug use by the young, hip and activist couple Hillary was clerking for the radical Treuhaft law firm in nearby Oakland. Bill gave up a summer of working for George McGovern to be with her. Instead, he's dug up some charming details of two young politico-hippies in love in the town that was the town to be in if you were young hippies in love in The new couple quickly became quite domestic.

Bowing to her future husband's Arkansas roots, Mrs. Clinton baked him a peach pie. The pair also "produced a palatable chicken curry for any and all occasions we hosted," Mrs. Clinton clerked at the Treuhaft firm in nearby Oakland, Mr. Clinton plowed through books, explored Berkeley shops, and scouted out San Francisco restaurants.

According to the future senator, the pair also kindled their romance on long walks where Mr. Clinton occasionally used his southern twang to regale her with Elvis Presley tunes. One night in July, the couple drove down to Stanford to listen to an outdoor concert by Joan Baez. I know because I was part of the People's Park riots of Shotguns, death, helicopters spewing gas.

The whole stupid shebang that left one man dead. Our own mini Kent State. I was also around for the Free Speech Movement of By I'd been around Berkeley and the Bay Area for some time. And I was there, living in a house on corner of Fulton and Ward streets not more than four blocks from the Derby Street apartment. If the Clintons ventured outside onto Telegraph Avenue at all we would have passed each other on the street, skulked around Cody's books, and had cappuccino at the Med.

On this you can bet your stash of primo Afghan hash. The Green House, today. My apartment, below right. Acid factory, above right The other thing you can bet the stash on about the Clintons in that summer of in Berkeley is that they were stoned, loaded, blasted, wasted, high as a kite, and just plain baked.

At the very least. Assuming that pot and hashish was as far as it went. And it did not for many in that summer, I assure you, stop at that. Other drugs that were around for the asking and used frequently were LSD and cocaine. Heroin too, but I never saw it. It was on the down low, the QT, very hush-hush and you usually had to go to Oakland to score it. In the house I lived in at the time, there were four apartments. Two in front and two in the rear.

I lived in the downstairs front. Above me lived a couple, Ben and Carol. Carol was great at sewing and macrame. Ben was great at making tablets of Lysergic Acid. Indeed, at the time Ben was one of the main suppliers for the bay area. Every so often Ben would go off somewhere and come back with a trunk which he and a partner would haul up the stairs and into the apartment above us. Yes, like the Clintons I too was shacking up with what we referred to at the time as "my old lady.

About one every three seconds or so. Ben had mixed up his LSD and was running the preparation through the pill press. After a long night of this, Ben and Carol and his partner would emerge from the apart, stoned as poleaxed penguins from the high you got by working around LSD in a less than controlled environment.

Bags of small pills in blue or red or whatever color he'd decided on would remain behind to be shuffled out to the Hells Angels or whomever Ben had doing his distribution. You didn't ask about that. It was his business and Ben was the first person I ever knew to keep a number of guns lying around. And that was the LSD scene in Berkeley at the time. The pot scene was even looser and more available. It wasn't a question of who on the streets of Berkley was baked. It was a question of who wasn't.

If you read the Sun article it is clear that there's more investigative reporting to be done on the question of the Clintons' summer of love. But there are a few hints.

The pair also "produced a palatable chicken curry for any and all occasions we hosted. But put that together with a chicken curry and you've got hard core stoner food, dude. And you know I'm right. So unless the Clintons were very, very unhip at the time It was, after all, It was, after all, Berkeley California. If the Clintons, during their first prolonged cohabitation, were at all "normal" for the time their evenings at home would have consisted of 1 rolling a fat doobie, probably three or four; 2 whipping up some chicken curry 3 smoking a fat doobie; 4 getting some dim candles going along with a stick of incense 5 putting on a tried and true series of records; and 6 hopping into bed and, as we said then, "balling" until they passed out.

That was pretty much the standard evening's entertainment in the summer of in Berkeley. And one thing I can tell you is that the non-conformist hippies of that time and that place ran to type.

Glancing at a list of the singles that were hot in , I can probably even guess the songs the Clintons played while they frolicked. Big Stuff for the dinner moment. Then when you really started to get into it, a stoned and hip Lothario such as the young and even-more-randy-than-when-President Bill Clinton would not have left Led Zepplin's Stairway to Heaven off the turntable when he was going to make his move.

Indeed, if he planned it right he'd stacked the albums carefully and at just the right moment, the killer platter would fall and it would be The Doors I don't know about Bill, but by I was on my second copy of The Doors album.

Now, I am sure that you will never, ever have the ghost of a chance of getting either Hillary or Bill to, as we used to say, cop to any of this. But it happened that way, a long, long time ago, in a stoner's universe far, far away. Believe me, the last thing Hillary Clinton wants is for anyone on her campaign or any other campaign to start looking into drug use.

Especially for Candidates shacking up in Berkeley, just down from Telegraph Avenue, in the lovin' summer of I know what happened. Not in their bedroom. At least, I don't think I was. But in mine, in the same town in the same summer. And that's what was, as we said then, "Happening, man. And I'm not stoned anymore either. At least, I don't think I am. Then again, if Hillary was to have an epiphany on the question of dumping the insane laws again marijuana and promise not just a chicken curry in every pot, but a kilo of Acapulco gold in every pothead, she just might get people to vote for her that are usually too stoned to make it off the couch, much less to the polls.

It might be the one promise that gets all America to vote. I haven't gotten to some of the underlying "theology". Could "LSD Therapy" create the "enhanced human"? If you will notice many "engineers" are involved with the early story. Also notice the early "Global Community" push. Located in Palo Alto, California, this prestigious think tank received a number of grants from the US Army to conduct classified research into chemical incapacitants.

Harmon made no bones about where he stood with respect to political radicals and the New Left. And my side is not going to lose. Also, with the many Isomers and production differences it maybe that the LSD of the 's was different from the later incarnations.

Also dosage created wide differences in "mind altering" effects, which I'd like to expand on in another post. The Grateful Dead "heads" were a nationwide distribution network. Jerry's gone but I doubt the GD distribution is. Scully had one more ace up his sleeve. Scully found the ALD formula among scientific papers and books in the specialist library at Berkeley.

It was a compound Hofmann had tested years before. At the University of California Medical Center, Scully uncovered the scientific paper Hofmann and a colleague had published on the drug. The table suggested that ALD might actually have advantages over LSD, reducing any side effects but achieving a stronger trip. Measurements of brain waves while people were taking the two drugs showed that while LSD produced brain waves associated with intense concentration and anxiety, ALD produced brain waves showing a more relaxed mental state.

There was one snag. Although the finished product might be legal, at a crucial stage in its production it was illegal. The solution was a simple reversal in the order of production so that at no time was drug illegal. Hitchcock had been badly burned financially when STP had picked up a bad name on the street. It was thought he would oppose ALD as yet another innovation that would prove difficult to sell.

Willis Harmon was turned on to LSD in the late 's by Captain Al Hubbard , the legendary superspy, who took a special interest in his new convert.

IFAS was the brainchild of Hubbard, who undoubtedly leaned on his political connections in Washington to insure that Harmon and his colleagues would be allowed to continue their drug investigations even after the first big purge of above-ground LSD research by the FDA in the early s. In October he invited Hubbard, then living in semiretirement in British Columbia, to join SRI as a part-time "special investigative agent.

Some of it appears to be present as a deliberate weapon aimed at political change. We are concerned with assessing the significance of this as it impacts on matters of longrange educational policy. In this connection it would be advantageous to have you considered in the capacity of a special investigative agent who might have access to relevant data which is not ordinarily available. He boasted a great deal of experience both in the law enforcement field and in the use of psychedelic drugs.

As a special agent for the FDA in the early s, he led the first raids on underground acid labs , and a number of rebel chemists were arrested because of his detective work.

The Captain was particularly irked when he learned that LSD in adulterated form was circulating on the black market. To Hubbard this represented degradation of the lowest order. The most precious spiritual substance on earth was being contaminated by a bunch of lousy bathtub chemists out to make a quick buck.

The Captain was dead set against illicit drug use. Even though Hubbard took a lot of acid and was a maverick among his peers, he remained a staunch law-and-order man throughout his life. The crew-cut Captain was the quintessential turned-on patriot, a seasoned spy veteran who admired the likes of J.

Thus he was eager to apply his espionage talents to a secret study of the student movement and the acid subculture. After conferring with Harmon, the Captain donned a khaki uniform, a gold-plated badge, a belt strung with bullets, and a pistol in a shoulder holster. That was the uniform he wore throughout his tenure as an SRI consultant, which lasted until the late S.

Ironically, while Harmon and Hubbard were probing the relationship between drugs and radical politics , a number of New Left activists grappled with a similar question. Political and cultural radicals from both sides of the Atlantic discussed the drug issue at a conference on "the dialectics of liberation," which took place in London during the summer of In the last report, I mentioned the satisfaction resulting from books I have written which stir up dormant personal connections of the past.

Those who are familiar with the many benefits derived from the responsible use of psychedelics are hard pressed to understand the ardent negative evaluation by many government officials, mainstream scientists, and the public at large. Consequently it is gratifying to hear from those who are willing to speak up and share their personal experiences.

Here is a recent letter forwarded to me by MAPS: My interest is very personal. The two session I had there were some of the most valuable experiences of my life. Though I worked with some wonderful therapists after that, nothing approached the kind of straightening out I got with LSD.

Reading The Secret Chief has given me some hope that someday qualified therapists will be able to use these drugs in their practices. It also made me mourn that I did not know about Jacob and did not try to seek out a place where I could have done it anyway. My life would have been much different. Thank you for all your work in trying to get these substances legitimized for therapeutic use. I'm 68 now, but I yearn for the opportunity to untangle more of my knots.

Is it possible to participate in research studies? I also would be glad to write letters to Senators, Congressmen, the FDA, or anyone to help this process along. It's absurd to have these powerful tools unavailable to doctors, while the illicit drug trade sells everyone else whatever they want.

This unfortunately is very loose. Once that connection was established I would continue documenting Leary's operation The son of a wealthy businessman, Pinchot studied law in New York City. In he married Gertrude Minturn. The couple had two children, Rosamund and Gifford. Pinchot held left-wing views and in helped establish the radical journal The Masses.

In Pinchot helped formed the Progressive Party. Later that year Theodore Roosevelt and Hiram Johnson became the party's candidates for the presidential election. The proposed program included women's suffrage, direct election of senators, anti-trust legislation and the prohibition of child labour. In winning 4,, votes Roosevelt defeated William H. Taft, the official candidate of the Republican Party.

However, he received less votes than the Democratic Party candidate, Woodrow Wilson. Pinchot believed that the First World War had been caused by the imperialist competitive system. This was the point of view expressed by The Masses. Glintenkamp had violated the Espionage Act.

Under this act it was an offence to publish material that undermined the war effort. The legal action that followed forced the journal to cease publication. In April, , after three days of deliberation, the jury failed to agree on the guilt of the men.

The second trial was held in September, John Reed , who had recently returned from Russia, was also arrested and charged with the original defendants. This time eight of the twelve jurors voted for acquittal and the defendants walked free on October 5, The couple had two children, Mary Pinchot and Antoinette Pinchot. In two Italian immigrants, Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti , were accused of murdering a shoe factory payroll clerk in Braintree, Massachusetts.

Pinchot and his wife were convinced that the two men were innocent and spent a great deal of time and effort trying to get them released. Pinchot supported his friend, Robert La Follette, the the candidate of the Progressive Party in the presidential election. Although La Follette and his running partner, Burton K. Wheeler, gained support from trade unions, the Socialist Party and the Scripps-Howard newspaper chain, La Follette only won one-sixth of the votes.

However, the books were not published in his lifetime. Initially he supported Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal. However, he was opposed his attempt to control the Supreme Court. In April, , Pinchot had a letter published in the New York Times where he criticised Roosevelt's style of government "which places the fate of labor, industry and agriculture in a bureaucracy controlled by one man I am forced to conclude that Although she only appeared in one Hollywood movie, she did get parts in several French films.

However, she suffered from depression and in she committed suicide. Pinchot was devastated and never fully recovered from this tragedy. Flynn and Charles A. Supporters of the organization included Burton K. The AFC had four main principles: The AFC influenced public opinion through publications and speeches and within a year the organization had local chapters and over , members.

Pinchot grew increasing depressed by the progress of the Second World War and in the summer of he slit his wrists. He survived this suicide attempt but his health never recovered and spent the rest of his life in hospital. Amos Pinchot died of pneumonia in February, In fact, Pinchot was quoted as saying, "I have been governor every now and then, but I am a forester all the time.

Pinchot's great grandfather, Constantine Pinchot, and his grandfather, C. Pinchot, settled in Milford, Pike County, in James Pinchot was born in Milford and built the present Pinchot mansion there in Pinchot was determined to establish forestry as a legitimate occupation, despite the fact that forestry was not a recognized profession at that time in the United States.

Amos Eno offered his grandson a business position that most likely would have made Pinchot independently wealthy , but Pinchot considered forest conservation a more important calling. With his father's encouragement, he studied forestry in Germany, France, Switzerland, and Austria.

In January , Pinchot, at the invitation of George Vanderbilt, created the first example in the United States of practical forest management on a large scale at Vanderbilt's Biltmore Estate, near Ashville, North Carolina. Proving that conservation practices could be both beneficial for forests and still profitable, the Biltmore arboretum became a model for forest management around the world. From to , Pinchot consolidated the fragmented government forest work under the U.

In , Pinchot also became professor of Forestry at Yale University and, in , his friend President Theodore Roosevelt appointed him chief of Forestry. Under Pinchot's guidance, the number of national forests increased from 32 in to in Pinchot and Roosevelt agreed on many points of conservation and worked tirelessly to end the destruction of U.

Pinchot also visited the Philippine Islands in and recommended a forest policy for the islands. He was also appointed chairman of the Joint Committee on Conservation, by the first conference of Governors at Washington, December In , he was a member of the U. Cornelia and Gifford both were longtime friends with Theodore Roosevelt, who attended their wedding. As one of the most politically active first ladies in the history of Pennsylvania, she was a very strong advocate for women's rights, full educational opportunities for women, seeking wage and union protections for women and children, and encouraging women to participate in the political process.

Her family's wealth, influence from socially and politically prominent relatives, and Progressive Era politics proved to be a great influence on her husband's political agenda. Her influence among female voters is credited as a key factor in the election of her husband. Cornelia Bryce Pinchot ran for the U. House of Representatives three times and attempted to succeed her husband as governor in the primary of , but lost all four elections. Shortly after Congressman Louis T.

Cornelia Bryce Pinchot, the Governor's wife and no political friend of the President, announced her Republican candidacy for the House from Mr.

Last week 15th District voters renominated Mr. McFadden who returned to the House to receive an ovation from his colleagues. Pinchot had campaigned in a bright blue Studebaker. Often she stepped out wearing mannish knickerbockers. Big posters bearing her sharp profile had blared: McFadden's later career was marked by violent criticism of his party's financial policies. Opposition to the Hoover moratorium on war debts led him to propose to the House on that the President be impeached.

He bitterly attacked the governors of the Federal Reserve Board for "having caused the greatest depression we have ever known". Both the President and the Board, he was convinced, were conspiring with the "international" bankers to ruin the country. He lost his seat to a Democrat in , although two years previously he had had the support of the Republican, Democratic and Prohibition parties. He died in while on a visit in new York City.

Chairman, we have in this Country one of the most corrupt institutions the world has ever known. The Fed has cheated the Government of these United States and the people of the United States out of enough money to pay the Nation's debt. The depredations and iniquities of the Fed has cost enough money to pay the National debt several times over.

Sadly, Theodore Roosevelt died in or no doubt he would have attended as well. Grant went on to publish a sequel to Passing of the Great Race in Entitled The Conquest of a Continent, Grant wished for the creation of a separation nation for blacks in order to protect white blood from their taint, though he knew that the realities of the American South made this impossible. At the very least, he wanted stricter anti-miscegenation laws, the promotion of contraception among blacks so they stop breeding, and extremely strict legal segregation.

He was President Theodore Roosevelt's chief forester, substituting federal land-control in place of Abraham Lincoln's free-land-to-families farm creation program. Pinchot's British Empire activism included the Psychical Research Society and his vice presidency of the first International Eugenics Congress in Pinchot's British Empire activitism included the Psychical Research Society and his vice-presidency of the first International Eugenics Congress in Helping Pinchot initiate this century's racialist environmentalism were his cohorts George W.

This family's friendship with President George Bush is a vital factor in the present environmentalist movement. Antoinette Bradlee is second on the left. Mary Pinchot was born on 14th October, Her father Amos Pinchot, was a wealthy lawyer who helped fund the radical journal, The Masses. He was also a key figure in the Progressive Party. As a child Mary was brought into contact with left-wing intellectuals.

Mary attended Brearley School and Vassar College. In she began going out with William Attwood. It was while with Attwood at a dance held at Choate that she met John F. Kennedy for the first time. While at Vassar Mary became interested in left-wing politics.

This did not seem to upset her father, Amos Pinchot, who wrote to his brother Gifford: And a great deal of warm debating is going on among the students of Mary's class, which I think is an excellent thing. People of that age ought to be radical anyhow. This included writing for magazines such as Mademoiselle. Mary also became a member of the American Labor Party. Mary, like her parents, was also a committed pacifist.

In Mary met Cord Meyer, a lieutenant in the US Marines who was recovering from serious shrapnel injuries that had resulted in him losing an eye. The couple married on 19th April, Soon afterwards the couple went to San Francisco to attend the conference that established the United Nations. Cord went as an aide to Harold Stassen, whereas Mary, who was working for the North American Newspaper Alliance at the time, was one of the reporters sent to cover this important event.

Cord Meyer had been shocked by the dropping of the atom bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Fill Material Is Not a Pollutant. Coeur Alaska, In c. Southeast Alaska Conservation Council; The Army Corps of Engineers has the power to issue permits for the discharge of dredged or fill material under 33 U.

Center for Biological Diversity v. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration; NHTSA has a duty to assess environmental impacts, including impact on climate change, of rules; enviornmental impact statement. National Ass'n of Home Builders v. Greenhouse Gasses Are Pollutants. Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 18 provides for unrestricted joinder of claims against an opposing party, severence. Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 20 a permits joinder of plaintiffs if all claims arose out of the same transaction or occurrence and share common questions of law or fact, permissive joinder.

Kohl's Department Stores, Inc. Contribution, implead, impleader, indemnity, indemnification, third-party complaint. California; fruit of the poisonous tree; officers did not have probable cause to stop vehicle, passenger was seized and evidence discovered as result was inadmissible.

Rule 27, authorize pre-complaint discovery, file a verified complaint. Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 26 a , automatically disclose all documents and tangible evidence on which it intends to rely at trial, dislosure, motion to compel discovery, protective order.

Movants, protective order, federal rule of civil procedure 30 b 2 , record a deposition by nonstenographic means and is given the choice of the method of recording, absent annoyance, embarrassment, oppression, and undue burden or expense. A contract may form the basis of a discovery obligation under the federal rules of civil procedure, interrogatory. Expense and burden of certain discovery requests may be shifted to the requesting party, discoverable matter includes both paper and electronic documents.

Memorial Hospital at Gulfport. Deposition testimony of an unavailable witness may be introduced at trial, continuance, unavailability. Rule 56 f , timely respond to a motion for summary judgment, sanctions. Sanctioned, attorney transgressions, preserve the integrity of the judicial process, sanctions.

Time-barred, longer statutory period, claim-preclusive effect of a judgment on the merits in a federal diversity action, claim preclusion, res judicata, statute of limitations. Attorney Conflict of Interest. American Family Mutual Ins. Benguet Consolidated Mining Co. Helicopteros Nacionales de Colombia, S. Hall; buying products from a different state does not expose buyer to court jurisdiction unless sales resulted in other connections.

In re Ameriquest Mortgage Co. Mortgage Lending Practices Litigation;. Supplemental jurisdiction; 28 U. First Bancorp; no supplemental jurisdiction formerly ancillary jurisdiction or pendent jurisdiction if plaintiff's state law claims substantially predominate over the federal claims or raise complex or novel issues of state law.

Short And Plain Statement of the Claim. Twombly; sufficient factual allegations required for Fed. Prisoners Must Exhaust Remedies. Bock; prisoners must exhaust their remedies through the prison system before bringing a lawsuit. Spoliation of Evidence of Airbag Defect. Unconscionability Doctrine for Employment Agreement. Countrywide Credit Industries, Inc. Harmless Error Admitting Hearsay Evidence. District of Columbia; doctrine of res judicata, or claim preclusion; final judgment on the merits precludes relitigation between the same parties concerning the same factual transaction.

Failure To Warn Lawsuit. Spoilation and Discovery Obligations. UBS Warburg LLC; corporate counsel has duty to communicate discovery obligations so all relevant information is discovered, retained, and produced; once duty to preserve attaches, identify all sources of discoverable information.

Amount In Controversy Requirement. Allapattah Services; class action, if named plaintiff meets requirement, supplemental jurisdiction over claims in same case or controversy even if claims for less than jurisdictional amount for diversity jurisdiction; Article III.

Caddy; Due process is satisfied when the defendant has performed some act or consummated some transaction within the forum or has otherwise purposefully availed himself of the privileges of conducting business in the forum.

Carey; Rule 9 b 's requirement of pleading fraud with particularity must be harmonized with Fed. Withrow; When a party has signaled consent to the magistrate judge's authority to hear a case through actions rather than words, there is little value in strict insistence on an express consent requirement. In re Peterson; The Seventh Amendment does not prohibit the introduction of new methods for determining what facts are in issue, nor new rules of evidence.

Sanderson Plumbing Products, Inc; A discrimination plaintiff's case may be sufficient to submit to the jury if consists of a prima facie case of discrimination and sufficient evidence that defendant's proffered explanation was merely a pretext.

Jurors Can Sometimes Question Witnesses. Koenig; Just as questions from the bench can provide insight that helps lawyers make a stronger case, so too can questions from the jury help lawyers tailor their presentations; motion in limine. Jurors Can Reconcile Inconsistent Verdicts. MGM Grand Hotel, Inc; Where the jury is still available, a district court's decision to resubmit an inconsistent verdict for clarification is within its discretion; comparative negligence; contributory negligence.

Rule 60 d Cause Of Action. Walker; The elements of a Rule 60 d cause of action include 1 a judgment that, in equity and good conscience, ought not be enforced; 2 a good defense to the cause of action on which the judgment is founded; 3 fraud, accident. Final Judgment Rule Usually Applies. Hallock; Collateral order requirements 1 conclusively determine the disputed question, 2 resolve an important issue completely separate from the merits of the action, and 3 be effectively unreviewable on appeal; collateral order doctrine.

Rule Against Nonparty Preclusion Exceptions. Sturgell; The rule against nonparty preclusion is subject only to certain recognized exceptions: National Equipment Rental, Ltd. Szukhent; a contractually designated agent's prompt acceptance and transmittal to named defendants of a summons and complaint, pursuant to authorization contained in the contract, constitutes adequate service.

Praxair, Inc; Under Federal Rule of Procedure 15 c , an amendment that changes the party against whom a claim is asserted relates back to the date of the original pleading under certain limited conditions such as related companies.

United Mine Workers v. Gibbs; The exercise of pendent jurisdiction is within the sound discretion of the trial court; primary boycott; secondary boycott; supplemental jurisdiction. Ancillary Jurisdiction Requires Complete Diversity. Owen Equipment and Erection Company v. Kroger; plaintiff in diversity case cannot rely on ancillary jurisdiction to permit amendment to complaint to bring claim against non-diverse third-party defendant; complete diversity; diversity jurisdiction.

Russell; Time limits for filing a notice of appeal are jurisdictional in nature, and the untimely filing of notice, even if filed in reliance on a district court order, deprives the court of appeals of jurisdiction; equitable; habeas corpus. American Brands, Inc; An appeal as of right may be taken from interlocutory orders of federal district courts granting, continuing, modifying, refusing, or dissolving injunction; consent decree; interlocutory.

TREX, Inc; Interlocutory appeals are within court's discretion, and will be granted only when court certifies that each ruling presented for appeal involves a controlling question of law as to which there is substantial difference of opinion. American Tobacco; A district court must conduct a rigorous analysis of the Rule 23 prerequisites before certifying a class; sui generis. ACLU; statute that suppresses a substantial amount of protected speech is unconstitutional if less restrictive alternatives exist to further the governmental objective; content-based restriction; preliminary injunction.

Du Pont Advance Fiber Sys; Under Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 11, a complaint must not be presented for an improper purpose, such as to harass or to cause unnecessary delay or cost of litigation; contain claims warranted by existing law. Paragon Group, Inc; A defendant's claims against a plaintiff must be asserted as a counterclaim if arise out of the transaction or occurrence and do not require the presence of third parties over whom the court lacks jurisdiction.

Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Kansas, Inc; The burden of proving that a challenged discovery request is relevant is on the party who makes the request, while proving that the request is unduly burdensome rests with the party making the objection. WestLB AG; A court may shift the cost of restoring and searching for relevant information in an electronic form when the party who converts the data into an inaccessible format should have reasonably anticipated a need to produce that data.

United States District Court; Hague Convention is not exclusive means for obtaining evidence located abroad; comity; mandamus. Harris; When opposing parties tell two different stories, and one is blatantly contradicted by the record so that no reasonable jury could believe it, a court should not adopt that version for purposes of ruling on a motion for summary judgment.

PV Holding Corp; When determining a party's domicile, the controlling factors are the party's actual place of residence and the real intention of remaining there as disclosed by the party's entire course of conduct. Derderian; The Multiparty, Multiforum Trial Jurisdiction Act MMTJA requires federal courts to abstain when substantial majorities of all plaintiffs and of the principal defendants are residents of a single state.

State Class Action Lawsuits. Windsor; Settlement is relevant to the certification of a class; however, the class unity requirements of Fed. Iqbal; pleading; facts to support claim; insufficient pleading. Brent Taylor, Petitioner v. Cruel and Unusual Punishment. Plata; expand interpretation; judicial system takes an active role in the state prison system.

Johns-Manville Sales Corporation, et al. Doehr; pre-hearing seizure; only exigent circumstances justify a pre-hearing seizure. Goodyear Dunlop Tires Operations, S. Butterball, LLC; e-discovery; unduly burdensome electronic discovery request. Nicastro; purposeful contact with state is required to trigger jurisdiction. A; amend pleading; relation back hinges on the knowledge of the party to be added, not the party seeking amendment.

City of Irvington; joinder of claims; sever claims; a single transaction may encompass multiple occurrences. Shutts; minimum contacts are not required for absent class action plaintiffs. Shady Grove Orthopedic Assoc. Rogers; appointed attorney; civil contempt case may not require appointed counsel even if incarceration may be ordered. New York Times; prior restraints on the publication of government information are unlikely when there is no threat to security. Gender Discrimination Class Action.

Dukes; Walmart sex discrimination; class actions require a common claim that can be resolved with one determination.

General Jurisdiction Out of State. Goodyear Dunlop Tire Operations, S. Brown; General jurisdiction involves continuous corporate operations within a state; sporadic sales are not sufficient contacts with a forum state. Friend; Diversity Jurisdiction; a corporation's nerve center is its principal place of business for purposes of diversity jurisdiction.

Citibank; racial discrimination in house appraisal; state a claim that is plausible to survive a motion to dismiss for failure to state a claim. City of White House; Police audiotapes are not as conclusive as videotapes; corroborating evidence. Shady Grove Orthopedic Association v. Community Trust Bancorp, Inc. Community Trust Financial Corp. Defective Consent to Removal. City of Shreveport Police Dept. Amount in Controversy Calculation. Malpractice is a State Law Claim.

Minton; legal malpractice cases do not arise under federal law even when the underlying case involved a controversy over the application of federal law. Diversity Jurisdiction Not for Aliens. Hullin International Trade Co. Kevin Multiline Polymer, Inc. A Deposition is a Deposition. Collins; Discovery depositions may be introduced at trial; Federal Rules of Civil Procedure make no disctiction between discovery depositions and trial depositions.

Arbitration Agreements are Enforceable. Concepcion; Federal Arbitration Act will preempt state laws on the unconscionability of contracts if those laws single out arbitration and make private agreements to arbitrate unenforceable. Safeco Insurance Company; Interpleader exists to resolve inconsistent claims against designated assets based on mutually exclusive theories; resolve claims to the same funds and assets.

Preliminary Injunction Against Public Interest. Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc. Appearance of Bias Matters. Read the fine print; negotiation concession; give and take in a negotiation. Binding arbitration clause; binding mandatory arbitration; American Arbitration Association; binding arbitration provision; binding vs non binding arbitration; ADR; arbitration or mediation or negotiation.

Innuendo; pay close attention to legal drafting for alternative meanings. America's Most Wanted Cartoon. Cameras in the Courtroom. Federal income tax law, rules and procedure; IRS; taxes; tax code; tax forms; ; efile; tax filing instructions; Internal Revenue Service.

Law and Order cartoon; celebrity trial; mug shots; celebrity mugshot; celebrity crime photo; celebrity justice photo. Why Bother With Divorce? Voting cartoon; electronic voting; Bush v. Gore; contested election; election cartoons; election lawsuit cartoon; voting case; hanging chad; disputed election count; judges vote. Ineffective Assistance of Counsel. Judge cartoon; judge and jury; petit jury; hung jury; jury trial; jury duty; jury selection process.

Trust company; trustee responsibilities; successor trustee; trustee fees; trustee will; trustee services; personal representative; trustee job. Inheritance tax; heirs; inherit; living trust; trust amendment; trust agreement; estate planning; legacy; revocable trusts; appropriate age to inherit. Study for the Bar. Attorney stress; unhappy lawyer; job from hell; purgatory; church cartoon.

Happy New Year Cartoon. Wish You a Happy New Year. Original sin image; zero tolerance policy; Constitutional rights cartoon. Settle This Out Of Court. Right to an attorney; call my lawyer; custody; custodial interrogation; need a lawyer. Total release; medical release cartoon; medical malpractice cartoons. Hiring a lawyer; interviewing for a litigation job cartoon; references; personnel; human resources. Funny graduation cartoons; starting real life; new lawyer; young lawyer; associate; recent graduate.

Pet cartoons; negotiate; negotiations; negotiation; settlement conference; ADR. Killing on Wall Street. Dumb criminals news; life insurance fraud; what is insurance fraud; stupid criminals; dumb crimes; stupid crimes; dumbest criminals; stupidest crooks;. Not Afraid of Divorce. Topic of Expert Testimony. Financial effect of divorce funny image; lawyer advertising cartoon. Update estate plan; update living trust; pour over will; funding powers; certification of trust; funding instructions; trust transfer documents; trustee; trustmaker disability panel; contest provision; amendment to declaration of trust;.

Sample retainer agreement form; legal retainer agreements; retainer fee agreement; attorney retainer contract; lawyer retainer agreement requirements. Federal environmental regualtions; environmental laws; cost to business asscoiated with following environmental regulations and laws and trade theory evidence; EPA; toxic dumping; Envirnmental Protection Agency. Personal life time management; work home balance; how to balance work and family; too much work or too little work; keeping up the billable hours; overworked.

Law firm marketing for attorneys; law firm business development strategy; legal marketing ideas; attorney marketing ideas. Legal marketing; law firm marketing and business development; business development strategy; legal marketing and advertising ethics; attorney marketing strategy. Prejudicial effect; relevance; relevant evidence; whether the prejudicial effect outweighs the probative value; probative value versus the predjudicial effect.

Acceptance to law school acceptance; don't go to law school; law school admissions test; LSAT; applying to law school; admission to law school. Law firm managing partner salary; becoming managing partner; stressed out lawyers. Legal fees; lawyer percentage fee; contingent fee for attorneys; contingency fee agreement; legal retainer agreement. Increase billable hours; increasing billable hours for lawyers; attorney marketing and business development; rainmaking partner; partnership track; partner material.

Last will and testament; wealth protection; living trust; estate planning forms; estate planning trust; administration of trust; the common trust; resignation of trustee; replacement of trustee; trustee's investment powers. Ethics opinion; ethical obligations of a lawyer; ethical obligation to opposing counsel; ethical duty to opposing attorney; ethically permissable; sexual relationship with opposing counsel.

Pour over will; funding powers; certification of trust; funding instructions; trust transfer documents; trustee; trustmaker disability panel; contest provision; amendment to declaration of trust. Write a will; draft a will; writing a will; draft trust documents; trust plan; last will and testament; how to make a will. Donate to charity; planned giving; charitable donation; give to charity in your will or trust when you die.

Foundation board of directors; board of the foundation; Planned giving; charitable giving; family charitable foundation. Requests for donation; tax deductible donations; donation request letter; how to decide on a charity; too many charities requesting a donation; donor fatigue. Litigator salary; litigator job; aggressive litigator; litigator jokes.

Court filing deadline; deadline for filing motions; deadline for briefs; deadline calendar; filing date calendar; pretrail motion deadlines. Deal lawyer; transactional attorney; corporate lawyer; corporate attorney; managing partner; business attorneys; deal attorneys. Sample engagement letter; CPA engagement letters; lawyer letter of engagement; tax engagement letter; accounting; consulting. Golf cartoon; multitask; time pressure; quality time for oneself; excuse to play golf; golf excuses; why play golf; get ahead in business by playing golf.

Paralegal certification and first paralegal job; paralegal certificate. What Is A Paralegal. Paralegal programs; paralegal training; paralegel colleges; paralegal courses online;. How To Be a Paralegal. Grade papers; how to grade papers; how to grade a paper; grading papers; how to grade students; buried in exams to grade; buried in papers to grade.

Professor cartoon; law school professor; how to get tenure; make tenure. Automated docketing software; deadline reminders; court deadline; docket clerk; court date; docketing; federal court docket. ZOPA; no zone of possible agreement in negotations; mediators; mediation; three little pigs; wolf. Difficultion negotiation; positional bargaining; positional negotiation; Fisher and Ury; principled negotiation; non-adversarial bargaining; negotiation tactics; negotiation skills; negotiation strategies; negotiaiton techniques.

Negotiate a higher starting salary; negotiating a salary package; negotating job offer; negotiate salary increase; salary and benefits. Negotiation tactics; negotiation skills; negotiation strategies; negotiaiton techniques; positional bargaining; positional negotiation; Fisher and Ury. Judiciary act, power to declare unconstitutional, appellate jurisdiction, mandamus, original jurisdiction. Martinez; discrimination at public university; First Amendment; expressive activity; pretext.

Department of Public Health. Same-sex partners are entitled to the benefits, liabilities, and obligations of civil marriage; gay rights; due process; equal protection; Massachusetts constitution.

Burning the American flag, freedom of expression, first amendment, symbolic speech. United States; When an average person applying contemporary community standards feels that the dominant theme, taken as a whole, appeals to purient interests, the government can regulate the material as obscene.

Environmental Protection Agency, states can sue over global warming, case or controversy requirement. Damage to the environment. City of Renton v. Zoning ordinances may target secondary effects of speech without offending the first amendment, free speech, content based restriction. Separate but equal doctrine, public education, violates the fourteenth amendment, tangibly equal resources and facilities, segregation.

Constitutional standards apply to recounts, clear standards, determine voter intent, recount of votes. Right to privacy, marital relationship, contraceptives, penumbra, zone of privacy. Citizen "enemy combatant" has due process right to contest his detention, non detention act. Separate but equal accommodations, racial inferiority, the fourteenth amendment, separate but equal doctrine.

Appropriations among school districts, comparative wealth, education is not a fundamental right. Judicial enforcement of racially restrictive covenants constitutes state action, fourteenth amendment. Laws prohibiting physician assisted suicide, terminally ill, mentally competent, patients in extreme pain, right to die.

Fifth amendment, eminent domain just compensation, public purpose, takings of private property, private economic development. School desegregation, Brown v. Board of Education, supremacy clause. Equal protection clause of the fourteenth amendment prohibits racial discrimination. Leesville Concrete Company, Inc. Peremptory challenge; Batson challenge, state action, voir dire, exlude black jurors. City of Richmond v. Affirmative action; strict scrutiny, race based compensation incentive, state actor.

Gerrymandering; reapportionment; strict scrutiny; voting rights act, odd shaped voting districts. Railway Express Agency, Inc. Sex suspect classification, similarly situated members of different sexes. Public university gender classification requires exceedingly persuasive justification. City of Cleburne v. Fifth amendment; double jeapordy clause; concept of ordered liberty. The Fourteenth Amendment guarantees an individual the right to make a contract affecting his or her personal business.

Penn Central Transportation Company v. City of New York. Eminent domain clause; takings clause, landmark, payment of just compensation. South Carolina Coastal Council. Eminent domain clause; takings clause, nuisance, regulation, payment of just compensation.

Tahoe Sierra Preservation Council, Inc. Tahoe Regional Planning Agency. Moratorium on develepment as eminent domain clause; takings clause, payment of just compensation. Reapportionment; dilution of representation, equal protection clause. Edgewood Independent School District v. Privileges and immunities clause; welfare benefits, length of residency. Actual controversy, actual dispute, declaratory judgment, nullification, per legem terrae, ripeness.

Complete ban on abortions violates the right to privacy, state, abortion laws, viable zone of privacy. Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Restrictions on abortions cannot unduly interfere with a woman's right to choose, judicial bypass, substantive due process, undue burden test. Board of Regents v. Due process, contract rights, property interests, procedural due process. A hearing, termination of social security disability benefits, terminating disability benefits; administrative procedures, due process, entitlement.

City of Saint Paul. Fighting words may be prohibited, ordinance, target race, color, creed, religion, or gender violates the first amendment, content based restriction, defamation, fighting words, libel.

The first amendment does not protect speech aimed at influencing the american public against the war the government is trying to wage. Speech advocating social change is protected by the first amendment, speech that advocates violence but does not incite immediate use of force or violence. New York Times Company v. A public official may receive damages only for malicious libel, showing of actual malice, defamation.

Illegally obtained information, matter of public significance, chilling effect, intervenor. Distribution of obscene material, the first amendment, sexually explicit material, prurient interest, lacks serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value, obscenity, pornography. Virginia State Board of Pharmacy v. Virginia Citizens Consumer Council. The first amendment protects some commercial speech, flow of commercial information.

Contributions to political campaigns are protected as speech, limits on campaign contributions, limits on campaign expenditures, the first amendment.

The first amendment prohibits denying access to a traditional public forum, sidewalks, forums for public expression, designated public forum. Noise ordinances advance a substantial government goal, limit speech, protect a legitimate government interest, content based, foreclose alternate avenues of communication; least restrictive intrusive.

International Society for Krishna Consciousness, Inc. An airport terminal is not a public forum, regulations prohibiting solicitation for donations and religious leafleting.

Funding, abortion counseling programs, violate the first amendment. Legal Services Corporation v. Federal grant money, challenge welfare laws, the first amendment, legal assistance, welfare recipients. Hazelwood School District v. Schools may exercise editorial control over student speech in school sponsored activities, the first amendment. Womens Health Center, Inc. Injunction, the first amendment protection, narrowly tailored, prior restraint.

Board of Airport Commissioners v. Jews for Jesus, Inc. Overbreadth doctrine, a resolution that prohibits all conduct or speech protected by the first amendment is unconstitutional. Board of Directors of Rotary International v. Rotary Club of Duarte. Private association, denial of membership to women, unruh act to the california rotary clubs, the right of expressive association, the first amendment.

Employment Division Department of Human Resources v. Free exercise clause, unemployment benefits, peyote, unemployment compensation, state criminal statute, religious ritual. Government reimbursement to facilitate transportation of students to school does not violate the establishment clause.

Prayers at commencement exercises violate the first amendment, state endorsement of religion. School voucher program, religious affiliated schools, vouchers to parents, not violate the establishment clause of the first amendment. Congress power to enact legislation to carry out its powers, constitutional authority, pass legislation, establish a national bank that is exempt from state taxing powers.

The constitution's grant of authority to regulate commerce among the states must necessarily include the ability to regulate navigation; commerce clause; dormant commerce clause; supremacy clause. Intrastate components of interstate commerce fall within the commerce clause, ability to regulate certain intrastate activities. Heart of Atlanta Motel v. Racial discrimination has an economic impact and so may be regulated by congress under the commerce clause.

Enact school gun possession laws, connected with interstate commerce, congressional interference in a purely local concern. The Civil Rights Cases. The civil rights act was intended to protect the legal and civil rights of all citizens. Alfred H Meyer Company. Congress has the authority to prohibit private discrimination in order to give full effect to the provisions of the thirteenth amendment. State voting requirements cannot conflict with federal provisions, federal voting rights act.

City of Rome v. Congress has the right to prohibit unintended effects of practices that do not alone violate the 15th amendment, prohibit voting practices, discriminatory purpose, discriminatory effect when applied. City of Boerne v. The religious freedom restoration act rfra exceeds congress' power under the fourteenth amendment and violates principles necessary to maintain separation of powers and a federal state balance.

Congress may not regulate non economic, violent criminal conduct based solely on an assertion that the conduct has a negative impact on interstate commerce. Congress may condition payments of federal funds to states on their passage of laws restricting alcohol sales, spending power, twenty first amendment.

Treaties, superior to state laws, federal laws and regulations enacted pursuant to a validly entered treaty take precedence over the laws of the individual states. San Antonio Metropolitan Transit Authority. State and local government employers are subject to the FLSA, application of the Fair Labor Standards Act to local government employers does not violate the tenth amendment.

Congress cannot impose a regulatory process on the individual states in violation of the tenth amendment, forcing individual states to comply with nationwide regulations. Congress may not compel state and local law enforcement officers to administer the brady act, federal law that requires a particular action by a state or local officer. States may not exercise regulatory power delegated to congress simply because congress has failed to act, absence of congressional action to regulate commerce.

City of Philadelphia v. Restrict the flow of waste, landfills, states may not regulate commercial activity within their borders in such a way as to favor state interests. State regulations having a direct impact on interstate commerce must be justifiable as a safety concern.

Mayor and Council of Camden. Municipal ordinances that discriminate based on local residency may violate the privileges and immunities clause, municipal residency requirements have interstate effect. Youngstown Sheet and Tube Company v. Sawyer The Steel Seizure Case. Presidential authority must be explicit, president, specific constitutional provisions, there is no inherent executive authority, executive order. Executive privilege does not shield the president from the judicial process, recognized claim of privilege, due process considerations, criminal trial, executive immunity, in camera inspection, speech or debate clause.

Immigration and Naturalization Service v. Three branches of government; grant of executive authority cannot be overridden by a congressional veto, once congress has acted to vest authority in an administrative agency, it cannot act to overturn the action of that agency in the absence of further l. The line item veto violates the constitution, line item veto act, virtual amendment of congressional acts by the president, delegation doctrine.

Sequestration, budget appropriations cannot be delegated to a legislator the delegation of executive functions to a legislative administrator violates the constitutionally imposed doctrine of separation of powers. The appointments clause of the constitution permits congress to delegate to the courts the ability to appoint special prosecutors who are inferior officers. Congress has constitutional authority to regulate the appellate jurisdiction of the federal courts and the supreme court. Apportioned; apportionment; guaranty clause of the constitution, judicially resolving an otherwise political question, political right; the equal protection clause, judicial question.

Nonjusticiable, impeachment of a federal judge, U. Senate, sole authority; judicial review, judicial participation. Case or controversy requirement, cognizable controversy, redress, confer standing, satisfy the federal standing requirement, present injury. Injury in fact and redressability must be established even under a federal statute conferring a private cause of action, private right of action, standing, personal injury, public, injury in fact.

Injury to the environment. Friends of the Earth, Inc. Plaintiff residents in the area of South Carolina's North Tyger River had standing to sue an industrial polluter against whom various deterrent civil penalties were being pursued.

American Civil Liberties Union. Harmful internet content, least restrictive alternative to protect minors, suppresses a substantial amount of protected speech, unconstitutional, less restrictive alternatives exist. The Free Speech Coalition. Overbreadth doctrine, speech restrictions prohibiting a substantial amount of protected speech are overbroad and unconstitutional, child pornography, obscenity. Board of Trustees University of Alabama v. States are not liable under the ada the americans with disabilities act, liable for employment discrimination, disability.

Tennessee Secondary School Athletic Association. Private associations can be state actors, state action, close nexus, challenged action, seemingly private behavior. Legal Foundation of Washington.

Iolta accounts are not takings requiring just compensation. Just compensation is measured by the property owner's loss rather than the government's gain. Constitutional standards apply to recounts.

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