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Feminism is a range of political movements , ideologies , and social movements that share a common goal: Feminist movements have campaigned and continue to campaign for women's rights , including the right to vote , to hold public office, to work , to earn fair wages or equal pay , to own property , to receive education , to enter contracts, to have equal rights within marriage , and to have maternity leave.
Feminists have also worked to ensure access to legal abortions and social integration , and to protect women and girls from rape , sexual harassment , and domestic violence. Some scholars consider feminist campaigns to be a main force behind major historical societal changes for women's rights , particularly in the West , where they are near-universally credited with achieving women's suffrage , gender neutrality in English , reproductive rights for women including access to contraceptives and abortion , and the right to enter into contracts and own property.
Numerous feminist movements and ideologies have developed over the years and represent different viewpoints and aims. Some forms of feminism have been criticized for taking into account only white, middle class, and college-educated perspectives. This criticism led to the creation of ethnically specific or multicultural forms of feminism, including black feminism and intersectional feminism. Most western feminist historians contend that all movements working to obtain women's rights should be considered feminist movements, even when they did not or do not apply the term to themselves.
Those historians use the label " protofeminist " to describe earlier movements. The history of the modern western feminist movements is divided into three "waves". The first wave comprised women's suffrage movements of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, promoting women's right to vote. The second wave was associated with the ideas and actions of the women's liberation movement beginning in the s. The second wave campaigned for legal and social equality for women.
The third wave is a continuation of, and a reaction to, the perceived failures of second-wave feminism, which began in the s. First-wave feminism was a period of activity during the 19th century and early twentieth century. In the UK and eventually the US, it focused on the promotion of equal contract, marriage, parenting, and property rights for women.
By the end of the 19th century, a number of important steps had been made with the passing of legislation such as the UK Custody of Infants Act which introduced the Tender years doctrine for child custody arrangement and gave woman the right of custody of their children for the first time.
For example, Victoria passed legislation in , New South Wales in , and the remaining Australian colonies passed similar legislation between and Therefore, with the turn of the 19th century activism had focused primarily on gaining political power, particularly the right of women's suffrage , though some feminists were active in campaigning for women's sexual , reproductive , and economic rights as well. Women's suffrage the right to vote and stand for parliamentary office began in Britain's Australasian colonies at the close of the 19th century, with the self-governing colonies of New Zealand granting women the right to vote in and South Australia granting female suffrage in This was followed by Australia granting female suffrage in In Britain the Suffragettes and the Suffragists campaigned for the women's vote, and in the Representation of the People Act was passed granting the vote to women over the age of 30 who owned property.
In this was extended to all women over Anthony , who each campaigned for the abolition of slavery prior to championing women's right to vote. These women were influenced by the Quaker theology of spiritual equality, which asserts that men and women are equal under God. The term first wave was coined retroactively to categorize these western movements after the term second-wave feminism began to be used to describe a newer feminist movement that focused on fighting social and cultural inequalities, as well political inequalities.
During the late Qing period and reform movements such as the Hundred Days' Reform , Chinese feminists called for women's liberation from traditional roles and Neo-Confucian gender segregation.
In , Qasim Amin , considered the "father" of Arab feminism, wrote The Liberation of Women , which argued for legal and social reforms for women. The Iranian Constitutional Revolution in triggered the Iranian women's movement , which aimed to achieve women's equality in education , marriage, careers, and legal rights. In France , women obtained the right to vote only with the Provisional Government of the French Republic of 21 April The Consultative Assembly of Algiers of proposed on 24 March to grant eligibility to women but following an amendment by Fernand Grenier , they were given full citizenship, including the right to vote.
Grenier's proposition was adopted 51 to In May , following the November elections , the sociologist Robert Verdier minimized the " gender gap ", stating in Le Populaire that women had not voted in a consistent way, dividing themselves, as men, according to social classes. During the baby boom period, feminism waned in importance. Wars both World War I and World War II had seen the provisional emancipation of some women, but post-war periods signalled the return to conservative roles.
By the mid 20th century, in some European countries, women still lacked some significant rights. Feminists in these countries continued to fight for voting rights. In Switzerland , women gained the right to vote in federal elections in ;  but in the canton of Appenzell Innerrhoden women obtained the right to vote on local issues only in , when the canton was forced to do so by the Federal Supreme Court of Switzerland. Three prior referendums held in , and had failed to secure women's right to vote.
Feminists continued to campaign for the reform of family laws which gave husbands control over their wives. Although by the 20th century coverture had been abolished in the UK and the US, in many continental European countries married women still had very few rights.
For instance, in France married women did not receive the right to work without their husband's permission until Second-wave feminism is a feminist movement beginning in the early s  and continuing to the present; as such, it coexists with third-wave feminism.
Second-wave feminism is largely concerned with issues of equality beyond suffrage, such as ending gender discrimination. Second-wave feminists see women's cultural and political inequalities as inextricably linked and encourage women to understand aspects of their personal lives as deeply politicized and as reflecting sexist power structures. The feminist activist and author Carol Hanisch coined the slogan "The Personal is Political", which became synonymous with the second wave.
Second- and third-wave feminism in China has been characterized by a reexamination of women's roles during the communist revolution and other reform movements, and new discussions about whether women's equality has actually been fully achieved.
In , President Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt initiated " state feminism ", which outlawed discrimination based on gender and granted women's suffrage, but also blocked political activism by feminist leaders. In Latin America , revolutions brought changes in women's status in countries such as Nicaragua , where feminist ideology during the Sandinista Revolution aided women's quality of life but fell short of achieving a social and ideological change.
In , Betty Friedan 's book The Feminine Mystique was published and helped voice the discontent that American women felt. The book is widely credited with sparking the beginning of second-wave feminism in the United States. Within ten years, after Friedan's successful publishing, women made up more than half of the total percentage in the First World workforce. Third-wave feminism is traced to the emergence of the Riot grrrl feminist punk subculture in Olympia, Washington , in the early s,   and to Anita Hill 's televised testimony in —to an all-male, all-white Senate Judiciary Committee —that Clarence Thomas , nominated for the Supreme Court of the United States , had sexually harassed her.
The term third wave is credited to Rebecca Walker , who responded to Thomas's appointment to the Supreme Court with an article in Ms. So I write this as a plea to all women, especially women of my generation: Let this dismissal of a woman's experience move you to anger. Turn that outrage into political power. Do not vote for them unless they work for us.
Do not have sex with them, do not break bread with them, do not nurture them if they don't prioritize our freedom to control our bodies and our lives. I am not a post-feminism feminist. I am the Third Wave. Third-wave feminism also sought to challenge or avoid what it deemed the second wave's essentialist definitions of femininity , which, third-wave feminists argued, over-emphasized the experiences of upper middle-class white women.
Third-wave feminists often focused on " micro-politics " and challenged the second wave's paradigm as to what was, or was not, good for women, and tended to use a post-structuralist interpretation of gender and sexuality. Standpoint theory is a feminist theoretical point of view that believes a persons' social position influences their knowledge. This perspective argues that research and theory treats women and the feminist movement as insignificant and refuses to see traditional science as unbiased.
Fourth-wave feminism refers to a resurgence of interest in feminism that began around and is associated with the use of social media. Its essence, she writes, is "incredulity that certain attitudes can still exist". Fourth-wave feminism is "defined by technology", according to Kira Cochrane , and is characterized particularly by the use of Facebook , Twitter , Instagram , YouTube , Tumblr , and blogs such as Feministing to challenge misogyny and further gender equality.
Issues that fourth-wave feminists focus on include street and workplace harassment , campus sexual assault and rape culture. Scandals involving the harassment, abuse, and murder of women and girls have galvanized the movement. These have included the Delhi gang rape , Jimmy Savile allegations , the Bill Cosby allegations , Isla Vista killings , trial of Jian Ghomeshi , Harvey Weinstein allegations and subsequent Weinstein effect , and the Westminster sexual scandals.
In December , Time magazine chose several prominent female activists involved in the MeToo movement, dubbed "the silence breakers", as Person of the Year. The term post-feminism is used to describe a range of viewpoints reacting to feminism since the s. While not being "anti-feminist", post-feminists believe that women have achieved second wave goals while being critical of third and fourth wave feminist goals. The term was first used to describe a backlash against second-wave feminism, but it is now a label for a wide range of theories that take critical approaches to previous feminist discourses and includes challenges to the second wave's ideas.
Feminist theory is the extension of feminism into theoretical or philosophical fields. It encompasses work in a variety of disciplines, including anthropology , sociology , economics , women's studies , literary criticism ,   art history ,  psychoanalysis  and philosophy.
While providing a critique of these social and political relations, much of feminist theory also focuses on the promotion of women's rights and interests. Themes explored in feminist theory include discrimination, stereotyping , objectification especially sexual objectification , oppression , and patriarchy. The first she calls "feminist critique", in which the feminist reader examines the ideologies behind literary phenomena.
The second Showalter calls " gynocriticism ", in which the "woman is producer of textual meaning". However, as the scholar Elizabeth Wright points out, "none of these French feminists align themselves with the feminist movement as it appeared in the Anglophone world". Some branches of feminism closely track the political leanings of the larger society, such as liberalism and conservatism, or focus on the environment.
Liberal feminism seeks individualistic equality of men and women through political and legal reform without altering the structure of society. Catherine Rottenberg has argued that the neoliberal shirt in Liberal feminism has led to that form of feminism being individualized rather than collectivized and becoming detached from social inequality. Radical feminism considers the male-controlled capitalist hierarchy as the defining feature of women's oppression and the total uprooting and reconstruction of society as necessary.
Libertarian feminism conceives of people as self-owners and therefore as entitled to freedom from coercive interference. Lesbian feminism is thus closely related. Other feminists criticize separatist feminism as sexist. Rosemary Hennessy and Chrys Ingraham say that materialist forms of feminism grew out of Western Marxist thought and have inspired a number of different but overlapping movements, all of which are involved in a critique of capitalism and are focused on ideology's relationship to women.
Sara Ahmed argues that Black and Postcolonial feminisms pose a challenge "to some of the organizing premises of Western feminist thought. Since that time, women in developing nations and former colonies and who are of colour or various ethnicities or living in poverty have proposed additional feminisms. In the late twentieth century various feminists began to argue that gender roles are socially constructed ,   and that it is impossible to generalize women's experiences across cultures and histories.
Feminist views on transgender people differ. Some feminists do not view trans women as women,  believing that they have male privilege due to their sex assignment at birth. Riot grrrls took an anti-corporate stance of self-sufficiency and self-reliance. According to poll, 18 percent of Americans consider themselves feminists, while 85 percent reported they believe in "equality for women".
Despite the popular belief in equal rights, 52 percent did not identify as feminist, 26 percent were unsure, and four percent provided no response. Feminist views on sexuality vary, and have differed by historical period and by cultural context.
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