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Peter Blauner Sunrise Highway Minotaur Books begins with the gruesome murder of a year-old girl in Nassau County, New York, found with twigs and branches stuffed down her throat.

Realizing that a quick conviction will launch his career in the right direction, Markis goes along with the sham arrest of the impoverished black student. Lourdes and her partner try to get case notes about the missing women, but DA Makris and Chief Tolliver are reluctant to even admit that there is any crime in their affluent jurisdiction, let alone the possibility of a serial killer operating under their radar for years.

Donna is hoping to sweep up one of the terrorists whose Most Wanted pictures line her cubicle and escape from hotline duty into the field. Joe is arrested along with others from the club, and the two share an instant flair of attraction.

His best friend from their Catholic school days is Geo Caprisi, a head mafioso. As Donna looks into his background, Joe is drawn into a weapons heist that goes wrong and then the theft of a vial of extremely valuable perfume. Joe manages to get their team past the advanced security of the perfume warehouse, but the double cross by part of the team makes him wonder if the vial really contains perfume, or something far more dangerous. Repercussions from both ventures put Joe on the hit list of the Flushing Triads and engender the intense scrutiny of the CIA.

Darkly comic and very violent, this stylish thriller has it all. Elsa Hart City of Ink Minotaur Books finds Li Du, a former imperial librarian, working as a humble clerk at the North Borough Office in Beijing, using his access to official scrolls to secretly investigate the scandal that caused the execution of his mentor nine years earlier. The Black Tile Factory that produces the roof tiles used throughout the city is working at full speed, trying to complete the re-roofing of the examination yard before the annual exams for ministry positions begin.

Hordes of anxious examination candidates add to the already crowded streets, frantically buying good luck charms and memorizing as many books as possible. Chief Inspector Sun takes Li Du with him to take notes when Madam Hong, the wife of the Black Tile Factory owner, and Pan Yongfa, presumed to be her lover, are found murdered early one morning at the factory.

Hong Wenbin is arrested, but by law can not be charged with murder if he discovered his wife and her lover in flagrante delicto. Pan worked for the Ministry of Rites, in charge of negotiating contracts with Hong and inspecting the quality of work, and Li Du wonders if the words on the assignation note might refer to blackmail rather than passion. This third in the excellent series brings 18th century China to vivid life. Anthony Horowitz The Word Is Murder Harper , UK begins when Daniel Hawthorne, a disgraced yet brilliant detective inspector, contacts Anthony Horowitz, the celebrated novelist, offering to include him on a murder investigation if he turns the case into a book.

The author is dubious, his previous acquaintance with the detective as a consultant on a television script was not a positive experience. But the case is fascinating: Diana Cowper, the wealthy mother of a famous actor, visits a London funeral parlor to make arrangements for her own funeral service and is killed six hours later.

Horowitz struggles to find a way to humanize the brusque detective in his book, but his secretive nature seems impenetrable. Hawthorne refuses to share any information about his private life, his family, or any interests outside the case. Trailing along behind the temperamental detective, and warned not to speak a single word, Horowitz puzzles out the connections that seem to come so naturally to the intuitive detective.

The aftermath of her breakdown leaves Rachel with severe agoraphobia — unable to fly, take the subway, or leave the apartment for anything more than replenishing her supply of food and alcohol.

Her marriage falls apart, leaving Rachel isolated and fearful. She is cheered by a supportive email from Brian Delacroix, the private investigator she hired years ago to try and locate the father her mother threw out of the house when she was very young.

All she remembers is that his first name was James and he taught at one of the many colleges near Springfield, Massachusetts, which was not enough information for Brian to make much progress. He refused to take any more of her money, and advised her to give up the impossible search. Meeting again years later, Brian is very supportive, encouraging Rachel to take small journeys outside the apartment, but not pressuring her to accompany him on his frequent business trips.

She begins working on a book about her experiences in Haiti, and feels herself slowly regaining courage, even venturing out to meet an old friend for drinks while Brian travels to London. Leaving the bar, she is startled to see a man who looks exactly like Brian coming out of the Hancock Tower. This intense thriller is a finalist for the Gold Dagger Award. One morning they are playing cards with Anna-Liisa and laugh at the coincidence of their wardrobe choices in various shades of purple.

Bored with the card game, Irma suggests that they form the Lavender Ladies Detective Agency to snoop around and do some meddling like Miss Marple. Anna-Liisa finds the idea rediculous, but Siiri is captivated.

The following day they are shocked to hear of the death of Tero Lehtinen, the cook who is always friendly to everyone. The debilitation of old age infuses life at Sunset Grove. Are they both growing even more forgetful, or is something sinister going on at Sunset Grove?

This blackly humorous debut mystery is the first in a trilogy. Nearly a year later, Elvis, the bomb sniffing Belgian shepherd she inherited from Martinez, is slowly recovering from K9 PTSD and they are both still grieving the loss of the man who brought them together. While walking in the woods one morning, Elvis alerts to the smell of explosives, and darts off into the trees. Catching up to the dog, Mercy discovers a baby in a backpack carrier, alone in the clearing.

Finding no sign of the parents, Mercy straps on the backpack and begins the long hike back to cell phone service. After delivering the baby to the hospital, Mercy shows Troy the area she taped off for explosives and the clearing where the baby was abandoned.

The dogs search the area and uncover a human femur. The crime scene techs find more of the body, a skull with a bullet rattling inside, and a tarnished pewter belt buckle with the pine tree and mountain symbol of Vermont. After the baby disappears from the hospital, Mercy is determined to find her, and tags along with Troy as he searches. For the first time since returning home, Mercy feels echoes of her military police training returning, and realizes that both she and Elvis need the mental and physical stimulation of working a case.

Derided by scientists, the show has a dedicated following of conspiracy theorists who believe the government is concealing important truths. Nolan, his best friend and producer Ken, cameraman Pierre, and assistant producer Molly travel to the Grand Canyon to search for a cavern filled with carvings and idols, supposedly discovered by G. The expedition gets off to a promising start: Though steep, the cliff is scaleable, and the party begins the long climb up, carrying a few sandwiches, a water bottle each, some headlamps, and all the extra camera batteries.

Eventually they discover something very strange, a perfectly carved stone ball balanced on a square base. Things turn very bad very fast and Nolan and his team begin to doubt any of them will return to tell the story. Zoje Stage Baby Teeth St. Hanna has always adored her father, who gives her unconditional love, but as a toddler began to doubt that her mother adored her at the same level, designing endless tests prove her motherly love, which Suzanne always fails.

Suzanne researches Marie-Anne Dufosset, learning that at the age of 18 she was the last woman burned at the stake as a witch in France. This creepy debut thriller is deviously engaging.

Caleb never forgets a face, but his attempts to hide his hearing loss and rely on lip reading often result in missed words and confusion. His partner Frankie, a former cop, fills in the gaps when she is present, but solo interviews are difficult. Since there is no sign of forced entry, Caleb surmises that Gary voluntarily opened the door to his killer, who may be someone he also knows.

The police suspect that Gary was involved in something shady, and conclude Caleb is also involved. Fearing that his ex-wife may be in danger, Caleb persuades her to take refuge with her mother in their home town of Resurrection Bay.

Unfortunately he may have brought the danger with him to Resurrection Bay. William Boyle The Lonely Witness Pegasus Books is the story of Amy Falconetti, a former party girl who gave up her old life when she returned to the church after her aspiring actress girlfriend Alessandra left her to pursue her career.

Now dressing in dowdy clothes instead of her showy vintage outfits, Amy delivers communion to housebound Brooklyn residents. Instead Vincent visits a bar, leaving with another man, who fatally stabs him on the sidewalk. Amy fears that the killer saw her witness the murder, and is stalking her. Alessandra comes back to town for a visit, inspiring Amy to don a wig and one of her old outfits, toying with the idea of abandoning her new safe normal life for her former risky and self-destructive existence.

This gritty noir novel is mesmerizing. Teresa Dovalpage Death Comes in Through the Kitchen Soho Crime begins when Matt Sullivan, a journalist from San Diego, arrives in Havana, in the spring of , carrying a wedding dress for his girlfriend Yarmila Portal, just before the Black Spring crackdown on dissidents journalists, librarians, and human rights and democracy activists.

Matt and Yarmi met online through her food blog Yarmi Cooks Cuban, and their mainly virtual courtship resulted in a marriage proposal. Concerned by rumors that the secret police consider any American visiting Cuba as a potential CIA agent, Matt downplays his job, explaining that his newspaper features only cultural stories about San Diego, Baja California, and Mexico, and that he has not come to Cuba to write about Cuban politics.

Matt visits the restaurant Yarmi worked for to deliver the kitchen gadgets she requested from America, surprised to discover it consists only of a few tables in a crowded living room.

Isabel welcomes him and explains the restaurant is a paladar, licensed to serve no more than 12 customers at a time. Yarmila worked there illegally since paladars must be run only by relatives. The longer Matt stays in Cuba the more he wonders if Yarmi told him the truth about anything at all: The police have the emails between Yarmi and Matt, and his request that she write an article for the CIA Culinary Institute of America makes him the prime suspect.

The intriguing Yarmila appears only in her culinary blog posts in this fascinating mystery revealing the dark side of the modern Cuban Revolution. Eight years later, much of the money has been squandered by Reggie, or spent on much needed repairs of the family estate, but now Frances is eagerly planning her departure from Harleigh for a leased house in London with her young daughter Rose.

Her brother-in-law Graham and his wife Delia are horrified by her plan, knowing it will be much harder to wheedle money out of Frances from a distance. Within a week Lily has three suitors, and Frances begins to investigate their characters to protect Lily from her own mistake of marrying a man only interested in her money.

This witty and high-sprited debut mystery is the first in a series. Mick Herron London Rules Soho Crime finds the Slough House group of outcast and demoted MI5 agents in worse shape than usual — fighting addictions, dealing with grief, and worrying that their newest addition J. Coe may be unable to control his urge to kill if panicked. Only the clueless Roddy Ho, who believes his sexual attraction is equal to his IT skills, is feeling on top of the world, thrilled to finally have a girlfriend.

Shirley manages to knock him out of the way of the car trying to kill him, which Roddy was totally unaware of while intent on hunting Pokemon with his cell phone. Meanwhile, 12 people are killed in Abbotsfield and a pipe bomb kills 14 penguins at their enclosure in Dobsey Park, called The Watering Hole. This blackly humorous fifth in the series is a deserved finalist for the Gold and Steel Dagger Awards. Robert Karjel After the Monsoon Harper , Sweden finds Swedish police security agent Ernst Grip struggling to cope with depression following the death of his lover.

After losing control in a raid on a possible terrorist cell in Stockholm, his boss sends him to Djibouti, a tiny country sandwiched between Eritrea and Somalia in the Horn of Africa, to investigate the death of Swedish Lieutenant Per-Erik Slunga during a practice on a shooting range. Slunga was the head of a small MovCon unit, responsible for the air shipments supplying the Swedish armed forces protecting Swedish sea traffic from Somali pirates. The Commander of the HMH Sveabord explains that they have completed their own investigation and the police have arrested the local man who fired the shot.

Meanwhile, a wealthy Swedish family is kidnapped by pirates and taken to Somalia. As the days stretch into weeks, the family grows weaker as they struggle to survive in the hot climate on one small bucket of water a day.

Grip is forced to make some hard choices as he struggles to balance morality and justice in this excellent second in the series. Sarah and her lover James Greenacre were accused of murdering and dismembering Hannah Brown. James admitted to dismembering and disposing of the corpse, but swore he did not murder Hannah.

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Foot-binding involved alteration of the bone structure so that the feet were only about 4 inches long. The bound feet caused difficulty of movement, thus greatly limiting the activities of women. Due to the social custom that men and women should not be near each other, the women of China were reluctant to be treated by male doctors of Western Medicine. This resulted in a tremendous need for female doctors of Western Medicine in China. Thus, female medical missionary Dr.

Hackett — of Indiana, USA. The College was aimed at the spreading of Christianity and modern medicine and the elevation of Chinese women's social status. During the Republic of China —49 and earlier Chinese governments, women were legally bought and sold into slavery under the guise of domestic servants. These women were known as Mui Tsai. However, in the Republic of China had been overthrown by communist guerillas led by Mao Zedong , and the People's Republic of China was founded in the same year.

This outlawed marriage by proxy and made marriage legal so long as both partners consent. The New Marriage Law raised the legal age of marriage to 20 for men and 18 for women. This was an essential part of countryside land reform as women could no longer legally be sold to landlords. The official slogan was "Men and women are equal; everyone is worth his or her salt".

Both before and during biblical times, the roles of women in society were severely restricted. If he does not provide her with these three things, she is to go free, without any payment of money" Exodus The Qur'an , revealed to Muhammad over the course of 23 years, provided guidance to the Islamic community and modified existing customs in Arab society. By providing that the wife, not her family, would receive a dowry from the husband, which she could administer as her personal property, the Qur'an made women a legal party to the marriage contract.

While in customary law, inheritance was limited to male descendants, the Qur'an introduced rules on inheritance with certain fixed shares being distributed to designated heirs, first to the nearest female relatives and then the nearest male relatives.

The general improvement of the status of Arab women included prohibition of female infanticide and recognizing women's full personhood.

Women's rights were protected already by early Medieval Christian Church: The English Church and culture in the Middle Ages regarded women as weak, irrational and vulnerable to temptation who was constantly needed to be kept in check. It was belief based on St. Paul, that the pain of childbirth was a punishment for this deed that led mankind to be banished from the Garden of Eden.

That was the core purpose set out both culturally and religiously across Medieval Europe. In overall Europe during the Middle Ages, women were inferior to that of a man in legal status. In the legal system, women were regarded as the properties of men so any threat or injury to them was in the duty of their male guardians. In Irish law, women were forbidden to act as witnesses in courts. Sometimes regardless of expectation, women did participate and attend court cases and court meetings.

But women could not act as justices in courts, be attorneys, they could not be members of a jury and they could not accuse another person of a felony unless it's the murder of her husband. The Swedish law protected women from the authority of their husbands by transferring the authority to their male relatives. In Swedish law, women would also only get half that of her brother in inheritance. Medieval marriages among the elites were arranged in a way that would meet the interests of the family as a whole.

The rate of Wergild suggested that women in these societies were valued mostly for their breeding purposes. The Wergild of woman was double that of a man with same status in the Aleman and Bavarian legal codes.

Certain areas with Visgothic inheritance laws until the 7th century were favorable to women while all the other laws were not. Having sex with them through force or without consent usually had zero legal consequence or punishment. Women had religious authority and were active as priestesses gydja and oracles sejdkvinna ; [87] they were active within art as poets skalder [87] and rune masters , and as merchants and medicine women.

A married woman could divorce her husband and remarry. Culture and art at the time depicted these witches as seductive and evil, further fuelling moral panic in fusion with rhetoric from the Church. The origin of the female "witch" myth traces back to Roman mythical night creatures known as Strix, who were thought to appear and disappear mysteriously in the night. By , Europe was divided into two types of secular law. Customary laws favoured men more than women. In all of the regions, the laws also gave men substantial powers over lives, property and bodies of their wives.

In areas governed by Roman-based written laws women were under male guardianship in matters involving property and law, fathers overseeing daughters, husbands overseeing wives and uncles or male relatives overseeing widows. Throughout Europe, women's legal status centered around her marital status while marriage itself was the biggest factor in restricting women's autonomy.

According to English Common Law , which developed from the 12th century onward, all property which a wife held at the time of marriage became a possession of her husband.

Eventually English courts forbade a husband's transferring property without the consent of his wife, but he still retained the right to manage it and to receive the money which it produced.

French married women suffered from restrictions on their legal capacity which were removed only in English and American Quakers believed that men and women were equal. Many Quaker women were preachers. The philosopher John Locke opposed marital inequality and the mistreatment of women during this time. Other philosophers have also made the statements regarding women's rights during this time. Yet such, I am sorry to say, is the lot of women over the whole earth.

Man with regard to them, has been either an insensible husband or an oppressor. A paternal society can find prefer to make women's rights a man's duty, for instance under English common law husbands had to maintain their wives. This duty was abolished in Movements emerged which demanded freedom of religion , the abolition of slavery , rights for women, rights for those who did not own property, and universal suffrage.

At the time some of the greatest thinkers of the Enlightenment , who defended democratic principles of equality and challenged notions that a privileged few should rule over the vast majority of the population, believed that these principles should be applied only to their own gender and their own race.

The philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau , for example, thought that it was the order of nature for woman to obey men. He wrote "Women do wrong to complain of the inequality of man-made laws" and claimed that "when she tries to usurp our rights, she is our inferior". University of Halle []. In the French playwright and political activist Olympe de Gouges published the Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen , [] modelled on the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen of The Declaration is ironic in formulation and exposes the failure of the French Revolution , which had been devoted to equality.

The Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen follows the seventeen articles of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen point for point and has been described by Camille Naish as "almost a parody The first article of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen proclaims that "Men are born and remain free and equal in rights. Social distinctions may be based only on common utility.

Social distinctions may only be based on common utility". De Gouges expands the sixth article of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which declared the rights of citizens to take part in the formation of law, to:. De Gouges also draws attention to the fact that under French law women were fully punishable, yet denied equal rights. Mary Wollstonecraft , a British writer and philosopher, published A Vindication of the Rights of Woman in , arguing that it was the education and upbringing of women that created limited expectations.

In his essay " The Subjection of Women " the English philosopher and political theorist John Stuart Mill described the situation for women in Britain as follows:.

Meanwhile the wife is the actual bondservant of her husband; no less so, as far as the legal obligation goes, than slaves commonly so called. His arguments won little support amongst contemporaries [] but his attempt to amend the reform bill generated greater attention for the issue of women's suffrage in Britain.

Although male suffrage broadened during the century, women were explicitly prohibited from voting nationally and locally in the s by the Reform Act and the Municipal Corporations Act By the s, the economic sexual politics of middle class women in Britain and its neighboring Western European countries was guided by factors such as the evolution of 19th century consumer culture, including the emergence of the department store , and Separate spheres.

In Come Buy, Come Buy: Shopping and the Culture of Consumption in Victorian Women's Writing , Krista Lysack's literary analysis of 19th century contemporary literature claims through her resources' reflection of common contemporary norms, "Victorian femininity as characterized by self-renunciation and the regulation of appetite. As a result, many advertisements for socially 'feminine' goods revolved around upward social progression, exoticisms from the Orient , and added efficiency for household roles women were deemed responsible for, such as cleaning, childcare, and cooking.

By law and custom, Muscovite Russia was a patriarchal society that subordinated women to men, and the young to their elders. Peter the great relaxed the second custom, but not the subordination of women. But during Peter's reign, only the man could get rid of his wife by putting her in a nunnery. In terms of laws, there were double standards to women. Adulterous wives were sentenced to forced labor, while men who murdered their wives were merely flogged.

In the 18th century, Russian orthodox church further got its authority over marriage and banned priests from granting divorce, even for severely abused wives. During World War I , caring for children was increasingly difficult for women, many of whom could not support themselves, and whose husbands had died or were fighting in the war.

Many women had to give up their children to children's homes infamous for abuse and neglect. These children's homes were unofficially dubbed as "angel factories". After the October Revolution , the Bolsheviks shut down an infamous angel factory known as the 'Nikolaev Institute' situated near the Moika Canal.

The Bolsheviks then replaced the Nikolaev Institute with a modern maternity home called the 'Palace for Mothers and Babies'. This maternity home was used by the Bolsheviks as a model for future maternity hospitals. The countess who ran the old Institute was moved to a side wing, however she spread rumours that the Bolsheviks had removed sacred pictures, and that the nurses were promiscuous with sailors.

The maternity hospital was burnt down hours before it was scheduled to open, and the countess was suspected of being responsible. Russian women had restrictions in owning property until the mid 18th century. Under the Bolsheviks, Russia became the first country in human history to provide free abortions to women in state run hospitals.

Women's rights activism in Canada during the 19th and early 20th centuries focused on increasing women's role in public life, with goals including women's suffrage, increased property rights, increased access to education, and recognition of women as "persons" under the law. The extent to which women could participate in Japanese society has varied over time and social classes. In the 8th century, Japan had women emperors, and in the 12th century Heian period women in Japan occupied a relatively high status, although still subordinated to men.

From the late Edo period , the status of women declined. In the 17th century, the " Onna Daigaku ", or "Learning for Women", by Confucianist author Kaibara Ekken , spelled out expectations for Japanese women, lowering significantly their status. From the mid 20th century the status of women improved greatly. Japan for instance enacted women's suffrage in , earlier than several European countries such as Switzerland at federal level; on local issues in the canton of Appenzell Innerrhoden , Portugal on equal terms with men, with restrictions since , San Marino in , Monaco in , Andorra in , and Liechtenstein in Central Asian cultures largely remain patriarchal, however, since the fall of the former Soviet Union, the secular societies of the region have become more progressive to women's roles outside the traditional construct of being wholly subservient to men.

The history of women's rights in Australia is a contradictory one: In this regard, Australia differs from other cultures, in that women's suffrage in Australia was one of the earliest objectives of the feminist movement there beginning with South Australia and Western Australia unlike other cultures, such as Eastern European cultures, where at the turn of the 20th century the feminist movement focused on labour rights , access to professions and education, rather than political rights.

To this day, Australia has a quite low percentage of women in business executive roles compared to other countries with equivalent corporate structures. Like the ancient philosophers, 17th century natural law philosophers defended slavery and an inferior status of women in law.

They believed that natural rights were self-evident to "civilised man" who lives "in the highest form of society". Zenon argued that each rational and civilized male Greek citizen had a "divine spark" or "soul" within him that existed independent of the body. Zeno founded the Stoic philosophy and the idea of a human nature was adopted by other Greek philosophers, and later natural law philosophers and western humanists. Concepts of human nature in ancient Greece depended on gender, ethnic, and other qualifications [] and 17th century natural law philosophers came to regard women along with children, slaves and non-whites, as neither "rational" nor "civilised".

They believed that women could not be treated as equal due to their "inner nature". Employment rights for women include non-discriminatory access of women to jobs and equal pay. The rights of women and men to have equal pay and equal benefits for equal work were openly denied by the British Hong Kong Government up to the early s.

Before this, the job status of a woman changed from permanent employee to temporary employee once she was married, thus losing the pension benefit. Some of them even lost their jobs. Since nurses were mostly women, this improvement of the rights of married women meant much to the nursing profession.

A key issue towards insuring gender equality in the workplace is the respecting of maternity rights and reproductive rights of women. During the 19th century some women began to ask for, demand, and then agitate and demonstrate for the right to vote — the right to participate in their government and its law making.

During the 19th century the right to vote was gradually extended in many countries, and women started to campaign for their right to vote. In New Zealand became the first country to give women the right to vote on a national level. Australia gave women the right to vote in A number of Nordic countries gave women the right to vote in the early 20th century — Finland , Norway , Denmark and Iceland Late adopters in Europe were Greece in , Switzerland at federal level; — on local issues at canton level , Portugal on equal terms with men, with restrictions since as well as the microstates of San Marino in , Monaco in , Andorra in , and Liechtenstein in In Canada, most provinces enacted women's suffrage between —, late adopters being Prince Edward Island in , Newfoundland in and Quebec in In Latin America some countries gave women the right to vote in the first half of the 20th century — Ecuador , Brazil , El Salvador , Dominican Republic , Guatemala and Argentina In India , under colonial rule, universal suffrage was granted in Other Asian countries gave women the right to vote in the mid 20th century — Japan , China and Indonesia In Africa, women generally got the right to vote along with men through universal suffrage — Liberia , Uganda and Nigeria In many countries in the Middle East universal suffrage was acquired after World War II, although in others, such as Kuwait , suffrage is very limited.

During the 19th century some women, such as Ernestine Rose , Paulina Wright Davis , Elizabeth Cady Stanton , Harriet Beecher Stowe , in the United States and Britain began to challenge laws that denied them the right to their property once they married.

Under the common law doctrine of coverture husbands gained control of their wives' real estate and wages. Beginning in the s, state legislatures in the United States [] and the British Parliament [] began passing statutes that protected women's property from their husbands and their husbands' creditors. These laws were known as the Married Women's Property Acts. A privy examination was a practice in which a married woman who wished to sell her property had to be separately examined by a judge or justice of the peace outside of the presence of her husband and asked if her husband was pressuring her into signing the document.

For example, in West Germany , the law pertaining to rural farm succession favored male heirs until The Supreme Court, in Kirchberg v. Feenstra , declared such laws unconstitutional. For instance, in some countries women may not leave the home without a male guardian, [] or without the consent of the husband — for example the personal law of Yemen states that a wife must obey her husband and must not get out of the home without his consent.

Laws restricting women from travelling existed until relatively recently in some Western countries: Various practices have been used historically to restrict women's freedom of movement, such as foot binding , the custom of applying painfully tight binding to the feet of young Chinese girls, which was common between the 10th and 20th century.

Women's freedom of movement may be restricted by laws, but it may also be restricted by attitudes towards women in public spaces. In areas where it is not socially accepted for women to leave the home, women who are outside may face abuse such as insults, sexual harassment and violence. Many of the restrictions on women's freedom of movement are framed as measures to "protect" women.

Kundu was coming home after a night out with friends when two men began following her. Kundu made it home unharmed, but was understandably shaken after the incident. She posted her story on Facebook, hoping to bring awareness and warn other women, but was instead met with a backlash of trolls telling her she shouldn't have been out that late and that it was her fault for being in that situation. This incident spawned the AintNoCinderella movement, where women all over the world shared pictures of them being out past midnight with the hashtag in order to combat gender stereotypes and bias.

The lack of legal knowledge among many women, especially in developing countries, is a major obstacle in the improvement of women's situation. International bodies, such as the United Nations, have stated that the obligation of states does not only consist in passing relevant laws, but also in informing women about the existence of such laws, in order to enable them to seek justice and realize in practice their rights.

Therefore, states must popularize the laws, and explain them clearly to the public, in order to prevent ignorance, or misconceptions originating in popular myths , about the laws. The United Nations Development Programme states that, in order to advance gender justice, "Women must know their rights and be able to access legal systems", [] and the UN Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women states at Art.

Women's rights movements focus on ending discrimination of women. In this regard, the definition of discrimination itself is important. According to the jurisprudence of the ECHR , the right to freedom from discrimination includes not only the obligation of states to treat in the same way persons who are in analogous situations, but also the obligation to treat in a different way persons who are in different situations.

Therefore, states must sometimes differentiate between women and men — through for example offering maternity leave or other legal protections surrounding pregnancy and childbirth to take into account the biological realities of reproduction , or through acknowledging a specific historical context.

For example, acts of violence committed by men against women do not happen in a vacuum, but are part of a social context: There are different views on where it is appropriate to differentiate between women and men, and one view is that the act of sexual intercourse is an act where this difference must be acknowledged, both due to the increased physical risks for the woman, [] and due to the historical context of women being systematically subjected to forced sexual intercourse while in a socially subordinated position particularly within marriage and during war.

According to the World Health Organization "Discrimination in health care settings takes many forms and is often manifested when an individual or group is denied access to health care services that are otherwise available to others.

It can also occur through denial of services that are only needed by certain groups, such as women. In this regard treating women and men similarly does not work because certain biological aspects such as menstruation, pregnancy, labor, childbirth, breastfeeding, as well as certain medical conditions, only affect women. Health is defined by the World Health Organization as "a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity".

Women's health is severely impaired in some parts of the world, due to factors such as inequality, confinement of women to the home, indifference of medical workers, lack of autonomy of women, lack of financial resources of women. The right to education is a universal entitlement to education.

Eight of the 15 people who planned the Holocaust at Wannsee in held PhDs. They shone academically, and yet they were profoundly toxic to the world. Pol Pot studied radio electronics in Paris. Does this matter, when neither of them showed the smallest shred of ethics and understanding? Reproductive rights are legal rights and freedoms relating to reproduction and reproductive health.

In the s feminists advanced the concept of voluntary motherhood as a political critique of involuntary motherhood [] and expressing a desire for women's emancipation. Reproductive rights represents a broad concept, that may include some or all of the following rights: Catching up to the dog, Mercy discovers a baby in a backpack carrier, alone in the clearing. Finding no sign of the parents, Mercy straps on the backpack and begins the long hike back to cell phone service. After delivering the baby to the hospital, Mercy shows Troy the area she taped off for explosives and the clearing where the baby was abandoned.

The dogs search the area and uncover a human femur. The crime scene techs find more of the body, a skull with a bullet rattling inside, and a tarnished pewter belt buckle with the pine tree and mountain symbol of Vermont. After the baby disappears from the hospital, Mercy is determined to find her, and tags along with Troy as he searches. For the first time since returning home, Mercy feels echoes of her military police training returning, and realizes that both she and Elvis need the mental and physical stimulation of working a case.

Derided by scientists, the show has a dedicated following of conspiracy theorists who believe the government is concealing important truths. Nolan, his best friend and producer Ken, cameraman Pierre, and assistant producer Molly travel to the Grand Canyon to search for a cavern filled with carvings and idols, supposedly discovered by G.

The expedition gets off to a promising start: Though steep, the cliff is scaleable, and the party begins the long climb up, carrying a few sandwiches, a water bottle each, some headlamps, and all the extra camera batteries.

Eventually they discover something very strange, a perfectly carved stone ball balanced on a square base. Things turn very bad very fast and Nolan and his team begin to doubt any of them will return to tell the story. Zoje Stage Baby Teeth St. Hanna has always adored her father, who gives her unconditional love, but as a toddler began to doubt that her mother adored her at the same level, designing endless tests prove her motherly love, which Suzanne always fails.

Suzanne researches Marie-Anne Dufosset, learning that at the age of 18 she was the last woman burned at the stake as a witch in France. This creepy debut thriller is deviously engaging. Caleb never forgets a face, but his attempts to hide his hearing loss and rely on lip reading often result in missed words and confusion.

His partner Frankie, a former cop, fills in the gaps when she is present, but solo interviews are difficult. Since there is no sign of forced entry, Caleb surmises that Gary voluntarily opened the door to his killer, who may be someone he also knows. The police suspect that Gary was involved in something shady, and conclude Caleb is also involved. Fearing that his ex-wife may be in danger, Caleb persuades her to take refuge with her mother in their home town of Resurrection Bay.

Unfortunately he may have brought the danger with him to Resurrection Bay. William Boyle The Lonely Witness Pegasus Books is the story of Amy Falconetti, a former party girl who gave up her old life when she returned to the church after her aspiring actress girlfriend Alessandra left her to pursue her career.

Now dressing in dowdy clothes instead of her showy vintage outfits, Amy delivers communion to housebound Brooklyn residents. Instead Vincent visits a bar, leaving with another man, who fatally stabs him on the sidewalk.

Amy fears that the killer saw her witness the murder, and is stalking her. Alessandra comes back to town for a visit, inspiring Amy to don a wig and one of her old outfits, toying with the idea of abandoning her new safe normal life for her former risky and self-destructive existence. This gritty noir novel is mesmerizing. Teresa Dovalpage Death Comes in Through the Kitchen Soho Crime begins when Matt Sullivan, a journalist from San Diego, arrives in Havana, in the spring of , carrying a wedding dress for his girlfriend Yarmila Portal, just before the Black Spring crackdown on dissidents journalists, librarians, and human rights and democracy activists.

Matt and Yarmi met online through her food blog Yarmi Cooks Cuban, and their mainly virtual courtship resulted in a marriage proposal. Concerned by rumors that the secret police consider any American visiting Cuba as a potential CIA agent, Matt downplays his job, explaining that his newspaper features only cultural stories about San Diego, Baja California, and Mexico, and that he has not come to Cuba to write about Cuban politics.

Matt visits the restaurant Yarmi worked for to deliver the kitchen gadgets she requested from America, surprised to discover it consists only of a few tables in a crowded living room. Isabel welcomes him and explains the restaurant is a paladar, licensed to serve no more than 12 customers at a time. Yarmila worked there illegally since paladars must be run only by relatives. The longer Matt stays in Cuba the more he wonders if Yarmi told him the truth about anything at all: The police have the emails between Yarmi and Matt, and his request that she write an article for the CIA Culinary Institute of America makes him the prime suspect.

The intriguing Yarmila appears only in her culinary blog posts in this fascinating mystery revealing the dark side of the modern Cuban Revolution. Eight years later, much of the money has been squandered by Reggie, or spent on much needed repairs of the family estate, but now Frances is eagerly planning her departure from Harleigh for a leased house in London with her young daughter Rose.

Her brother-in-law Graham and his wife Delia are horrified by her plan, knowing it will be much harder to wheedle money out of Frances from a distance. Within a week Lily has three suitors, and Frances begins to investigate their characters to protect Lily from her own mistake of marrying a man only interested in her money.

This witty and high-sprited debut mystery is the first in a series. Mick Herron London Rules Soho Crime finds the Slough House group of outcast and demoted MI5 agents in worse shape than usual — fighting addictions, dealing with grief, and worrying that their newest addition J.

Coe may be unable to control his urge to kill if panicked. Only the clueless Roddy Ho, who believes his sexual attraction is equal to his IT skills, is feeling on top of the world, thrilled to finally have a girlfriend. Shirley manages to knock him out of the way of the car trying to kill him, which Roddy was totally unaware of while intent on hunting Pokemon with his cell phone.

Meanwhile, 12 people are killed in Abbotsfield and a pipe bomb kills 14 penguins at their enclosure in Dobsey Park, called The Watering Hole. This blackly humorous fifth in the series is a deserved finalist for the Gold and Steel Dagger Awards. Robert Karjel After the Monsoon Harper , Sweden finds Swedish police security agent Ernst Grip struggling to cope with depression following the death of his lover.

After losing control in a raid on a possible terrorist cell in Stockholm, his boss sends him to Djibouti, a tiny country sandwiched between Eritrea and Somalia in the Horn of Africa, to investigate the death of Swedish Lieutenant Per-Erik Slunga during a practice on a shooting range.

Slunga was the head of a small MovCon unit, responsible for the air shipments supplying the Swedish armed forces protecting Swedish sea traffic from Somali pirates. The Commander of the HMH Sveabord explains that they have completed their own investigation and the police have arrested the local man who fired the shot. Meanwhile, a wealthy Swedish family is kidnapped by pirates and taken to Somalia.

As the days stretch into weeks, the family grows weaker as they struggle to survive in the hot climate on one small bucket of water a day. Grip is forced to make some hard choices as he struggles to balance morality and justice in this excellent second in the series.

Sarah and her lover James Greenacre were accused of murdering and dismembering Hannah Brown. James admitted to dismembering and disposing of the corpse, but swore he did not murder Hannah.

During the trial James insisted that Sarah was innocent, but Sarah would not speak to the evidence, and both were convicted of murder. Edmund becomes a regular visitor to Sarah in Newgate prison, but Sarah still refuses to speak of the crime, though declaring she is innocent. Edmund shares stories of his own unhappy childhood and difficult relationship with his father, and Sarah gradually comes to trust him, revealing selected parts of her own difficult life.

Edmund is sure she is hiding something about the crime, but comes to believe she did not get a fair trial. This intense debut novel, based on a historical case, won the Edgar Award for Best Paperback. The job offer was a surprise to Hubie since he was expelled for pot hunting as a student, which was then legal but embarrassed his professor who was digging in the wrong spot. Hubie finds the endless sensitivity trainings and cut-throat department politics harder than teaching, and tries to have little to do with his colleagues, which is easier than expected, since several refuse to speak to him, convinced the new pottery course should not have been offered to an outsider.

Julie believed Harry was dead and threw her bloody clothes in the washer before calling the police, but instead he remains in a coma in intensive care. Carney turns himself in to the police an hour after the attack, confessing to the murder, but insisting Harry was a random victim chosen because he lived in a luxurious mansion. Disgraced banker Harry McNamara was recently cleared of multiple charges of financial fraud, though most of his colleagues in HM Capital were convicted.

This intense psychological thriller explores themes of greed, lust, addiction, and revenge. Tudor The Chalk Man Crown features year-old Eddie Adams and his four best friends, who develop a secret code featuring chalk figures to add a bit of excitement to their small English village life in The chalk man code is used to set meeting places and send warnings about the bullies who torment them.

One morning Eddie follows the chalk man signal to the woods, and discovers the dismembered body of a teenaged girl he secretly admired.

In Eddie is teaching at his old school and hiding an alcohol problem, when he receives a letter containing a chalk man symbol, the same figure that led him to the body in the woods 30 years earlier. Eddie shrugs the anonymous letter off until he learns that his old friends have also received letters containing the chalk man, a code that they all believed was secret to their group.

Though the prime suspect committed suicide before he could be questioned, Mickey reveals he has new information that may identify the real killer.

Flashbacks to from various perspectives fill in the backstory leading to the body in the woods, exposing secrets each of the small group would like to remain hidden.

This debut thriller, a finalist for the Steel Dagger Award, builds tension to the chilling climax. Rio Youers Halcyon St. Grabbing a marker from her desk, she draws the horror she sees on the walls of her bedroom before reaching out mentally to her older sister Shirley.

In the middle of Lake Ontario is a small private island owned by Valerie Kemp, known as Mother Moon, who runs a self-sustaining community called Halcyon.

Valerie collects those who want to escape the pain of their past lives and are willing to give up technology for peace and pursue the beauty and healing power of the mystical place Valerie calls Glam Moon. As Edith grows more fragile, Martin makes the difficult decision to move his family to Halcyon for a few months, or perhaps permanently. But once on the island Martin has second thoughts. There is something about the charismatic Mother Moon that feels off, perhaps dangerous. This intense paranormal thriller is riveting.

She often drops in unannounced when no meetings are scheduled to check that the cleaning crew is doing their job properly and that the safe house is properly stocked with food and beverage. While changing out the tape in the attic of a safe house, Helen sees first and older man and then a younger man enter the house.

Helen decides not to reveal herself, instead slipping on the headphones to check the recording system, overhearing a coded conversation about bodies of water: Helen tells her lover Clark Baucom about the strange meeting, and he orders her to return for the tape, burn it, and forget she ever heard anything.

Returning to the attic to retrieve the tape later that night, Helen is startled to hear a key in the door signaling another unauthorized visit. She recognizes Kevin Gilley, a case officer, and then sees a young German woman, code named Frieda. Hearing shouting, Helen steals down the stairs to provide support if needed to Gilley, instead discovering him violently raping the woman.

Gilley insists the sex was consensual, and the woman reluctantly agrees. In August , Henry Mattick is living in a rental house in the small town of Poston, New York, when William Shoat shoots and kills his parents Tarrant and Helen in the house next door.

Anna recognizes that her brother has mental problems, and fears someone convinced him to murder their parents. Discovering that her mother was a CIA agent before her marriage is a total shock to Anna and provides a possible motive for her death. Her father was thrilled when she left Tennessee for college, and married Tom, arranging a job for her in the astronomy department at the University of Illinois. Mysterious phone messages for one of the professors, Dr.

Richards, provided Lynn with a much-needed intellectual challenge while Tom spent long hours studying in law school. Richards was working with a secret group tracking mysterious disappearances around the world, all preceded by a storm, swarming lady bugs, and a bright light from the sky.

Lynn kept her daughters out of the woods as they grew up with stories of snakes and poison ivy. This intense debut thriller leaves open the possibility of a sequel. Julia Heaberlin Paper Ghosts Ballantine Books is narrated by a year old woman obsessed with Carl Louis Feldman, an elderly documentary photographer she believes kidnapped and murdered her older sister Rachel, who disappeared 12 years earlier at the age of Carl, who was charged but not convicted with the murder of another young woman, is living in a halfway house for dementia patients with a tendency toward violence.

Pretending to be his daughter, our narrator takes Carl on a road trip through Texas, planning to visit the places where he took eerie photographs and young women disappeared or were murdered, hoping to jolt his memory and learn what happened to Rachel.

Carl claims to have no recollection of any of the places or the missing women, but agrees to the trip with a list of conditions including junk food, feather pillows, boots, and a shovel. Carl quickly regains the use of his left arm supposedly paralyzed by a stroke, and is far sharper mentally than expected, extremely charming, and potentially dangerous.

As the days pass, the two travelers grow unexpectedly close despite their mutual mistrust and deception, adding depth to this haunting thriller. Jennifer Hillier Jar of Hearts Minotaur is the story of Geo Georgina Shaw, whose best friend Angela vanished when they were popular high school juniors.

Calvin, dubbed the Sweetbay Strangler, is convicted of murder and given three life sentences for murdering Angela and two other women. In prison Geo joins forces with Ella Frank, the wife of a drug boss serving time for the murder of two rivals, offering her financial skills in exchange for protection.

Calvin escapes from prison within a year, and Kaiser visits Geo in prison, hoping she has some idea where he has gone. He shows her the piece of paper Calvin doodled on during their trial, featuring a heart enclosing her initials. Shortly before Geo is released from prison, the dismembered body of a woman is found in the same spot Angela was buried, along with the body of a small child.

This chilling psychological thriller explores the aftershocks of a horrific event on the lives of everyone touched by it, the lasting effects of grief, and the lengths some people will go to bury a secret. Hundreds of actors and elephants are waiting for Vicky to reappear, threatening the film that is already behind schedule and over budget.

The Queen fears the strange client may turn dangerous, and wants Rangwalla to accompany the next set of girls undercover, a job he is spectacularly unsuited for. The dark underbelly of life in Mumbai contrasts with some very funny scenes in this clever third in the series, a finalist for the Shamus Award for Best Paperback. Mistry Law has been appointed to serve as executor of the will of Omar Farid, a wealthy Muslim mill owner whose three widows inherited his estate.

After meeting the distasteful Mukri and talking to the widows, Perveen is convinced that something shady is going on, and that the women need her protection. The accident left Nola with 40 stitches and a partial left ear. Maggie died in a car accident a year later, and Zig treasures any connection with his daughter. During the autopsy, Zig is startled to discover two pristine ears, and then a note in the stomach: Nola and Zig learn about Operation Bluebook, a secret government program that goes back to Harry Houdini.

This riveting thriller is the first in a planned series. Saddled with a novice partner named Wattie, McCoy tracks Lorna down at her bus stop, just in time to see a young man shoot her and then himself.

McCoy girlfriend Janey, a prostitute with a secret heroin addiction, may also be controlled by the Dunlops. McCoy suspects that some of his superiors may be customers of the Dunlops, and conducts most of his investigation off the books, which becomes more challenging as five more murders happen that first week of January, including several people McCoy interrogated.

This intense noir thriller is the first in a series. Cynthia Swanson The Glass Forest Touchstone begins in the fall of when year old Angie Glass gets a call from her year old niece Ruby, explaining that her father Henry has just committed suicide after her mother Silja left the family.

Flashbacks fill in the story of the marriage of Henry who was wounded in the war and Silja who took on the task of supporting the family as they grow apart both personally and politically. Angie is surprised to learn that Paul has a history in Stonekill, a dark one that is only mentioned in whispers and asides. An ominous sense of buried secrets builds throughout this intense suspense thriller. Yrsa Sigurdardottir The Legacy Minotaur , Iceland begins in when three neglected Icelandic siblings aged one through four are separated by child services after the death of their mother and grandfather.

Though one woman advises keeping the children together, the rest of the team votes in favor of splitting the children up to make adoption more likely. Meanwhile, Karl, a reclusive young college student, hears a strange transmission on his shortwave radio: Transmissions on subsequent nights are even more mysterious: A second brutal murder increases the tension in this powerful series opener, winner of the Petrona Award for best Scandinavian Crime Novel. Casey Barrett Under Water Kensington introduces Duck Darley, a former rich kid and Olympic-hopeful swimmer, now working as an unlicensed private investigator in Manhattan.

Duck left competitive swimming as a teenager when his father was arrested for fraud and he began drinking to combat the shame.

Margaret McKay, the mother of his old swim team frenemy Charlie, asks Duck to find her troubled year-old daughter Madeline, now missing for several days. Duck tries to turn her down, but the connection to his old life is too strong. Cass Kimball, who helps Duck with his investigations when not working as a dominatrix, puts up with his increasing dependence on alcohol and the painkillers he became addicted to after taking a bullet meant for her. Her connections in the sex-trade world lead to the discovery of porn films featuring Madeline, another secret Duck would prefer not to share with her widowed mother.

Though assured by the London police that most missing adults return safely within a day or two, Marc is panicked. Held against her will in a small room, Alex is shown news clips of Marc appealing to the public for information. As the days pass, she is consumed by memories of their chance meeting at the library when she was home visiting halfway through her MFA program in Chicago.

Alex is haunted by memories of events over the next 15 years: No sign of a body is found, and Marc refuses to believe she is dead. As the months pass, he begins to pack some of her belongings away to store in the attic, discovering a box with letters from Amelia Heldt, her college roommate and now a provocative New York performance artist.

Reading the letters, Marc begins to wonder if they were more than roommates, and discovers how much Alex gave up in order to live a quiet live as a wife and mother instead of pursuing her dream to become an avant guarde artist. This intense debut psychological thriller explores the nature of love, secrets, and personal fulfillment. A Novel in Clues Touchstone begins when Hazel Severy, receives a letter from her grandfather Isaac, a famous mathematician who apparently committed suicide a few days earlier.

After her adopted father went to prison, Hazel and her brother Gregory were adopted by Isaac and his wife.

Unlike her uncle Philip, a theoretical physicist, and the rest of the family geniuses, Hazel had no talent for numbers, though Isaac complemented her logical thinking. Renowned for developing predictive equations for apparently random events, Isaac had been working on a formula to solve the traffic problems in Los Angeles, but that seems an insufficient motive for murder.

Inside a copy of her favorite novel, Tender Is the Night, Hazel discovers additional clues that lead her to a hotel room containing a street map of Los Angeles covered with red adhesive dots. Meanwhile, Philip is contacted by P. This intriguing debut novel explores dysfunctional relationships and the long-lasting effects of childhood trauma. While working on a license to practice in California, Lexy works as a marriage guidance counselor.

When her marriage falls apart, Lexy plans to return to Edinburgh after one last job: Bombaro, a couple in their mid-eighties, dissolve their marriage.

On the Fourth of July, Mr. Bombaro is the likely suspect. Lexy cancels her flight and moves into the Last Ditch motel to help Mrs. Bombaro prove her innocence. At the motel, she finds unexpected support from Todd who suffers from cleptoparasitosis, a delusionary fear of arthropod infestation and his partner Roger. Additional support comes from Noleen, who manages the motel, and her partner Kathi, who runs the attached Skweeky Kleen launderette and suffers from severe germaphobia.

This very funny series opener is a winner. Representatives of many kingdoms have gathered to discuss the formation of the Chamber of Princes, an Indian House of Lords to assuage the clamor for Home Rule.

As they are traveling to the Grand Hotel, the prince is shot and killed by a man wearing the saffron garb of a Hindu holy man, who escapes into the crowd.

Lord Taggert hopes that the murder has a religious motive rather than a political one, since Prince Adhir had made public his decision not to join the Chamber of Princes. Wyndham and Banerjee travel to Sambalpore, a tiny but fabulously wealthy kingdom, to attend the funeral and investigate the assassination, discovering that the charismatic prince had alienated religious factions with his penchant for modernization and an affair with a white woman.

This excellent second in the series pits Wyndham, anxious to return to Calcutta and easy access to the opium he is addicted to, and the talented Banerjee, against both British and Indian factions eager for power and control. Bernard learns that his long-ago affair with his neighbor Vera was only one in a string of her extramarital adventures, destroying the romantic memories that have sustained him since the death of his wife.

This engrossing debut thriller, narrated from the multigenerational perspectives of Bernard, Amy, and Maddie, explores the effects of abandonment, loss, and loneliness. Paige Hulet at the Arcadia mental hospital hires Ford to track down Clay Hickman, a bipolar patient who escaped two days earlier.

Ford tracks down the young neighbor women who helped Clay escape, telling him Clay talked about his mission "to bring white fire to Deimos" before stealing her truck. Briggs Spencer, the co-founder of Arcadia, coauthored a book for the CIA presenting the use of effective torture techniques to extract information from prisoners. This compelling series debut, a finalist for the Shamus Award for Best Novel, includes very disturbing descriptions of interrogation techniques designed to break the most hardened prisoner.

Charlton Pettus Exit Strategy Hanover Square Press begins when Jordan Parrish, whose tiny protein modeling startup company Genometry in Boston is about to go under, debates between suicide and calling the Exit Strategy number. Knowing suicide will nullify both his personal and business insurance policies, leaving his wife and their two your children penniless, Jordan calls the number, and wakes up in a small prison-like room. Exit Strategy relocates Jordan to Japan, warning him that any attempt to contact his family will mean death for them all.

As he tries to evade the scrutiny of Exit Strategy, Jordan begins to suspect that someone wanted him gone. This intense debut thriller cleverly combines scientific investigation and a wild chase across countries.

The postman explains that he has delivered a few other old letters, discovered after the wall came down. Clutching the letter, Martha is transported back to , when she struggled to fit in with the changes in Berlin. Wolfgang excelled in his Hitler Youth group, and was selected by Baldur von Schirach himself as a valuable asset to the Nazi regime and given a grant to improve his technical skills at university. In , Maya Wiesberg and her father receive word that the remains of her grandmother Martha, who disappeared in , have been discovered in America at the Montgomery Resort and Preserve, a pricy weekend getaway north of New York City.

This engrossing debut historical thriller was inspired by a real family letter received 46 years late. Neither Patrick nor Michael had a happy home life, and the two spent most of their free time playing adventure games in the Swangum Mountain wilderness area. In the summer of , when the three ranged in age from 12 to 14, Hannah joined them in their favorite hideout on Grist Mill Road one fateful summer day, ending with a violent crime.

Twenty-six years later the three are living in New York City when their paths intersect again, reawakening their guilt, resentment, and anger.

Hannah is a crime reporter, Michael has made a fortune, and Patrick is writing a food blog after being laid off. Though each holds a firm belief about the event, all three have hidden secrets about the crime. Narrated by all three characters from their current and past perspectives, individual interpretations of the shared event and the different realities that led to it gradually coalesce into the whole truth of that life-changing summer day.

This intense character-driven thriller is stunning. Twelve-year-old Ceola Bliss is consumed with grief over the loss of her brother Robbie, declared missing in the Pacific. The body is missing, but Ceola finds a velvet shoe and helps Jay retrieve his camera. The photographs Jay develops of the dead blond woman are strangely beautiful, and the three become obsessed with figuring out who she was and who killed her. She writes to Ceola, and together the two reconstruct the events of that long-ago summer.

This compelling debut thriller reveals the dangerous existence of gay men in the s, who faced persecution if they revealed their sexual identities. Believing Carver killed himself, Ruth dismantles his unauthorized collection of Thorn Killer charts and files and takes them to her car along with the gun. Carver was obsessed with the Thorn Killer, who kidnapped and tattooed five women with thorns before killing and displaying their bodies in artistic poses.

When Carver wakes up five days later with no memory of the shooting, he knows Ruth is hiding something. Details of the year-long investigation of the four earlier killings are revealed as Carver works with a hospital neuropsychologist to retrieve his memory of the night he was shot.

The influence of Greek art, however, led to "heroic" nude portrayals of Roman men and gods, a practice that began in the 2nd century BC. When statues of Roman generals nude in the manner of Hellenistic kings first began to be displayed, they were shocking not simply because they exposed the male figure, but because they evoked concepts of royalty and divinity that were contrary to Republican ideals of citizenship as embodied by the toga.

In art produced under Augustus, the programmatic adoption of Hellenistic and Neo-Attic style led to more complex signification of the male body shown nude, partially nude, or costumed in a muscle cuirass. One exception to public nudity was the baths , though attitudes toward nude bathing also changed over time.

In the 2nd century BC, Cato preferred not to bathe in the presence of his son, and Plutarch implies that for Romans of these earlier times it was considered shameful for mature men to expose their bodies to younger males. Roman sexuality as framed by Latin literature has been described as phallocentric. It was used as an amulet fascinum , many examples of which survive, particularly in the form of wind chimes tintinnabula.

The outsized phallus of Roman art was associated with the god Priapus , among others. It was laughter-provoking, grotesque, or used for magical purposes. The poetry collection called the Priapea deals with phallic sexuality, including poems spoken in the person of Priapus.

In one, for instance, Priapus threatens anal rape against any potential thief. The wrath of Priapus might cause impotence, or a state of perpetual arousal with no means of release: There are approximately recorded Latin terms and metaphors for the penis, with the largest category treating the male member as an instrument of aggression, a weapon.

Verpa , by contrast, was "an emotive and highly offensive word" for the penis with its foreskin drawn back, as the result of an erection, excessive sexual activity, or circumcision. The penis might also be referred to as the "vein" vena , "tail" penis or cauda , or "tendon" nervus. Later, penis becomes the standard word in polite Latin, as used for example by the scholiast to Juvenal and by Arnobius , but did not pass into usage among the Romance languages. The apparent connection between Latin testes , "testicles," and testis , plural testes , "witness" the origin of English "testify" and "testimony" [] may lie in archaic ritual.

Some ancient Mediterranean cultures swore binding oaths upon the male genitalia, symbolizing that "the bearing of false witness brings a curse upon not only oneself, but one's house and future line". To Romans, castration and circumcision were linked as barbaric mutilations of the male genitalia. Some Romans kept beautiful male slaves as deliciae or delicati "toys, delights" who were sometimes castrated in an effort to preserve the androgynous looks of their youth.

The emperor Nero had his freedman Sporus castrated, and married him in a public ceremony. By the end of the 1st century AD, bans against castration had been enacted by the emperors Domitian and Nerva in the face of a burgeoning trade in eunuch slaves.

Sometime between and AD, Hadrian seems to have temporarily banned circumcision, on pain of death. A surgical procedure epispasm existed to restore the foreskin and cover the glans "for the sake of decorum".

Of these, some had themselves circumcised again later. Too-frequent ejaculation was thought to weaken men. Greek medical theories based on the classical elements and humors recommended limiting the production of semen by means of cooling, drying, and astringent therapies, including cold baths and the avoidance of flatulence-causing foods. It is not at all surprising that those who are less moderate sexually turn out to be weaker, since the whole body loses the purest part of both substances, and there is besides an accession of pleasure, which by itself is enough to dissolve the vital tone, so that before now some persons have died from excess of pleasure.

The uncontrolled dispersing of pneuma in semen could lead to loss of physical vigor, mental acuity, masculinity, and a strong manly voice, [] a complaint registered also in the Priapea. When plates of lead are bound to the area of the loins and kidneys, it is used, owing to its rather cooling nature, to check the attacks of sexual desire and sexual dreams in one's sleep that cause spontaneous eruptions to the point of becoming a sort of disease.

With these plates the orator Calvus is reported to have restrained himself and to have preserved his body's strength for the labor of his studies. Lead plates, cupping therapy , and hair removal were prescribed for three sexual disorders thought to be related to nocturnal emissions: Effeminacy was a favorite accusation in Roman political invective, and was aimed particularly at populares , the politicians of the faction who represented themselves as champions of the people, sometimes called Rome's "democratic" party in contrast to the optimates , a conservative elite of nobles.

The rites were held at a senior magistrate 's home, in this year that of Julius Caesar, nearing the end of his term as praetor and only recently invested as Pontifex Maximus. Clodius disguised himself as a female musician to gain entrance, as described in a "verbal striptease" by Cicero, who prosecuted him for sacrilege incestum: Take away his saffron dress, his tiara, his girly shoes and purple laces, his bra, his Greek harp , take away his shameless behavior and his sex crime, and Clodius is suddenly revealed as a democrat.

The actions of Clodius, who had just been elected quaestor and was probably about to turn thirty, are often regarded as a last juvenile prank.

The all-female nature of these nocturnal rites attracted much prurient speculation from men; they were fantasized as drunken lesbian orgies that might be fun to watch. The scandal prompted Caesar to seek an immediate divorce to control the damage to his own reputation, giving rise to the famous line "Caesar's wife must be above suspicion". The incident "summed up the disorder of the final years of the republic". In addition to political invective, cross-dressing appears in Roman literature and art as a mythological trope as in the story of Hercules and Omphale exchanging roles and attire , [] religious investiture , and rarely or ambiguously as transvestic fetishism.

A section of the Digest by Ulpian [] categorizes Roman clothing on the basis of who may appropriately wear it; a man who wore women's clothes, Ulpian notes, would risk making himself the object of scorn. They are sometimes considered a transgender priesthood, since they were required to be castrated in imitation of Attis.

The complexities of gender identity in the religion of Cybele and the Attis myth are explored by Catullus in one of his longest poems, Carmen Roman men were free to have sex with males of lower status without a perceived loss of masculinity, or even as an enhancement of it. Those who took the receiving role in sex acts, sometimes referred to as the "passive" or "submissive" role, were disparaged as weak and effeminate, regardless of the sex of their partner see the section below on cunnilungus and fellatio , [] while having sex with males in the active position was proof of one's masculinity.

Laws such as the poorly understood Lex Scantinia and various pieces of Augustan moral legislation were meant to restrict same-sex activity among freeborn males, viewed as threatening a man's status and independence as a citizen.

Latin had such a wealth of words for men outside the masculine norm that some scholars [] argue for the existence of a homosexual subculture at Rome; that is, although the noun "homosexual" has no straightforward equivalent in Latin, literary sources reveal a pattern of behaviors among a minority of free men that indicate same-sex preference or orientation. Some terms, such as exoletus , specifically refer to an adult; Romans who were socially marked as "masculine" did not confine their same-sex penetration of male prostitutes or slaves to those who were "boys" under the age of And some older men may have at times preferred the passive role with a same age or younger partner, though this was socially frowned upon.

Homoerotic Latin literature includes the "Juventius" poems of Catullus , [] elegies by Tibullus [] and Propertius , [] the second Eclogue of Vergil , and several poems by Horace.

Lucretius addresses the love of boys in De rerum natura 4. The poet Martial , despite being married to a woman, often derides women as sexual partners, and celebrates the charms of pueri boys.

Although Roman law did not recognize marriage between men, in the early Imperial period some male couples were celebrating traditional marriage rites.

Same-sex weddings are reported by sources that mock them; the feelings of the participants are not recorded. Apart from measures to protect the liberty of citizens, the prosecution of homosexuality as a general crime began in the 3rd century when male prostitution was banned by Philip the Arab. By the end of the 4th century, passive homosexuality under the Christian Empire was punishable by burning. Men who had been raped were exempt from the loss of legal or social standing infamia suffered by males who prostituted themselves or willingly took the receiving role in sex.

Roman law addressed the rape of a male citizen as early as the 2nd century BC, when a ruling was issued in a case that may have involved a male of same-sex orientation. Although a man who had worked as a prostitute could not be raped as a matter of law, it was ruled that even a man who was "disreputable famosus and questionable suspiciosus " had the same right as other free men not to have his body subjected to forced sex.

In his collection of twelve anecdotes dealing with assaults on chastity, the historian Valerius Maximus features male victims in equal number to female. The Roman soldier, like any free and respectable Roman male of status, was expected to show self-discipline in matters of sex. Soldiers convicted of adultery were given a dishonorable discharge ; convicted adulterers were barred from enlisting. Strict commanders might ban prostitutes and pimps from camp, [] though in general the Roman army , whether on the march or at a permanent fort castra , was attended by a number of camp followers who might include prostitutes.

Perhaps most peculiar is the prohibition against marriage in the Imperial army. In the early period, Rome had an army of citizens who left their families and took up arms as the need arose.

During the expansionism of the Middle Republic , Rome began acquiring vast territories to be defended as provinces, and during the time of Gaius Marius d. The marriage ban applied to all ranks up to the centurionate ; men of the governing classes were exempt. By the 2nd century AD, the stability of the Empire kept most units in permanent forts, where attachments with local women often developed. Although legally these unions could not be formalized as marriages, their value in providing emotional support for the soldiers was recognized.

After a soldier was discharged, the couple were granted the right of legal marriage as citizens conubium , and any children they already had were considered to have been born to citizens. Other forms of sexual gratification available to soldiers were the use of male slaves , war rape , and same-sex relations. Polybius 2nd century BC reports that same-sex activity in the military was punishable by the fustuarium , clubbing to death.

A soldier maintained his masculinity by not allowing his body to be used for sexual purposes. This physical integrity stood in contrast to the limits placed on his actions as a free man within the military hierarchy; most strikingly, Roman soldiers were the only citizens regularly subjected to corporal punishment, reserved in the civilian world mainly for slaves.

Sexual integrity helped distinguish the status of the soldier, who otherwise sacrificed a great deal of his civilian autonomy, from that of the slave. An incident related by Plutarch in his biography of Marius illustrates the soldier's right to maintain his sexual integrity. A good-looking young recruit named Trebonius [] had been sexually harassed over a period of time by his superior officer, who happened to be Marius's nephew, Gaius Luscius.

One night, having fended off unwanted advances on numerous occasions, Trebonius was summoned to Luscius's tent. Unable to disobey the command of his superior, he found himself the object of a sexual assault and drew his sword, killing Luscius. A conviction for killing an officer typically resulted in execution.

When brought to trial, he was able to produce witnesses to show that he had repeatedly had to fend off Luscius, and "had never prostituted his body to anyone, despite offers of expensive gifts". Marius not only acquitted Trebonius in the killing of his kinsman, but gave him a crown for bravery. During wartime, the violent use of war captives for sex was not considered criminal rape. Mass rape occurred in some circumstances, and is likely to be underreported in the surviving sources, but was not a deliberate or pervasive strategy for controlling a population.

In territories and provinces brought under treaty with Rome, soldiers who committed rape against the local people might be subjected to harsher punishments than civilians. Because of the Roman emphasis on family, female sexuality was regarded as one of the bases for social order and prosperity. Female citizens were expected to exercise their sexuality within marriage, and were honored for their sexual integrity pudicitia and fecundity: Augustus granted special honors and privileges to women who had given birth to three children see " Ius trium liberorum ".

Control of female sexuality was regarded as necessary for the stability of the state, as embodied most conspicuously in the absolute virginity of the Vestals.

As was the case for men, free women who displayed themselves sexually, such as prostitutes and performers, or who made themselves available indiscriminately were excluded from legal protections and social respectability. Many Roman literary sources approve of respectable women exercising sexual passion within marriage. Roman attitudes toward female nudity differed from but were influenced by those of the Greeks, who idealized the male body in the nude while portraying respectable women clothed.

Partial nudity of goddesses in Roman Imperial art, however, can highlight the breasts as dignified but pleasurable images of nurturing, abundance, and peacefulness. In the real world as described in literature, prostitutes sometimes displayed themselves naked at the entrance to their brothel cubicles, or wore see-through silk garments; slaves for sale were often displayed naked to allow buyers to inspect them for defects, and to symbolize that they lacked the right to control their own body.

Naked she stood on the shore, at the pleasure of the purchaser; every part of her body was examined and felt. Would you hear the result of the sale? The pirate sold; the pimp bought, that he might employ her as a prostitute. The display of the female body made it vulnerable. Varro said sight was the greatest of the senses, because while the others were limited by proximity, sight could penetrate even to the stars; he thought the Latin word for "sight, gaze ", visus , was etymologically related to vis , "force, power".

But the connection between visus and vis , he said, also implied the potential for violation , just as Actaeon gazing on the naked Diana violated the goddess. The completely nude female body as portrayed in sculpture was thought to embody a universal concept of Venus, whose counterpart Aphrodite is the goddess most often depicted as a nude in Greek art.

The "basic obscenity" for the female genitalia is cunnus , " cunt ", though perhaps not as strongly offensive as the English. Varro connects this usage of the word to the sacrifice of a pig to the goddess Ceres in preliminary wedding rites. Although women's genitals appear often in invective and satiric verse as objects of disgust, they are rarely referred to in Latin love elegy. The function of the clitoris landica was "well understood".

Latin lacked a standard word for labia ; [] two terms found in medical writers are orae , "edges" or "shores", [] and pinnacula , "little wings". Vulva seems originally to have referred to the womb of animals, but is "extremely common" in Pliny's Natural History for a human uterus. Both women and men often removed their pubic hair, [] but grooming may have varied over time and by individual preference.

A fragment from the early satirist Lucilius refers to penetrating a "hairy bag", [] and a graffito from Pompeii declares that "a hairy cunt is fucked much better than one which is smooth; it's steamy and wants cock". At the entrance to a caldarium in the bath complex of the House of Menander at Pompeii, an unusual graphic device appears on a mosaic: Latin words for "breasts" include mammae cf.

English "mammary" , papillae more specifically for "nipples" , and ubera , breasts in their capacity to provide nourishment, including the teats or udder of an animal. The breasts of a beautiful woman were supposed to be "unobtrusive. While Greek epigrams describe ideal breasts, [] Latin poets take limited interest in them, at least as compared to the modern focus on admiring and fondling a woman's breasts. Because all infants were breastfed in antiquity, the breast was viewed primarily as an emblem of nurturing and of motherhood.

Wrapping one's head in a bra was said to cure a headache. Baring the breasts is one of the gestures made by women, particularly mothers or nurses, to express mourning or as an appeal for mercy. Because women were normally portrayed clothed in art, bared breasts can signify vulnerability or erotic availability by choice, accident, or force.

Baring a single breast was a visual motif of Classical Greek sculpture , where among other situations, including seductions, [] it often represented impending physical violence or rape. The erogenous power of the breast was not utterly neglected: Greek words for a woman who prefers sex with another woman include hetairistria compare hetaira , "courtesan" or "companion" , tribas plural tribades , and Lesbia ; Latin words include the loanword tribas , fricatrix "she who rubs" , and virago.

Ovid, who advocates generally for a heterosexual lifestyle, finds it "a desire known to no one, freakish, novel During the Roman Imperial era, which many Roman writers perceived as more decadent than the Republican period, sources for same-sex relations among women are more abundant, in the form of love spells, medical writing, texts on astrology and the interpretation of dreams, and other sources. I wish I could hold to my neck and embrace the little arms, and bear kisses on the tender lips.

Go on, doll, and trust your joys to the winds; believe me, light is the nature of men. An early reference to same-sex relations among women as "lesbianism" is found in Lucian 2nd century AD: Instead, they consort with women, just like men.

Since Romans thought a sex act required an active or dominant partner who was "phallic" see "Phallic sexuality" above , male writers imagined that in lesbian sex one of the women would use a dildo or have an exceptionally large clitoris for penetration, and that she would be the one experiencing pleasure. The rape of women is a pervasive theme in the myths and legends of early Rome. The overthrow of the Roman monarchy and the establishment of the Republic was precipitated by the rape of the much-admired Lucretia by Sextus Tarquinius , the king's son.

The legend crystallizes the Roman view of unchecked libido as a form of tyranny. The Augustan historian Livy seems "embarrassed" by the rape motif of early Roman history, and emphasizes the redeeming political dimension of these events.

Roman law recognized rape as a crime: The laws punish the foul wickedness of those who prostitute their modesty to the lusts of others, but they do not attach blame to those who are compelled to stuprum by force, since it has, moreover, been quite properly decided that their reputations are unharmed and that they are not prohibited from marriage to others. Although literary sources from the Republican era make it clear that rape was wrong and severely penalized, the statutes under which it might be charged as a crime are unknown until passage of the Lex Iulia de vi publica , dating probably to the dictatorship of Julius Caesar in the 40s BC.

Since emancipated women were allowed to bring criminal prosecutions in the Republic, [] it is conceivable that a rape victim could have brought charges against her rapist herself.

Otherwise, the case could be prosecuted by her father or husband, or by anyone who saw fit to do so. There was no statute of limitations for rape; by contrast adultery , which was criminalized under Augustus , had to be prosecuted within five years. As a matter of law, rape could be committed only against a citizen in good standing.

A woman who worked as a prostitute or entertainer lost her social standing and became infamis ; by making her body publicly available, she had in effect surrendered her right to be protected from sexual abuse or physical violence. If rape against a married woman could not be proven, the Augustan legislation criminalizing adultery would make the man liable to a charge of adulterium , criminal adultery, though a charge of either adultery or stuprum without force would implicate the woman as well.

Attitudes toward rape changed when the Empire became Christianized. Augustine interpreted Lucretia's suicide as a possible admission that she had secretly encouraged the rapist, [n 7] and Christian apologists regarded her as having committed the sin of involuntary sexual pleasure.

The word raptus thus could refer to a successful seduction as well as abduction or rape. If the girl consented, Constantine ordered that she be punished along with the male "abductor" by being burnt alive. If she had not consented, she was still considered an accomplice, "on the grounds that she could have saved herself by screaming for help". In the Republic and the pre-Christian Empire, the consequences of an abduction or an elopement had been up to the couple and their families.

Both male and female freeborn children wore the toga praetexta , a purple-bordered garment that marked its wearer as having "inviolable" status. Freeborn Roman boys also wore an apotropaic amulet called the bulla which incorporated a phallic talisman fascinum inside a locket of gold, silver, or bronze, or in a leather pouch.

There were laws protecting freeborn children from sexual predators , [] [] and the rape of a freeborn boy was a capital crime; this severity was directed at protecting the integrity of the young citizen. Apronius danced naked at a banquet in front of a boy still of an age to wear the praetexta.

Quintilian regards this misbehavior as a sign of general moral decline. Protections applied only to freeborn children, not those born to slaves, sold into slavery, or taken captive in war. The social acceptance of pederasty among the Romans was focused on the exploitation of young male slaves or prostitutes by men of the upper classes.

Adolescents in ritual preparation to transition to adult status wore the tunica recta , the "upright tunic", so called because it was woven ritually on the type of upright loom that was the earliest used by Romans. The puberty ritual for the young male involved shaving his first beard and taking off his bulla , which he dedicated to the household gods, the Lares.

Roman women were expected to remain virgins until marriage; the higher a girl's social rank, the earlier she was likely to become betrothed and married. Weddings were often postponed until the girl was considered mature enough. The wedding ceremony was in part a rite of passage for the bride, as Rome lacked the elaborate female puberty rituals of ancient Greece.

The confining of her hair signified the harnessing of her sexuality within marriage. Her weaving of the tunica recta and the hairnet demonstrated her skill and her capacity for acting in the traditional matron's role as custos domi , "guardian of the house".

Because men could enjoy sexual relations outside marriage with relative impunity, it has sometimes been assumed that satisfying sex was not an expectation of Roman marriage.

Sexual intimacy between a married couple was a private matter, and not usually the subject of literature. A wedding hymn by Catullus, for instance, praises the love goddess Venus because "nothing is possible without you".

I am seized by an unbelievable longing for you. The reason is above all my love, but secondarily the fact that we are not used to being apart. This is why I spend the greater part of the night haunted by your image; this is why from time to time my feet lead me the right expression! Pliny adopts the rhetoric of love poetry, conventionally directed at an illicit or hard-to-attain lover, as appropriate for expressing his wedded desire. Although it was a point of pride for a woman to be univira , married only once, [] there was no stigma attached to divorce.

Speedy remarriage after divorce or the death of a spouse was common and even expected among the Roman elite, since marriage was considered right and natural for adults. While having children was a primary goal of marriage, other social and familial bonds were enhanced, not excluding personal companionship and sexual pleasure between husband and wife, as indicated by marriages involving women past their childbearing years.

The Trojan royal couple Hector and Andromache became a mythological trope of wedded sex. Latin love elegy focuses on their sex life rather than the tragic end of their marriage with Hector's death at the hands of Achilles. An epithalamium by Catullus [] paints the wedding night as a time of ripe eroticism, spiced with humorous and bawdy songs from the guests.

The husband is reminded that "good Venus" has blessed him, since he can now desire openly what he desires, and need not conceal a "good love". The couple is encouraged to enjoy themselves as they please ludite ut lubet ; the goal is to produce children soon. A pair of paintings in a bedroom of the Casa della Farnesina has been interpreted as "a narrative of the modest bride becoming the immodest lover—perhaps fulfilling a ribald male fantasy".

Some literary passages suggest that a newlywed might break off his outside sexual relations for a time and focus on bonding with his wife in the hope of starting a family. Legally, however, a Roman husband did not commit adultery when he had sex outside marriage as long as his partner was considered sexually available; sexual misconduct stuprum was adultery depending on the status of a female partner. A character in a play by Plautus expresses a man's sexual freedom in comic terms:.

No one prohibits anyone from going down the public way publica via ; as long as you do not make a path through posted land , as long as you hold off from brides, single women, maidens, the youth and free boys, love whatever you want. A married or marriageable woman and young male citizens are off-limits, just as if they were the property of someone else, [] and in fact adultery as a crime was committed contrary to the rights of the paterfamilias to control his household. For a married woman, no infidelity was acceptable, and first-time brides were expected to be virgins.

Following the collapse of the Republic , moral legislation became part of the new political order under Rome's first emperor, Augustus. The appeal to old-fashioned values cloaked the radical overthrow of the Republic's participatory political institutions by top-down, one-man rule.

Scholars have often assumed that the Lex Iulia was meant to address a virulent outbreak of adultery in the Late Republic. An androcentric perspective in the early 20th century held that the Lex Iulia had been "a very necessary check upon the growing independence and recklessness of women".

Personal anxieties about infidelity, within marriage or not, are reflected in magic spells intended to "fix" defixiones or bind the other person's erotic attachment. One magical papyrus from Roman Egypt recommends placing the heart of a hoopoe on a sleeping woman's genitals to induce truthful answers; another says that the tongue of a hen placed on her lips or breast will cause her to reveal the name of the man she loves.

Literature of the Late Republic and Principate , particularly the satires of Horace and Juvenal , offer various depictions, or perhaps fantasies, of how a wronged husband might subject his wife's lover to humiliation and punishment.

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