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Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. The Elias Miller Family. Miller All rights reserved including the right to copy or reprint any portion of this book. A community, county, state, or nation which ceases to be interested in the past is headed downward. Likewise, a family which forgets or neglects to nourish the family background fails to develop family pride which adds to the pleasure of life and personal self-respect. He began to gather some information and then I joined him in the effort while I was still in high school about I have always felt a need to preserve history.

I have been keeping an almost daily journal of my life since I was nine years old in My grandmother gave me a blank journal and I just started writing in it. There were times when I would stop for a while but I always came back to it.

When I was in high school I began to copy the records of my church with the idea of writing a history of its first years. The research was hit or miss and very unprofessional until I majored in history at Shorter College and served an internship at the Rome and Floyd County Archives. At that time I began to use a Compaq 40 megabyte hard drive computer, buy filing cabinets, and create charts and graphs to see a better picture of what we had and what we needed.

The questions, however, are rooted in his origins and these, realistically, go back before his birth in Until I returned to Paulding County in , all of our focus had been on pushing back in time and attempting to discover the parents of Elias Miller and his place of his birth. At that point, however, I began to search for all of his descendants in the hopes of finding someone who might have valuable information, a photograph, a Bible, etc.

Both of these ladies were descended from Elias through his daughter Margaret Miller but completely unknown to the James D. Miller branch of the family. They led me to the complete Patterson family and doubled the number of descendants in my Elias Miller descendant chart, yet they represented only the second of eleven children Elias and Elizabeth had. This, along with finding sisters Judy and Barbara Henley, led to the Boozer family and added to the descendant chart once again. Yet eight more children remained.

In I found Lucille Beatenbaugh Cooley who was living just up the road from me. John is the oldest child of Elias and I have no living contact from that branch. I do, however, still have all my notes. The church will be in Thus, this is a work in progress. There will undoubtedly be multiple editions of this reference. First, the research will never be finished no matter how long I wait.

Second, I am hopeful the book will stimulate interest and conversations and lead us to new connections and uncover additional people and information. Copies of this book have been placed in libraries and historical societies where Elias lived and it is hoped someone looking for Elias will find us.

Third, I am already priting subsequent editions. We do have 30 years of research behind this first edition and it has come to the point that it needs to be assembled and laid out in an orderly fashion such that even the least interested relative can appreciate. I intend this book to be a reference. True, the first section on Elias reads like a biography but this is not a book you sit down with and read from front to back. This is a book you keep handy and look up answers to questions when they arise.

This work will define for the reader who the people are in this family and how they are related. This book is about the blood line of Elias. I have intentionally left out step and adopted children. I understand the desire of many to include these persons as family.

I have included information about spouses, those who married into the family, for the purpose of identification, and their parents as far as they are known but no further than one generation. There were several principles Dad and I agreed on when we started this research and our team partners have accepted this approach since they have joined us. For example, we decided to seek the truth and accept it no matter how good or bad it turned out to be.

The tendency of many in the past, and some today, to alter family history facts or cover up the truth because it was perceived to be unacceptable based on prejudice or moral sensibilities is unreasonable. It would be nice if we were descended only from wealthy kings, intelligent priests, and powerful, good, nice, handsome law-abiding citizens. The reality is that we, like every other family, have had to come to terms with ancestors who included child molesters, adulterers, alcoholics, moonshiners, murderers, thieves, rapists, and dead beats.

Too often, family members have wanted to ignore or deny the facts but we have been persistent in pursuing the truth regardless how uncomfortable it made us feel. This is not to cause anyone embarrassment.

The truth is the truth and the record needs to be accurate. We are who we are. No family is perfect and pretending to be only proves history has been revised.

Since every family has skeletons, we may as well get them out and be honest about them. This book is for family members. Therefore, with some bad apples in the tree, it just makes the good folks all the more to be appreciated.

We also have dedicated ministers, doctors, lawyers, law enforcement officers, and professional athletes in the family. Some of us have done very well and these are recognized as well. Secondly, we decided we were not in this to make money. There is no way to begin to imagine how much we have spent on copies and gas in the car over these 32 years. There are also birth certificates, marriage licenses, wills, and deeds. But this is not why you had to pay for this book.

The cost of this book is based solely on recovering the cost of printing this book. We are not in this to make a profit. When you think about it, you are holding thousands of dollars worth of research in your hand for a very inexpensive price. A benefit you can keep, treasure, and pass down to your own descendants.

We agreed to record and refer to females by their birth names. Because several have been married more than once, names of women can be very confusing. This is not an attempt to ignore a marriage or minimize the importance of the married name; it is a choice to be consistent.

With this in mind, using the book effectively should not be a problem. We have only sought to make copies. We paid to have other old photos restored, some found in attics, basements, and barns that were near the point of total deterioration, so they would not be lost to any of us. It makes more sense to share photos and information because this protects them from loss.

There have been so many homes burning down in the family in which single copy photos, Bibles, letters, and other information was lost forever. He is a descendant of Margaret Elizabeth Miller Patterson and upon our first meeting he loaned me a photo album of rare, old family pictures. These photos are irreplaceable but he trusted me to bring the book from Tennessee to Georgia, make copies, and mail the book back. Now all of us can enjoy these valuable images because Doyle understood the big picture.

My hope is that everyone listed in this book and especially those who furnished information, either bits or parts, will find pleasure and enjoyment in the contents of this book. The material is arranged so that everyone listed should be able to trace their line back to our first proven Miller ancestor. If you are able to correct or add to what you find here, please contact me so future editions will be even more valuable to future generations of descendants.

If you find a mistake, it was not intentional. If it were possible, the name of everyone who has furnished even the smallest bit of information would be listed. However, this is not possible. The names of those who have been most helpful must be recognized. Some have worked tirelessly to find information to help in this work and to make it more complete and meaningful. Those that use this book will be most grateful to everyone who has furnished information whether small bits or parts, or great amounts.

The one who has been most helpful is my father Raymond Earl Miller. In fact, it ought to be his name instead of mine on the cover. He paid for so many of the expenses and he kept pushing me when I grew tired of the work and wanted to lay it down for a while. Frank McClellan Boozer Sr. Surnames, however, as we know and use them today, are a recent development. They have evolved over the last few hundred years based on various historical developments. One class of surnames reflects occupations like the names Smith, Carpenter, or Miller.

This was helpful to distinguish, for example, between two men named John in the same town. There may have been John the Miller as opposed to the other John the Smith. Eventually, as you can imagine, John the Miller evolved into simply John Miller. Some surnames, like Fletcher, are still common names even though the occupation of making arrows is no longer so well known. Other surnames faded along with their occupations such as that of Woodmonger, a person who sells wood, which used to be a very common family name in England.

The Romans were the first people to use family names but this practice fell into sharp decline when the Roman Empire fell to invading Germanic barbarians. People in the middle Ages only used a given name or a name chosen when a person was baptized into the Christian church.

It was only as the population grew and urban areas developed that an additional name was needed to distinguish between two persons with the same given name.


The evidence is a little conflicting but it seems more likely the Indian stories were fabricated and repeated as truth to cover up African ancestry.

Raymond Earl Miller, father of the author and great grandson of Elias Miller, underwent a DNA test in and the results indicated Earl is completely western European in his paternal line.

This would indicate, whatever the source of the mixed race designation, the non-western European bloodline entered the family tree through a maternal line. Earl underwent a second DNA test in to determine his ethnicity, including materal lines, and the results indicated that he is part West African. Enumerated 20 Jul by Assistant Marshall J. He remembered going to her grave even though there is no marked grave in that cemetery with her name today. James Franklin Miller, another grandson of Elias Miller, told his children that Elias and his mother went on the Trail of Tears in He also said there was a younger baby, a sibling of Elias.

At the present time, neither the will nor the woman can be identified. Finally, if the story of the removal were true it would have Elias growing up in Oklahoma and returning to Georgia in the late s in order to be in Campbell Co.

Native Americans have a distinctively different jaw line. This jaw line is unique to Native Americans. Victor Hudson, DMD, who completed his internship among the Native American tribes of South Dakota confirmed that the father of the author does indeed possess this Native American feature.

Many of the yeoman farmers of north Georgia were of Scotch-Irish descent. Some of these took Indian wives. Blacks and whites lived together on the same farms. Whites did not live among the Indians.

The odds are far greater for an African American parentage than for a Native American. There is a family story that in both the children of Annie Miller Beatenbaugh, daughter of Elias Miller, and the children of James Dockey Miller, son of Elias Miller, were refused entry into the public school of Haralson Co.

How 8 Juvenile records are sealed to the public and records from these type hearings in Haralson Co. It was completely illogical. The source of the racial uncertainty certainly came through Elias Miller, grandfather to all these children in question equally, and would have been the same for both families.

Elias was still living in Haralson Co. A transcript, if one could be found, would provide much valuable information on this topic. Elias, according to all the census records, was unable to read and write.

It was evidently important to him, however, that his children were able to do so. All of them could read and write and documents prove they signed their names with their own hands. Apparently the records from this hearing are permanently sealed at the Haralson County Courthouse as juvenile records and are likely deteriorating in the basement of the courthouse where they are off limits to family researchers and immune, according to county officials, to subpoena.

Newton discharged from his school the children of Elias Miller, upon the ground that they were tainted with African blood. Miller denies the charge but whether he will sue for damages or prosecute under the Civil Rights Bill, is an open question.

William if he was going back for the twelfth grade, Margaret advancing to the ninth grade, Elizabeth eighth, Queenie seventh, Martha sixth, Elias Ben fifth and James Dockey third. Interestingly enough, none of the children were in school in Campbell Co.

The results of the expulsion are not known since no follow up story has been found. All of the children were able to read and write as adults but their individual levels of education are unknown.

Letters written by some of the children that survive do not show more than an elementary level of writing skill. As for Professor Newton, he was M. He was born in Hall Co.

He married Elizabeth J. Meadows 2 Dec in Carroll Co. He was living there in the census. Surely they knew each other whether they were friends or not. Newton lived in Haralson Co. The evidence, therefore, leans toward an African American ancestry for the family but there is sufficient conflict to conclude more information is needed to prove the race of Elias Miller absolutely.

Take a look at the pictures of his descendants in this book, if nothing else, and decide for yourself. He used to shoot deer from the back of a horse. Two of these sons migrated to 9 Carroll County Times.

This George had three sons and 16 grandsons. Several candidates stand out. Two of these grandsons William L. Miller and Jackson Miller migrated to Texas by way of Georgia. This could explain how there was a will probated in Texas that named Elias as an heir. Another grandson, James Madison Miller had three sons named John Miller , James Miller , and William Miller , the exact three names Elias used in naming his own three sons. Finally, another grandson John Simpson Miller was married to Elizabeth Fletcher, the maiden name Elias used to name his oldest daughter Sarah Fletcher Miller.

Again, the tie has not been proven but the DNA test indicates there is a definite connection somewhere in this family. Thus, here are more tantalizing clues. Since these Millers owned a large antebellum plantation, this may explain how Elias came into money to buy land in Campbell Co. Was this his father or another relative?

Is he William L. Miller , the son of George Miller of Chesterfield Co. There is only one William Miller found in the census of Campbell Co.

None of these have a son named Elias and only Robert b. This man, however, has children listed who were born in , , and with other names. There would seem to be no room for Elias in this family even if it were reasoned that he was living with another family in Professional Genealogist Kathi Sittner undertook the task of finding and proving the parenthood of Elias Miller in However, Professional Genealogist George Ott continued the project in and he concluded, This research session continued work previously begun on the family of Elias Miller.

Earlier efforts had identified John E. Miller as possibly the ancestral Elias Miller. Our primary focus during the initial portion of this session was to prove or disprove this assertion. It goes without saying that the outcome of these efforts would dictate the future direction of research. As a result of records examined at this time we were able to determine that Elias Miller and John E. Miller were not the same individual. Although this leaves us without the parentage of Elias identified, it does provide direction for the next step of research.

The confusion comes from the and census when he would have been 66 and 76 years old and less likely to have spoken for himself. There is, of course, no census since it burned in Washington, DC. In Elias, or someone who may have answered for him, said he and his wife Elizabeth were both born in October Elias and Elizabeth were living next door to son James Dockey Miller and family so it is unclear who may have talked to the census enumerator.

He, or someone, told the census enumerator he was 83 years old. It seems more likely, he was actually only 76 in Elias married before when his oldest child John was born. His father may have moved further west to Texas or Alabama, or may be buried somewhere in Campbell Co. He included Elias from his earlier relationship with his sons from his later family or Elias inherited from a childless uncle who he may have been close to.

The first solid record for Elias Miller is the Campbellton store ledger record when he was 19 years old. The next, and second, mention of him is from the Campbell Co. The third record is the Hamilton Co. The fourth is an Fayette Co. Everything else known about him before these dates is based on later records which record earlier events. Therefore, Elias Miller was born in in Georgia.

He may have been born in Campbell Co. According to the census, Elizabeth Easters, his wife, was living in Campbell Co. There were several Millers found in Campbell Co.

He should have been found living with his parents in Elias has not been found even after a state wide search.

He could have been born anywhere in Georgia. He said his parents were born in South Carolina but nothing is known of them, at this time, including their names or what happened to them after his birth. No one has yet proven whether Elias had brothers or sisters.

He was not included in the census and there are multiple possibilities for why this may have happened, his ethnicity not least among them. Enumerated 8 Jun by Enumerator William G. Enumerated 13 Jun by Enumerator Warner R. Enumerated 15 April by Enumerator W. Now we just need to get through the wall. Andrew Jackson was president and was busy trying to forge a treaty by which the Native Americans would be removed.

There was much pressure from whites to settle this land and many were settling illegally onto Cherokee land. Most people in Georgia, by far, were small farmers who could not afford to own slaves. There were a few large plantations in Campbell Co. Houses were usually miles apart. Milledgeville was the capital of the state, one of the largest cities in Georgia, but had only 1, residents in A state commission on lunacy was appointed that same year.

The Georgia Lunatic Asylum was built in the capital city between and Thus Elias and the Central State Hospital where he died were born the same year. Whereas the land was yet to be crossed by railroads, Atlanta was still a very small town in , then only settled for 12 years.

Communication and travel were slow and difficult. Postal mail carried on horseback was the only form of distance communication.

Horses were the fastest mode of transportation. Roads today were just trails in those days. He probably heard little outside his community. Yet he heard something, from someone, which caused him to move. He moved several times, first to Ohio, back to Campbell Co. He ended up moving at least five times during his married life.

He lived and farmed in three different states. Easters, according to the census, was also born about in Georgia and named for her paternal grandmother Elizabeth Stone This may have been in Campbell Co. This is further circumstantial evidence Elias and Elizabeth may have been married in Campbell Co. Elizabeth was the daughter of William and Kieziah Easters.

William gave his name verbally and it was recorded by the enumerator as Easters even though he appears to be the son of William Columbus Hester and Elizabeth Stone. The names are easily pronounced the same and the misspelling, in a time when so many individuals, including William, could not read or write, is obvious. The enumerator wrote down what he thought he heard. Finally, these were country folks with a country accent. The enumerators were usually educated men of the community, 18 Easters is also a common Indian name.

Enumerated 24 Aug by J. William bought ten acres of land in Campbell Co. Family information indicates he died in Appling Co. He may have earlier lived in Appling Co. Many Hesters remain in this small county until today. He died about the same time Elias and Elizabeth moved to Ohio. She was obviously very young when she married and began to have children, unless she is the second wife of William Easters. Her name, though unusual to us today, was common among white girls of the 19th century.

Her parents and ethnic heritage, however, are unknown. Elizabeth was the second of four girls. William and Kieziah Easters had no sons. The oldest child was named Martha A. After Elizabeth, the third child was Annie Easters b. Sarah may be the same Sarah A. Hesters who was living with a Hesters family in in Appling Co.

In , Elias and Elizabeth said they had been married for 50 years. Elias would have been years old, which may seem young for a male on the low end even for the time, and Elizabeth would have been the same, not too young for girls. This marriage may have taken place in Campbell Co. Also in the census, Elias and Elizabeth said they were parents of 11 children, eight of them still living in Only ten of these children have been identified so one child may have died so young that they were never listed in any census record.

There are several gaps in the birth years of the known children to accommodate a missing child. The missing child may or may not be one of the three children who died before Sarah and Elias Ben clearly passed away before the turn of the century but there are, at this time, four other children who may be the third one to have passed away. These include Elizabeth, Queen, Martha, and the missing child. It must be one of them but it cannot be more than one.

This is another of the huge unsolved mysteries related to Elias. Recent developments have hinted that the missing child may be Hester Miller b. Betsy is listed as white in but mulatto in Betsy lived with a man named William Ware in Hester lived next door to William, a white man, and had several mulatto children with him.

Lynn Spratling of Rome, Floyd Co. The situation is further complicated by the presence of Argel Miller who is married to James Cochran and living next door to Elias in and next door to Hester in James is white but Argel and their six children are mulatto. An undocumented family tree on Ancestry.

There is an Argel J. The undocumented family tree further lists the father of William Jack Miller as Col. William Thleetcha Miller, born in the Creek nation and murdered by his own people for signing the removal treaty.

All of this could fit together and have Elias to be the brother of Argel, father of Hester, and son of William Jack and Elizabeth Miller but the Creek connection breaks down based on the aforementioned DNA test unless William Thleetcha Miller was white and was married to a Creek wife. Cheadle was a Georgia state senator and operated a mill in Campbell Co. According to James Breeding, a Campbell Co. Cochran 16 Aug Breeding says that this family moved to Floyd Co.

Nothing has been found about Elias or Elizabeth to indicate whether they were attending church. Most people in those days went somewhere, they may have. If the graves of all their children could be located, it might reveal some connection to a particular church and denomination. Of those graves found, they seem to have gone with the denomination of their spouses, sometimes Baptist, sometimes Methodist, and sometimes in a secular cemetery.

In as much as wife Elizabeth and daughter Lenora were buried in the Buchanan City Cemetery, the impression is that Elias was not a member of any church. The county seat was Campbellton on the southeast bank of the Chattahoochee River. In , before Elias moved to Haralson Co. The courthouse remained in Fairburn until the county was merged with Fulton Co. The old Fairburn courthouse is now the Campbell Co.

The Campbellton courthouse is gone but there is a monument on the old town square to mark the spot. Map of part of Campbell County, Georgia in showing the location of Campbellton, GA near the top in the center and the Elias Miller property lots 81 and the western half of Fairburn is the large circle in the lower right. The oldest two children of Elias and Elizabeth were born in Campbell Co.

John Moore Miller was born in December This indicates, Elias and Elizabeth were married If the marriage was earlier, the missing child may have been born before John.

From the Chesterfield Co. Sarah was named for her aunt Sarah Ann Easters. All of these type elements are tantalizing clues, but, at this time and until further evidence can be found, are just loose ends.

According to the Campbell Co. This is not real estate of which the list proves Elias did not own land before leaving Georgia that year. A Francis Miller also appears on this list with no property. In fact, Elias is one of only two on the list of 22 mean who has any personal property listed beside his name.

Elias took his wife and two children to Ohio in He was present for the Campbell Co. Did he have relatives there? Several Georgia families are known to have migrated north to the Ohio River Valley during this time, looking for good, inexpensive farmland. Elias was always listed as a farmer. Why did he move in ? Was it just for farmland? There was nothing wrong with the land in Campbell Co.

Elias was farming on the southeast bank of the Chattahoochee River. And while several Georgia families went to Ohio around , many more of them were moving west into Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Arkansas, and Texas at the same time. Did it have anything to do, on the other hand, with the coming war, which was not a certainty in , especially before the presidential election in November ?

Maybe it had nothing to do with the war at all and Elias was simply following friends or family to better farming opportunities. Rapid growth occurred in Hamilton Co. Elias was of German ancestry and he moved there around Otis William Miller, grandson of Elias, said they moved up to Ohio in an ox drawn cart. Traveling this way would have taken at least one month to cover these miles.

This would have been slow travel, and they were traveling with two small children ages seven John and three Sarah. The old road would have taken them to Chattanooga, across the Tennessee River, and then over the Cumberland Mountains. Apparently they were missed by the census because no one has been able to find an Elias Miller, married to Elizabeth, in that census living in Georgia, Ohio, or any state in between.

People in migration were the largest missed group in the census. Elias settled in the Crosby Township, one of twelve townships in Hamilton Co. A Township in Ohio is not comparable with the word town or county. It remains a large area since counties in Ohio are larger than counties in Georgia. A Township in Ohio might include several towns. The Crosby Township remains sixty percent agricultural and thirty percent woodlands until today.

There have never been any incorporated towns in this township but there are three unincorporated communities including New Baltimore, New Haven, and the Whitewater Shaker Village. The village was founded in and was an active community of members farming over 1, acres when Elias was in the area.

Map of Hamilton Co. Elias and Elizabeth stayed in Ohio for about seven years. While they were there, two more children were born. The census states Anna Miller was born in though her headstone says Furthermore, she was only eight in the census when the age would have been more certain. Obviously there is a big difference between eight and twelve years old. Even though Elias was only 27 years old when the War Between the States began, he apparently avoided military service even though there is a record of his having been required to register for service 25 Jun It is significant because he is not listed on the colored list.

This may be evidence that his color was red. The mayor of Cincinnati, George Hatch, issued the following order: Every man of every age be he citizen or alien, who lives under the protection of our laws, is expected to take part in the organization.

Various calls were made by the authorities for the area to prepare for defense. Regiments were organized for drill and a large part of the people was filled with martial ardor. The remains of a wooden bridge they burned can still be seen today north of the later bridges. Morgan divided his force with part continuing on toward Miamitown and part advancing to New Haven.

They were directed away from Cincinnati where a large union force was protecting the city. If Elias had been called up, he would have stood among this latter group but two lists confirm his not having been called up and he was most likely at home on his farm when the raid passed through the area.

The Confederate raiders soon moved on to the east. William was the fourth child, the second one born in Ohio. He remembered hearing Elias talk about how the snow was up to the bellies of the hogs and that was too much. Elias was back in Campbell Co. He was 33 years old and by then the father of four children ages 14 John , ten Sarah , five Annie , and one William. Still holding the acres in , Elias bought acres and acres of land in Campbell Co. He bought all of land lot 81 and the western half of land lot This was a major purchase which pushed his total ownership to acres.

Where did he get that much U. Had he been so successful in farming while in Ohio? If so, why did he return to Georgia? There is no evidence of land ownership until and he was still holding that original purchase when he bought these sizeable tracts.

Was it an inheritance? If so, his parents or grandparents were wealthy and should have created more documentary evidence. If he is a descendant of George Miller of Chesterfield, SC, he stood to inherit such an amount through a father or a childless uncle. Was it some type of settlement from the government because of his race, whichever race that may have been? If so, how was he freed before the war and how did he marry a white woman? It seems no more likely for him to have been a half-breed American Indian and have married a white woman and received such a payment from the government.

There were, furthermore, no government programs in the s to pay Indians. Francis Miller, relationship unknown, was one of the witnesses to this transaction. A Francis, sometimes listed as Frank, is listed near Elias on the freedmen lists of , , , and This land Elias purchased later became part of the Fairburn District and was incorporated into the township of Campbellton, which was for several years the country seat of Campbell Co.

Elias may have moved from the smaller farm to this larger farm after the purchase. The same year, , Elias appears on the Campbell Co. According to this practice, he should also have served in and before moving to Haralson Co. Elizabeth only appears in the census and does not appear in the census with the family, even though she would have only been 11 years old.

She is another candidate for one of the three children who died before Queen only appears in the census. She would have been 30 years old by the time of the next census in , and may have married and moved away around when the census was taken that has been destroyed. The freedmen list shows that Elias owned This indicates he voted that year and would have been his first time. This is was the mid-term election during President U. Reconstruction was still going on but was winding down by Republicans maintained control of Congress that year but the Democrats, who were regaining control in the South, won seats, 32 more than they previously held.

There is no way of knowing who Elias may have voted for. On May 23, , Elias sold his original acres in Fayette Co. Frank appears on both lists owning acres in Coweta. Elias is listed as a freedman employee of J. Stubbs, and William J. Ware yet he himself is listed as an employer of Newt Brown and Parker Moore. How did Elias work so much land?

With only one son old enough to be of help, how did he do it? Did Elias use sharecroppers? Did he pay employees? Why is he listed as an employee of others? Then between and , apparently on the larger farm, the last three children were born in Campbell Co. Martha Miller was born in and named for the last of her maternal aunts. Elias Ben Miller was named for his father in The name Benjamin is found among the children of William L.

Miller of Chesterfield Co. James Dockey Miller, the youngest, was born August 18, There are several Miller men named James among the family at Chesterfield Co. The name Dockey could be from almost anywhere. Whenever he signed his name, he called himself J. He said that he assumed a stray bullet came in through the window. He had no other information about this incident but, if true, the wound was not serious since James Dockey showed no apparent subsequent evidence of the injury.

He paid the poll tax. Frank did not pay the poll tax but still owned acres. John paid the poll tax and was working for William J. Roberts on June 10 and Elias reported 13 cows but no horses. He had eight sheep. He was growing 35 acres of indian corn, ten acres of corn, 15 acres of wheat, 20 acres of cotton, sugar used to make molasses, and he had peach trees on two acres.

On 5 Nov Elias sold acres of land in Campbell Co. Elias may have bought it in when he sold his original acres or it may mean his total holding was, at one time, almost acres. Elias sold the large tract of and acres, the last property he owned in Campbell Co.

Apparently he had decided by November to leave Campbell Co. He moved to former Cherokee land in Haralson Co. Was it because so many, even northerners, were heavily migrating to the Tallapoosa, GA area in Haralson Co. Or did Elias have family ties to this area which may have pre-dated the Cherokee Removal. If he was indeed born in , he would have been about four years old when the Cherokees were taken west.

Did he escape it? What drove him to move, leaving two married children with grandchildren, by this time, in Campbell Co.? Evidently, the children stayed behind because they had married into families from the area. When Elias moved to Haralson Co. Sarah was married with three children and living in Heard Co. Annie was married with two children and living in Campbell Co. Seven or eight children were still living at home with Elias and Elizabeth ranging in age from 15 years to seven.

Elias was thus about 50 years old when he moved to Haralson Co. Annie, now Beatenbaugh, stayed in Campbell Co. Sara, now Boozer, remained in Corinth, GA for the rest of her life.

John followed Elias to Haralson Co. It is not known if he denied the charge because the family was actually Native American or if he denied the charge, regardless of the race, because he was striving to live his life was a white man.

The issue made the newspaper in 27 U. Was it based on appearance? Did someone from Campbell Co. This incident is remarkably similar to another school challenge regarding the ethnicity of this family in Haralson County involving the children of both Annie Miller Beatenbaugh and James Dockey Miller and which occurred about Twice Elias and Elizabeth had four grandchildren born in the same calendar year.

In both instances, he and Elizabeth were living in Haralson Co. There is no census for but if it existed and we could see that snapshot of this family. There would be Elias and Elizabeth at 56 years of age. Martha was 19 and months from her wedding, Elias Ben was 18 years old, and Doc was This land, and what he bought to expand his property later, was located just north of Buchanan along the Tallapoosa — East Church Road at Cochran Creek.

The circle at the bottom of the map is Bremen, GA. At the age of 62 in the elections in Haralson Co. Darnell for Haralson Co. Darnell won the election but was killed in a train accident at Tallapoosa in so Shelnutt ended up winning the special election to fill the unexpired term and then continued as sheriff until He died near Waco, GA December 5, Elias would also have been asked to vote for United States President in , one of the most exciting elections in U.

Most Southerners voted for Bryan because he was a Democrat and champion of the silver standard to help the small farmers.

Surely this would have appealed to farmers like Elias. Georgia indeed went for Bryan but Haralson and Polk counties both voted majority Republican. This could have been because so many northerners had moved to Tallapoosa in Haralson Co. Are the roots of his party loyalty found in family and the history of these two West Georgia counties where he was born and raised? In Elias and Elizabeth moved to Marshall Co. Bohannon on September 15, Elias made four payments and had the mortgage paid in full by October 17, Street 29 Sep John stayed in Haralson Co.

At least he was there for the census. Otis William Miller said it was because they had heard about good farmland available there.

He also said they lived on Sand Mountain. This area has the coolest climate in Alabama because the average elevation is nearly 1, feet higher than the rest of the state.

Even today in the early twenty-first century, this area remains a mostly rural, agricultural area with large tracts of rolling pastures and wooded forests. Several counties voted against secession and some proposed seceding from the State of Alabama after secession was passed. There was even an effort to merge these Alabama counties with other counties in Tennessee and form a new, pro-Union state called Nickajack. One Union regiment was raised during the war of men primarily from the Sand Mountain area.

Thus, once again, most of the residents there were and are Republicans. Could that connection with Polk and Haralson counties be part of the explanation as to why Elias moved there? Because the high plateau was not conducive to large-scale plantation agriculture, Sand Mountain is almost one hundred percent white by race. Northwest Alabama in the late nineteenth century was almost all Baptist too. Even today, Sand Mountain is one of the last places in the country where churches still use the Sacred Harp type singing in their Sunday morning worship services.

Elias lived between Albertville and Boaz in the heart of the Sand Mountain region. Other towns where his descendants would settle, also part of Sand Mountain, include Attalla, Gadsden, Oneonta, and Guntersville.

Elias stayed in Alabama for only five years. He sold the acres he bought there in He sold 40 acres of this property to his son William on October 15, and 80 acres to J.

This road exists until today. William died in and David P. At the time, according to Alabama law, this was standard procedure for insuring the care of the widow and surviving children. This case, 32 U. David Bohannon was the son of R. Bohannon, from whom Elias had originally purchased his property in Furthermore, the land was eventually sold to Harriett E. Legal notice was published in The Marshall Banner giving public notice of the sale but only one day before the sale took place.

Even Elias was more concerned with receiving his payment for the land than he was with the proper representation of his grandchildren. Two hundred dollars from the sale went to Elias to pay off the mortgage but the Bohannons were the beneficiaries of a very sweet deal. Davis, of the Marshall County Democratic Campaign Committee even charged the estate nine dollars for bank boxes.

The probate court of Marshall County, AL took the rest. Ayers then appointed William Rayburn to be the new guardian of the children but he took no action in response to the completed sale of the property. Elias and Elizabeth also sold 40 acres of land in Haralson Co. Elizabeth died in at the age of 73 years. If this is indeed true, her grave is unmarked. A thorough search has not located a headstone with her name. Elias was widowed less than two years because he married Mrs.

Glaze in Cedartown on November 13, Glaze was actually the former Sarah E. This Sarah was living in Haralson Co. She had four children, including John William Glaze Elias was thus 74 and Sarah Griffin Glaze was only She did not, however, stay with him long.

One wonders why she married him in the first place. Does this mean her death aggravated his condition or was she able to care for him as it progressed slowly over time? In the census, Elias was living alone. Enumerated 15 Apr by Enumerator W. It is not known whether Sarah ever officially divorced Elias, had the marriage annulled, or just moved out. No divorce record has been found. Sarah never married again, living alone until her death June 21, in Haralson Co. This would indicate John had either died or moved away.

This made Doc sole owner of land lot in Haralson Co. This land was the property west of Felton, between U. It was near the Polk Co. Buchanan was closer but Cedartown was a larger town as it is today. Elias then lived with Doc and his family in Dugdown and evidently grew increasingly difficult for Doc and Ida to handle. Sometimes the old man would chase me across the fields and I would jump down in a ditch and he would jump the ditch and run past me.

Come on outta there. He was then 81 years old and a widower of eight years. Was the family sad to see him go? Did they realize they would never see him again? Note that John, though he had lived in Haralson Co. This is further indication he had already moved away or passed away before There were no other children in Haralson Co. Margaret was in Polk Co. Doc and Annie were the only two children left to sign. Were only two signatures needed? Lunatics were known to hear voices, talk to God, have violent outbursts, and to hallucinate.

Cranford, But for the Grace of God: Great Pyramid Press, All of these were patients of the Georgia State Sanitarium. This was also true far up into the 20th century.

The care was thus poor. Patients were used to raise crops on the grounds of the hospital. Elias spent most of his time confined to the Walker Building which still stands today on the campus of the hospital. He shared a bathroom and dining hall with the other residents on his floor, all men, most of them close to his age and sharing his same condition. Mostly, the patients were neglected. Their basic needs were met but they received little or no treatment.

Until medications came into greater use, insulin shock and electro-convulsive therapy were common at the Georgia State Sanitarium in the early 20th century. Elias Miller lived here for the last three years of Patients were allowed few or no personal his life.

They had few or no friends, low social status, and they lived in great poverty. A service that aspired to cure by means of environment and moral treatment actually became unconsciously brutalizing by taking people out of their communities and eliminating their everyday choices, by responding poorly to their need to learn and grow, and by cutting them off from their family, friends, and other community members.

As for Elias, because his family was living so far away, there is no indication he received a single visit the whole three years he remained a patient. The hospital was later renamed Central State Hospital and was for several years the largest psychiatric care hospital in the United States. Since then the hospital has been closed and no psychiatric patients are housed by the state in Milledgeville.

Standards were certainly different in For example, death certificates were not required in Georgia until and thus no certificate, one which may have included the names of the parents of Elias, was made. April 20, at the age of 83 and was buried in grave number 97 of the Cedar Lane Cemetery on the grounds of the hospital.

Otis, who was 11 years old at the time, also remembered Doc, his father, cutting wood to sell in Cedartown to raise the money necessary to take the train to Milledgeville. Doc was the only relative of Elias to go to Milledgeville. If there could be found an obituary for Elias, it would read, Elias Miller, 83, formerly of Haralson Co. He was preceded in death by his wife of 57 years the former Elizabeth J. Easters of Campbell Co. He was the father of 11 children, 51 grandchildren, and 23 great grandchildren.

Unfortunately, the exact location of this grave has been lost. Though beyond comprehension, a groundskeeper in the s pulled all the stakes of the graves at the hospital to mow the grass and was then unable to relocate them in their appropriate spots.

A single monument thus marks 20, graves of all the people who died and were buried in unmarked graves at the Milledgeville State Hospital. The names are recorded on a compact disk which was placed inside the monument where it is inaccessible to anyone. The hospital has always had a poor record of maintaining cemeteries on the grounds. Peter Cranford wrote in his history of the hospital, Help-patients started to bulldoze the 38 This is how many he had at the time.

The numbers, other than children of course, continued to grow after his death. Suddenly human skulls and other bones began to pile up on the sides of the road. Rows upon rows of numbered small rusted markers as far as you can see.

No names — just numbers. He left no property or possessions. Not one item is known which can be said absolutely to have belonged to Elias Miller. He died and faded away almost as mysteriously as he appeared, leaving more questions than answers. To date, the author has never seen or even heard that there is a picture of him even though pictures were common well before his death. He was definitely here, however, and he made a profound impact on the history of the world.

His legacy lives on, years later, in people who have been identified and documented, so far, as descendants of this one man. As of the date of publication, Elias Miller has 11 children, 52 grand children, great grandchildren, gg grandchildren, ggg grandchildren, gggg grandchildren, and seven ggggg grandchildren.

Only one grandchild remains living, Nellie Ruth Miller. The numbers down to the gg grandchildren are probably fixed by now due to the ages of the great grandchildren, but the numbers of ggg grandchildren and beyond continue to be born. The oldest ggggg grandchild Heather Elizabeth Tucker is now 18 years old and soon there will be the first gggggg grandchild. The search for his full story will continue. Surely there are descendants who are not yet identified, some of them already passed away.

These are many in all the families except Sarah, Margaret, and James. Yet even here, no doubt, a few have been missed. The great mysteries of Elias Miller may never be solved. The children of Elias and Elizabeth Miller were. Miller Feb Hamilton Co. The council determined to build something good, restore dignity and respect to the persons buried at the hospital. A memorial has been placed, the cemetery is now listed on the National Register of Historic Places, and the state is taking care of perpetual maintenance of the grounds.

Future plans continue to develop which include a plaque or wall to list all the names of the persons buried at the state hospital. Great Pyramid Press, , p. John, who could read and write, signed all his documents as J. He was married July 9, , Mary J. She reported to the census enumerator in that she was born in Georgia in but in she said she was born in John and Mollie were married in but he was living as married man without her in the home of his parents in He is, however, living in his own home with Mollie in and Miller, was born in , in Campbell Co.

John and Mollie last appear in the census of Haralson Co. He was not present to sign the committal papers sending Elias to Milledgeville in as we might expect. None of this family show up in the census of Haralson Co.

Where did they go? What happened to this family? Federal Census, District, Haralson Co. Enumerated 20 June by Enumerator John K.

Enumerated 25 Apr by Enumerator M. Beavers, ordinary, 9 Jul and joined by A. Enumerated 20 Jun by Enumerator John K. Enumerated 25 Apr by Enumerator Malachi Bullard. Miller Apr Campbell Co. Miller Aug Haralson Co. Miller Feb Haralson Co. Miller Jan Haralson Co. Miller Margaret James H. Elizabeth There is no additional information regarding Rose, Lily, or William in this family so they will be omitted below in the full delineation until additional details are found. Miller The first born of the first born was James H.

Miller, born in April of In fact, he was the oldest grandchild of Elias and Elizabeth who moved to Haralson Co. She was 14 years old and five years younger than James when they married May 6, In their two children were living with John and Mary but James and Ophillia had disappeared. This may have been an accident to have taken both their lives, unless they moved away and left their children with the grandparents.

Was it the fever? Another important departure from the reference budget initiatives is in the normative content. In national social policy in Europe and the United States, efforts to define fair wages or reference budgets for poverty are derived from the purchasing power of a broader set of goods and services baskets in different countries.

However, these reference budgets in the US are narrowly defined based on food, or in Europe have evolved largely independent of each other, and with limited, if any, standardization or normative justification Deeming This has only recently begun to change in Europe Storms et al. Current efforts to enumerate minimum living standards in Europe tend to be national, and focus on participatory methods Bradshaw et al.

What people characterize as needs reflect cultural embeddedness and comforts to which people have become accustomed. In the case of social wellbeing, it is harder to conceptualize commodity dependence, particularly considering that material possessions may satisfy social goals e.

As described further below, we restrict our excursion into the social realm only to the means of social engagement, not the fulfillment of any social goals. To the extent these are non-essential and value-driven, we argue they belong in a DLS only if they are globally desired by an overwhelming majority of people. Below we describe in more detail a set of principles to guide the selection of commodities into the DLS. We then discuss the limitations to the scope of the DLS.

In justifying a DLS in terms of material requirements for everyone, we face a number of challenges. The most obvious is that multiple commodities may satisfy a need or capability, and that the appropriate choice may be contingent on culture and other contextual factors.

Further, we indicated earlier that harm avoidance, as used in the basic needs approaches, is a useful basis from which to develop selection criteria for commodities.

However, harm is also contingent on context and on human vulnerabilities, and inadequately specified in basic needs theories. Third, since one of our objectives is to link poverty eradication to natural resource use, we need to be comprehensive in determining essential resource requirements. We introduce some principles to guide the specification of universal satisfiers in light of these three challenges.

For adequate nutrition, if many different diets e. On the other hand, consider education, which arguably depends on knowledge acquisition from media as well as from the classroom. If newspapers and televisions are two competing media that offer equivalent content, televisions may be part of a DLS if they are universally desired [violate c.

However, if alcohol were universally desired [ c. We propose two qualitative boundary conditions for setting these thresholds. On the one hand, everyone ought to be insulated from potentially fatal conditions, even of low likelihood e.

Furthermore, harm should also include prolonged exposure to extreme discomfort. Such extreme conditions can debilitate physically, emotionally or psychologically. Excessive labor on household chores can be debilitating, but it can also reduce time available to pursue leisure or gainful activities. For example, women spend hours collecting and carrying firewood and water in poor countries, cooking, and washing clothes, which restricts their opportunities and choices for participating in other roles in society Pachauri and Rao We take these rights for granted, but limit their operationalization to aspects that principally entail material needs, namely the means of social engagement.

For example, psychological wellbeing e. Political institutions and granting political rights do require physical infrastructure to function e. We set this aside for further research. We refer readers to the IDM to learn more about what political and social rights matter to people, since it was developed based on participatory approaches. Focus on the definition of a DLS, not its realization This paper sets out first principles towards defining a specific basket of goods and services for individuals in a particular society.

Further steps that would need to be taken to fully define a DLS for a particular society and to take concrete steps towards their realization. These include several policy challenges, such as on whom the responsibility to provide DLS falls, how to make DLS constituents affordable, and to ensure equitable delivery of a DLS to all. These are important questions for subsequent research.

We group them into satisfiers of physical and social wellbeing dimensions respectively. We then follow with an explanation rationale of each item. We specify indicators and minimum quantities including any empirical support, where relevant and feasible.

We also indicate where context-specific customizations such as through participatory processes would be appropriate. Some of the constituents and their quantitative thresholds have been introduced and justified in earlier work Rao and Baer We make reference to the U. Universal satisfiers Adequate nutrition, including macronutrients energy, protein and micronutrients including iron, zinc and vitamins ; cold storage.

Household requirements Minimum daily context-dependent intake of total calories, protein, vitamins and minerals; a modest sized refrigerator e. Rationale Nutritional requirements are a complex but well-trodden field of public health. It is well known that in many developing countries malnourishment among the poor and obesity among the middle and higher income are prevalent and growing FAO This has contributed to health disparities in these countries Hawkesworth et al.

More recent evidence shows that micronutrient nourishment specifically protein, iron and zinc has declined from the pressure of increased agricultural production of high-yield cereals with lower nutritional content DeFries et al. Thus, it is important not only to ensure adequate calories, but the right type of foods.

The actual daily requirements can be set at a national level. The Food and Agricultural Organization FAO supports the use of a reference set of calorie intake requirements for men and women, on the basis of which deviations can be calculated for differences in age, and activity level FAO Many countries have public health institutions that publish dietary guidelines for total calorie intake, and in some cases for micronutrients.

Having cold storage avoids risks of ill health from food-borne diseases and discomfort related to the time spent preparing and purchasing food items.

Women usually bear this burden, in addition to the tasks of collecting water and cooking fuel. The extent of discomfort is contingent on a number of factors, including climate and diet, 10 but also access to markets.

In many urban areas, where fresh food can be purchased on a daily basis, it is not easy to argue that refrigerators are universally essential, or that they always avoid extreme discomfort. However, given that the empirical support see below indicates an overwhelming desire to own a refrigerator, cold storage merit inclusion at least on the basis of being an overwhelmingly desired satisfier with no substitutes See Sect. Universal satisfier Durable homes that are resilient to severe climate and disease-carrying vectors.

Household requirements Solid roof and walls: Rationale Safe shelter SDG However, its formulation equally widely lacks specificity. The UN Habitat places sufficient space and durable housing as its main priority for moving people out of slums in urban areas. Universal satisfiers a Minimum floor space; b adequate lighting; c basic comfort bounded range of temperature and humidity in inhabited spaces ; d adequate, accessible water supply; and e safe waste disposal.

Collective requirements The provision of the above household amenities may require the presence of a backbone infrastructure, for electricity, water and sanitation.

The industrial organization and technology for this infrastructure depends on location and prevailing norms, and therefore need to be decided locally. For instance, today centralized electricity grids at a national scale provide electricity access, but water and sanitation typically fall within state- or municipal jurisdiction. The technology for sanitation may differ depending on cultural norms. Rationale Overcrowding can lead to a number of health risks e.

The amount of sufficient space should be decided at a local level. However, as a guide, it is worth considering national guidelines for minimum living space in affluent, but densely populated, countries.

The lighting and space conditioning standards speak to habitability, and the avoidance of extreme conditions that may cause extreme discomfort or, in the worst case, death. Similar to nutrition, further thresholds of exposure e. There are many available references for defining a comfort zone, such as national guidelines on workplace occupancy conditions e. Water supply and sanitation, like food, have been examined extensively in public health and development policy.

The World Bank has indicators for both improved water and sanitation, which provide useful guides for the quality and accessibility of these services. In-house or accessible water supply obviates hours of labor that typically women undertake to collect water. Universal satisfier a Sufficient clothing to achieve basic comfort as defined above in prevailing climatic conditions; b access to washing machines. Household requirements A certain amount of cloth m 2 with adequate materials catered to local climate;.

Rationale As with food and shelter, clothing is to our knowledge an integral element of all poverty indicators, but also relatively unspecified. Clothing is also a feature of human life that is deeply embedded in culture and tradition. This makes it a clear candidate for further specification through local participatory methods. The only feature of normative importance is that these clothing are sufficient for daily activity in local climatic conditions.

Washing clothes is essential for basic hygiene. The need for washing machines is a matter of avoiding extreme discomfort from excessive manual labor. However, washing machines may be shared by number of households. In urban areas, shared facilities in apartment buildings and communities is already common practice.

In rural areas, where homes are much more dispersed, sharing facilities can become a nuisance. However, since we aim to cater to the norm, not the exception, we eschew individual household entitlements to washing machines.

Empirical Support In most developed countries, most households have washing machines. Universal satisfier Sufficient and accessible preventive and curative health care facilities.

Collective requirements Minimum physicians per people possible range of 1. Rationale Typical health outcomes in poverty indicators, such as life expectancy and infant mortality, offer little insight on the needs for health care. Although good health depends first on adequate nutrition and hygienic conditions, in reality, humans inevitably face disease, accidents, and other health hazards.

Medical care is critical to prevent disease e. In order to provide these basic services, there needs to be sufficient health posts within reach of the population, with adequate facilities in each e. These conditions are by no means sufficient to ensure a high quality of health care, but can be considered necessary. But how should a minimum set of material conditions be determined? Health care services are necessary to reduce morbidity, avoid premature death and care for the elderly palliative care as they lose functioning capability.

All these characteristics of a healthy society are well represented by average life expectancy, which is the primary measure of health in poverty measures, such as the HDI, and the more recent SPI.

There is indeed a positive relationship between the resources committed to a health care system and average life expectancy, albeit with significant variation, and with diminishing returns beyond a point See Supplementary material.

This suggests that defining a DLS requires selecting a threshold for life expectancy. There is, however, no known normative basis to define a minimum length of a life. Rather than seeking a normative threshold, we instead select this threshold based on where empirically we find that resources cease to have a positive effect on life expectancy.

The suggested expenditure per capita and reference life expectancy is only a guide—individual societies may customize this value based on specific features of their health care system.

One caveat, however, is that it is unclear to what extent these expenditures include preventive health care or whether the latter correlates with overall health care costs. See Supplementary material for details. This requirement, therefore, constrains the technologies used to meet other DLS. According to the Global Burden of Disease, household air pollution typically from burning biomass is the third highest health risk factor, leading to over 4 million premature deaths per year Lim et al.

Its avoidance requires that homes cook stoves and heating equipment run on liquid or gaseous fuels, rather than burn solid biomass fuels. Collective requirements Ambient air pollution from other sources, including industry and transport, also contribute to health risks. This implies that the transport choices offered as part of mobility may have to include public transport in urban areas, and possibly even restrict engines to electric and other non-polluting technologies. The extent of these restrictions would be highly context specific, and therefore have to be determined at the local level.

Universal satisfier Adequate schooling with adequate facilities and staff. Collective requirements Adequate number of schools, equipped with space, teaching staff, facilities, and balanced curriculum. Rationale The human interest in gaining knowledge and the need for compulsory education is well established, and included in all mentioned poverty indicators. The duration of required schooling is more ambiguous. Quality of education is, however, difficult to measure.

These factors are set aside for future research. Universal satisfier Household access to information and communication services. Rationale The importance of social and political engagement for human flourishing is found in all accounts of basic justice Alkire , and even in international human rights, as discussed earlier.

Information services provide knowledge about society that enables people to critically engage as political participants. Technology plays a strong part in determining the medium of such access. As such, the specific satisfiers of this constituent of DLS is very much a product of the current times, and of our foreseeable future. For instance, it can be argued that people need have only newspapers for information. There is an element of conformity to globalized consumptive patterns inherent in the choice of cell phones and devices to access the Internet.

However, these new technologies may indeed become essential to access these types of services, because they render older technologies obsolete and unavailable. Furthermore, even if alternatives do not die out, they are not able to provide the same level of access to information, which would lead to significant disparities in access to information, and therefore unequal enjoyment of basic rights to participation as equals in society. Universal satisfier Access to adequate mobility options.

Notably, adequate mobility can be provided with public transport. There may be exceptions in rural areas, which would have to be determined at a local level. Collective requirements Adequate public transit in urban areas and road infrastructure to support access to paved road and motorized transport for all. In sparsely populated remote areas only, household ownership of vehicles may be necessary. Rationale The importance of transport is understated in the literature.

The MPI includes a vehicle, but only among a list of substitutable assets that comprise a living standard indicator. People universally have to either work away from their homes or access markets to sell wares for their livelihood.

It is just the mode of transport, and therefore the accessible distance, that has increased over time. If this is a fact, spending more time on traveling arguably can be construed as burdensome and hence extreme discomfort. The quantity of infrastructure that is required to provide everyone access is as far as we know an unaddressed research question. Future empirical investigation in this direction is necessary. Vehicle ownership is consistently higher in rural areas, likely due to lack of alternatives.

Universal satisfier Adequate and safely accessible public spaces. Collective requirements Minimum public space per inhabitants with adequate facilities to ensure safety, such as lighting at night. Rationale Adequate public space prevents overcrowding, and is important to foster a sense of freedom, for the pursuit leisure activities, and to congregate for political and social activities.

This is particularly important in densely populated urban areas. This is also an SDG However, there should be ample empirical evidence from which to develop reasonable benchmarks in further research. We have proposed a universal set of material commodities and conditions that households and societies require, at a minimum, for overcoming poverty and supporting a decent life for all.

We go beyond existing indicators, both in scope and specificity. Hunger is not just adequate calories, but adequate vitamins and minerals. Communities should have schools and health clinics. Countries in turn should expend sufficient resources on physical infrastructure, health care and education to ensure the provision of these goods and services.

None of these systems should generate air pollution beyond safe levels. Quantities of these items would to be specified locally, based on participatory methods, and further analysis. These DLS are also a function of our times—they have been specified based on current technologies and norms, but with care to including only those that have demonstrable universal appeal. Nothing we propose is conceptually new—at a higher level of abstraction, the elements of the DLS can be traced to basic needs or capability theories.

We have pushed the boundaries of specificity, so as to generate a dashboard for material poverty that is universal, but must be translated into quantities based on context and democratic processes. The DLS can guide the establishment of reference budgets and living wages, and development policies.

They are also intended to identify the environmental resource requirements to provide a basic living standard to all, so as to assess whether there any conflicts between social and environmental sustainability at a global scale.

These requirements are not, however, sufficient to ensure wellbeing, nor do they necessarily overcome relative poverty. In societies with significant disparities and significant affluence among a few, people may be entitled to more, even if they have enough to avoid absolute deprivation.

The realization of these goals raises another set of issues, not least is to make these services affordable. Doyal and Gough World Development Indicators http: However, this is set aside on the basis of not being a resource issue. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Published online May Rao and Jihoon Min. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Accepted May Abstract We define a set of universal, irreducible and essential set of material conditions for achieving basic human wellbeing, along with indicators and quantitative thresholds, which can be operationalized for societies based on local customs and preferences.

Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article doi: Theoretical Background Precedence for defining a DLS lies in philosophy and international law and policy. Open in a separate window. Precedence in International Law and Policy In the limited available guidance in international law and policy, a common aim seems to be to define a set of living conditions that provide more than subsistence, and possibly even more than the traditional poverty dimensions of nutrition, health and education.

Other Multidimensional Poverty and Minimum Wage Indicators This DLS has parallels with other multidimensional poverty indicators, and with policy efforts to define minimum wages, which are intended to provide sufficient means to purchase a set of essential commodities Anker Reference Budgets and Living Wages This project shares similarities with ongoing work on reference budgets and fair wages Anker ; Deeming Guiding Principles In justifying a DLS in terms of material requirements for everyone, we face a number of challenges.

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