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The third studio album from this award-winning Scottish traditional group comes a mere two years down the line from their well-received second, Fortune's Road, and as you might by now expect brings another sparkling, well-chosen and admirably even-handed collection of songs and tunes six of each. But there's much more to the CD than that, for good though Fortune's Road was, Luminosity brings a significant advance in maturity and insight that's almost comparable to that between Crucible's first and second CDs.

Unlike some of the young trad-based ensembles on the current scene, Back Of The Moon have a major selling-point in that they have within their ranks no less than three very good singers who are all more than capable of taking the lead - fiddler Gillian Frame, pianist Hamish Napier and guitarist Findlay Napier the latter's a pretty good songwriter too, if his Ship In A Bottle, a CD highlight, is anything to go by.

And there's something rather special about the spark and rapport between the musicians and their attitude to and respect of each other's abilities, whereby the lineup's instrumental complement never resorts to auto-pilot or a formulaic "arrangement by numbers" but brings an imaginative and thoroughly delicious spontaneity to each track.

Each of the four bring some self-penned tunes to the mix to counterpoint examples both traditional and by the likes of Gordon Duncan and Phil Cunningham. The songs range widely for their sources too, with a dramatic rendition of the "happy ending" ballad Glenlogie sitting well alongside the Scott-collected murder ballad Nine Stone Rig which Gillian credits to Linda and Teddy Thompson - hmm! All the songs are blessed with effective arrangements that utilise both accompanying instruments and backing voices to best advantage.

All told, though, and whether for songs or tune-sets, Back Of The Moon always demonstrate an innate and enviable understanding of texture and dynamics, and this canny and highly spirited collection is definitely their best yet. This talented young Scots four-piece brings a real smile to the visage and a tap to the toes on this neat selection of songs and tune-sets six of each.

Fortune's Road , the band's second studio set, proves if anything even more attractive than their debut, the playing even more accomplished after honing their performance skills much of late at prestigious festivals including Cambridge and a further tour of Canada their third.

The ensemble work is superb, credibly combining the instrumental accomplishments of front-liners Gillian Frame fiddle and Simon Mc Kerrell border and uillean pipes, whistle with the decidedly non-plodding sibling rhythm section of Hamish and Findlay Napier piano and guitar respectively.

As is the bright, clear recorded balance a triumph for producer Jonny Hardie. Back Of The Moon easily show that they don't have to play fast to impress for instance on the slow Karma Rules and the duet Skye Air , although their Mrs Maclean set is a tour de force on its own terms.

As for the songs, again three out of the four group members contribute lead vocals, and the choice of songs is less mundane than before, thus scoring an extra welcome. Maybe I'll Be Married , which Gillian learnt from the singing of Alison McMorland, is probably the highlight among the songs, though Findlay's thoughtful rendition of the maritime song Heilan' Laddie also has considerable merit.

The whole album has a commendable unity of purpose and achievement. Comprising actor Kevin and his film and composer brother Michael and playing bluesy rock n roll filtered with Philly soul and country, the fact that they've made several albums and have gigged regularly since underlines that this is no movie star vanity project to distract from the boredom.

While touting itself as a best of collection, it only features material from three of their five albums, 's White Knuckles represented only by a reworked anthemic bluesy rock version of Unhappy Birthday for the 10th anniversary of and absolutely nothing from 's New Year's Day, which seems a bit bizarre since Sprinsgteenesque Eye Of The Storm and the rootsy Architeuthis would both merit inclusion.

However, it's a useful retrospective snapshot and, for most UK ears, introduction with 19 tracks that, like the country rocking Old Guitars, Southern funky strut Grey Green Eyes, violin accompanied ballad Sooner Or Later and the TexMex flavours of 10 Years In Mexico all slip down easy.

They remind a little of the Bellamy Brothers, a similarity underlined by the fact they actually feature with them on Guilty Of The Crime, a track lifted from the BB's Anthology Vol 1 album.

Taken from debut album Foresco, the title of Boys In Bars pretty much musically sums them up, but there's little here you'd turn off on the radio and, at least it's not Bruce Willis or Russell Crowe. Mike has a keen feel for the various modes of musical expression from solid twang, punk-country, steamin' rockabilly, honky-tonk and rock'n'roll.

I rather like the quirky, slightly ramshackle DIY ambience of Mike's music-making generally, which should not be taken as an adverse criticism but a positive quality. All in all, this disc is a useful catch-up vehicle for anyone not familiar with Mike's music. David Kidman January Transfiguring punk classics into folk songs, those who hadn't actually heard the debut album by Adrian Edmondson, Maartin Allcock, Andy Dinan, and Troy Donockley might have thought it was a bit of a gimmick.

Those who did take the time to lend an ear would have found it a find collection of Celtic influenced rearrangements that served to underline how punk was, by traditional definition of the form, essentially the folk music of its generation.

Certainly there was a novelty element involved but, no more say, than classical arrangements of heavy metal or jazz versions of pop tunes. Now, to prove they're serious but not without a sense of humour, comes a second re-imagining. This time Allcock is absent from the line-up, and, rather than find a replacement, the remaining trio have dispensed with guitars entirely, but have invited double bassist Tim Harris along as guest.

Having closed the first album with God Save The Queen, they open this with Anarchy In The UK, Donockley's melancholic uilleann pipes backdropping a semi-spoken treatment that replaces the spat venom with a darker foreboding that's well suited to the times, closer to The Levellers than the Pistols.

Taking the pace and tone down too is Sound Of The Suburbs, transforming the Members' angry rant into a mandolin flecked portrait of suburban stagnation that might have been penned by Ray Davies. The debut album interpolated several of the punk numbers with traditional gigs and reels, and they repeat that here. Hey nonny nonny ho, let's go, indeed.

In recent years there's been a plethora of albums that have taken one genre of music and reinvented it in the style of another. Hayseed Dixie bluegrassed metal, Nouvelle Vague turned punk and new wave into bossa novas and most recently Hellsongs turned metal classics into lounge.

But, as well as being a comedy actor whose most memorable past musical excursions have been as part of rock parody Bad News, he's actually an accomplished musician his voice isn't bad but he plays mandolin better than he sings with a clear interest in folk music.

After all, his daughter is Ella Edmondson who recently made her own impressive debut. So, what you have here is a collection of mostly punk classics performed in a Celtic folk stylee intercut or expanded with a hefty clutch of trad reels and jigs. Apparently they also do a great version of All Around My Hat. As a punk number. The album title, by the way, comes from the traditional numeric phrase used to count sheep by shepherds in northern England and southern Scotland. Thought you'd like to know.

An edited version is being broadcast on the BBC series Imagine on 8th December, but the DVD component of this package presents the complete film, along with bonus features.

The "main feature" is a straightforward and naturally conceived yet insightful minute documentary, taking the form of the first comprehensive portrayal of both Joan's public career and her private life and conveying both the compelling presence and personality of Joan herself and the sheer strength of her political convictions. It contains some tantalising rare performance footage, as well as extracts from candid interviews with David Crosby, Bob Dylan, Roger McGuinn and Joan's ex-husband David Harris, and we do in fact get to know much of the inner Joan in the process of chronicling her journey through odd years as, effectively, the conscience of a generation indeed, she has often been content to let singing take the back seat to her activism.

Also on the bonus segment is a priceless pair of vintage performances by the teenage Joan at the Club 47 coffee-bar in Cambridge Mass. Further archive footage involving Martin Luther King, film of Joan's controversial visit to North Vietnam during the period of heavy bombing of Hanoi, and a revisit to the location of Joan's Sarajevo trip: The attendant audio CD is just fine as far as it goes, in that it presents - in their complete form - 15 songs from the soundtrack although during the course of the documentary there are probably almost as many again that are unrepresented on the audio CD.

Two-thirds of the 15 are of never-before-released status, and happily include the aforementioned Club 47 performances. A fitting celebration of Joan's musical and political passions, then, from a variety of perspectives and all housed in a convenient package. David Kidman December Fifty years on from beginning her residence at Boston's Club 47 and a career that's seen her at the front of the civil rights movement, organising resistance to the Vietnam War, inspiring Vaclav Havel, and standing next to Nelson Mandela for his 90th birthday celebrations, Baez arrives at her 24th studio album, and her first in five years.

At 67, it's not too surprising to find her reflecting on matters of mortality and the beyond with songs veined with religious imagery and allusions alongside themes of hope and homecoming. Indeed, the album opens with the statement of faith that is God Is God. Melodically it sounds like vintage Baez, but it's actually purpose written by Steve Earle who also takes masterful charge of the album's understated and sympathetic production as well as playing guitar. He contributes two more, the all new mandolin tumbling folksy I Am A Wanderer and, from Washington Square Serenade, the closing Jericho Road, a handclap-accompanied a capella spiritual worksong that could have come straight out of the slave plantations.

In fact, a reminder of her impeccable good taste as musical curator she did, after all, introduce the world to Dylan , as with the previous Dark Chords On A Big Guitar, the whole album consists entirely of other people's songs which Baez invests with her own gravitas and passion and makes them completely her own. Eliza Gilkyson provides two, the trad folk sounding Rose of Sharon and, in keeping with the Biblical notes and featuring Earl on harmonium, Requiem's hymn to the Virgin Mary.

The stirring, martial beat acoustic anthemic call to resistance Scarlet Tide is penned by Costello and T-Bone Burnett, Patty Griffin contributes Christian allegory Mary and from country songwriter Diana Jones there's the haunting miner's deathbed farewell of Henry Russell's Last Words sounding like a slow Hebrew funeral march. Appropriate then that, having duetted on Gilmore's version, she's recorded it herself here with Thea returning the compliment and providing harmony.

It's almost the album's finest moment, only nudged into second place by the stripped back Baez on acoustic guitar , emotionally tremulous cover of Tom Waits and Kathleen Brennan's title track letter from Iraq. You should be too. This long-deleted live album, vintage , is now re-released in a special two-disc collectors' edition with the addition of six previously unreleased tracks and a much improved booklet containing brand new comprehensive liner notes by Arthur Levy and full personnel performing credits.

Around half of the songs on Ring Them Bells are performed by Joan as duets with one or other of the guests - and there are some wonderful moments here, not least the spellbinding combination with Kate and Anna on Willie Moore, the duet with Janis on Jesse and that with Mary Chapin Carpenter on Diamonds And Rust. Additionally poignant too is Joan's duet with Mimi on Swallow Song her husband Richard's composition.

The extra six previously unreleased tracks are better than fillers; they include Mary's Stones In The Road and three fine solo performances by Joan alone You Ain't Goin' Nowhere, Geordie and the rarely-outed Love Song To A Stranger , all well worth having in order to complete the record of what was a unique series of shows.

Shows where all the songs she was performing self-evidently really spoke to Joan directly. The presentation and packaging of this re-release is superb too, and I suspect it won't just be "collectors" who'll want to own a copy. Instead of delivering a new studio set, Joan now brings us another in the parallel strand of live albums which she's taken to releasing at crucial moments in history as "critical barometers of our endlessly troubled times".

The "carrot" - and a juicy one, it turns out - is the inclusion of four songs never before recorded by Joan, including a very fine rendition of Dylan's Seven Curses counterpointed by some very skilful guitar playing, incidentally and an acappella rendition of Finlandia.

But probably more so than the shadow of Dylan, it's the spirit of Woody Guthrie that looms largest over the whole of this new live album and not just in the obvious sense that it includes his Deportee, and the honourable mention in the lyric of Steve Earle's Christmas In Washington!

There's a freewheeling spontaneity, a genuine emotional and political response to contemporary events here the Presidential election week , that marks this live set compiled from two nights at the Bowery Ballroom, NYC. Generally speaking, Joan's on good form, and these performances won't disappoint her many fans, although not every one of the 14 selections comprises an essential performance that must be added to the existing Baez collection - a few are quite efficient but do not really add anything new to her interpretations.

But Bowery Songs carries on, with credibility, Joan's deliberate policy - nay, tradition - of releasing good-quality, and representative, live recordings, and as such cannot be but welcomed. Joan Baez - Dark Chords On A Big Guitar Sanctuary Her first album in six years finds the legendary folkie in excellent form, her keening voice as resonant and distinctive as ever, and while she may not have penned any of the material herself her choice of songs and writers is impeccable.

With the vague exception of Natalie Merchant the dark and potent America the lost number Motherland , all the songs are by Americana artists, Greg Brown providing both the opening track with Sleeper a tale of putting wild flings behind in favour of a steady life, transformed into a classic Baez number evocative of her work in the 70s and lost dreams lament Rexroth's Daughter, from which the title line comes.

Still sounding like If I Needed You, Ryan Adams's In My Time Of Need gets a simple yearning treatment while his former Whiskeytown cohort Caitlin Cary supplies Rosemary Moore, its encouragement to the widow to go out and grab another slice of life given a bluesy repetitive drone guitar mood by Duke McVinnie with George Javori's brushed drums accentuating the late night torchy mood.

A chugging train rhythm blues gospel approach to attempted rape murder ballad Caleb Meyer is the first of two songs by Gillian Welch and David Rawlings, the second an equally scratchy, shrugging swampy as opposed to country blues and twangy bass treatment of Elvis Presley Blues. Which leaves Joe Henry's King's Highway an upbeat rocker reminiscent of Dylan's funkier periods , the spare acoustic cover of highly praised upcoming young Idaho singer-songwriter Josh Ritter's melancholic ballad Wings from his new album Starling and to close, reminding that Baez made her name getting the establishment hot under the collar, a gentle resigned and weary cover of Steve Earle's timely rueful political lament Christmas In Washington.

It's typical of Baez to choose to showcase so many of her talented - and in too many cases unsung - fellow artists while hitting the mood of the moment, and with this accomplished, often musically adventurous return to the recording scene, they, she, and most of all us, should be well satisfied beneficiaries.

Vanguard have done a really good job with these enhanced reissues of Joan's earliest records, all six being generously topped up with interesting bonus material either recorded concurrently or closely thereon. Just as the traditional song repertoire has itself provided Joan with much of her source material for these records - especially on volumes 1 and 2 - so these albums themselves have formed the basic source material for generations of singers coming new to the folk scene.

For many folkies, hers are pretty much the definitive versions of many of the songs she tackles here. Finally, the pair of In Concert CDs were taken from recordings made at various live shows between October and Spring by Maynard Solomon, then co-owner of the record label, for the dual purpose of documenting material and testing its suitability for future studio releases.

These albums contain some very fine performances, which form a useful addendum to the studio albums while duplicating less material than you might expect. Altogether, a very worthwhile set of reissues, which look set to become the definitive packages, hopefully remaining in print for some time to come. I'd been meaning to investigate the band since hearing of their deliciously punningly titled debut Abbey Rodent!

But taken on its own terms, it's a disc with lots to offer, and on this evidence Bag Of Rats is a band seriously worth getting to know. Formed back in , BoR released the abovementioned debut CD in , then proceeded to enthral festival crowds from Glastonbury to Priddy for four summer seasons before re-launching the verminous ship with this proud new album in April, in good time for this year's round of bookings.

The sound they make is a brilliantly full-toned plugged-in-acoustic racket I use that word as a definite compliment! A truly joyous racket then, typified by the opening ragbag or should that be ratbag?! The album's tour-de-force and for me, its most persuasive highpoint is The Rooky Wood, a workout-cum-mini-extravaganza that entwines itself out of a stormalongly-different version of Richard Thompson's Poor Ditching Boy.

Mike's own compositions mostly songs, along with a couple of instrumentals comprise around half of the disc's items, and some of these, while employing a more powered-down musical arrangement of the "thoughtful contemporary acoustic" variety and providing a contrast with the band's rowdier escapades, somehow don't quite fit with the image or make the same kind of lasting impression on the senses.

Those which do best stick in the mind, perhaps, are the title track and In Your Dreams, which inhabit a kinda ethereal, enigmatically referential psych-folk milieu that's complemented by their tumbling, swooning instrumental backdrop, while elsewhere Zombie Song is well described by a phrase in the band's press handout: Hell, they almost live up to the ultra-purple prose of their press handout!

Baggyrinkle is the name given to the octet of Swansea-based shantymen led by Dave Robinson, who for the past few years have hosted the Swansea and Mumbles Festivals while gaining an increasing reputation at major shanty and maritime festivals throughout the UK and Europe.

Their individual approach combines sufficiently lusty lead and chorus parts, with three-part harmony singing a particular speciality. As for those shanty enthusiasts who consider harmonies anathema to the spirit of those work-songs, I'd urge them to listen again without prejudice, for they may well be pleasantly surprised at the musicality of Baggyrinkle's renderings.

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Almost nothing is known of them. Winthrop, when the first white people came here, was a place of striking beauty. This is made clear in the accounts of those first on the scene. Unfortunately, there were few Puritans sufficiently interested to write in any detail of the geography - or indeed of anything save the formal, legal records. Men were commonly not educated in such facilities in those days, articulateness was not a characteristic of the early 17th century.

Even so, the men who could write were much more concerned with winning homes and establishing a commonwealth. They were too busy to write, even if they could have done so.

The important things about these descriptions is not so much that they were mere off-hand comments, fragments of a few sentences included in writing of much graver material, as that one and all they were markedly enthusiastic.

For example, the Puritans wrote home from Boston in glowing terms. So pleasant a scene here they had as did much refresh them; and there came a smell off the shore like the smell of a garden. Imagine a weary, endlessly-long tossing upon the ocean, cramped and confined, ill and sick of the horrible food which alone was possible on long voyages in those days.

And then to 5. Probably at morning and again at evening, deer would come out of the forest and stand on the beach to see what manner of creature was disturbing their peace.

Then to land on the beach, to walk on solid ground once again and to feast on fresh meat and to enjoy the strange but delicious flesh of lobsters -- and even to have a plate of steamed clams -- not to mention great steaks of familiar fish such as cod. Of these fish and these sea-foods, a colonist, Francis Higginson, wrote, "The abundance of sea-food are sic almost beyond believeing and sure I should scarce have believed it, except I had seen it with mine own eyes.

I saw great store of whales and grampusses and such abundance of mackerels that it would astonish one to behold, likewise codfish in abundance on the coast, and in their season are plentifully taken. Of this fish, our fishers take many hundreds together, which I have seen lying on the shore to my admiration; yea, their nets ordinarily take more than they are able to haul to land, and for want of boats and men they are constrained to let many go after they have taken them, and yet sometimes they fill two boats at a time with them.

For my own part, I was soon cloyed with them, they were so great and fat, and lucious. I have seen some lobsters that weighed sixteen pounds; but others have, divers times, seen great lobsters as have weighed twenty-five pounds, as they assure me. Also here is abundance of herring, turbot, sturgeon, cusks, haddocks, mullets, eels, crabs, mussels and oysters. Besides there is probability that the country is of excellent temper for the making of salt; for since our coming, the fishermen have brought home very good salt, which they found candied, by standing of sea-water and the heat of the sun, upon a rock by the sea-shore; and in divers salt marshes that some have gone through, they have found some salt in some places crushing under their feet and cleaving to their shoes.

Thirtie, fortie, fiftie, sixtie, are ordinarie here; yea, Joseph's increase in Egypt is outstript here with us. Our planters have more than a hundred fold this yere What will you say of two hundred fold and upwards? Our Governor hath store of green pease in his garden, as good as ever I eat in England. Thecountrie aboundeth naturally with store of roots of great varietie Here are store of pomions squash , cowcumbers and other things the nature of which I know not Excellent vines are here, up and down the woods.

Our governor John Winthrop hath already planted a vineyard with great hope of increase. Also mulberries, hurtleberries, and hawes of whitethorn filberts, walnuts, smallnuts, near as good as our cherries in England; they grow in plentie here. Higginson's botany and horticulture may be slightly awry but there can be no mistaking the fact that the settlers found Boston a fair and pleasant land and one which was fruitful in the bargain.

Another excerpt, from an unknown writer, has this to say along the same line: This much I can affirm in general, that I never came to a more goodly country in my life. Everything that is here eyther sowne or planteth, prospereth far better than in Old England.

Vines doe grow here plentifully laden with the biggest grapes that ever I saw; some I have seen foure inches about One of the better sources of information about the early days of Boston and vicinity is William Wood's New England Prospect.

Wood spent some four years in this neighborhood and published his book in at London. It is one of the best sources of information about the Massachusetts Bay Colony, if for no other reason, it being the only thing of its kind. In Wood's book appears a fair map of this area on which for the first time Winthrop's former name of Pullin Point is shown, together with 7.

Wood had this to say, in part, about his new home. Speaking of strawberries, he alleged, the colonists "may gather halfe a bushell in a forenoone Yet another interesting account of colonial days is that of John Josselyn, published in In his book New England Rarities, which is hardly noteworthy for its restraint, John has much to say about apples and cider; for example," It was affirmed by one Mr.

Wolcutt a magistrate established in Connecticut after leaving Boston that he made five hundred hogsheads of syder out of his own Orchard in One year. Syder is very plentiful in the Countrey, ordinarily sold for Ten Shillings a Hogshead. The Quinces, Cherries, Damsons set the Dames at work.

Marmalade and preserved Damsons is to be met with in every house. I made Cherry wine, and so many others, for there are a good store of them both red and black. On the very best authority, the reader may be assured that perry when properly aged can give a most gratifying result for the moment, although gastrically it is worse than even very hard cider. The colonists were devoted to their fruit trees, perhaps feeling that the familiar fruits of home were an establishment of civilization in the wilderness.

Indeed, it has been said that the church bell and the apple tree crossed America hand and hand as the tide of settlement moved westward. William Blackstone, who lived near what is now Boston Common on the side of Beacon Hill, had an apple orchard well established before the Puritans 8. John Winthrop hastened to plant his island off shore Governor's Island with a garden in which apple and other fruits were set out.

Out in present Roxbury, Justice Paul Dudley planted a garden in which he reported, he grew eight hundred peaches upon a single tree and that he grew pears "eight inches around the bulge. Governor Bellingham built a garden along what is now Tremont Street and here he reared the very first "greenhouse" in America. Thomas Hancock had a "magnificent plantation" on the site of the present State House. One other well-known early garden was located in the present South End where Perrin May had a "famous orchard.

May, however, was probably one of the first to make use of sea weed, such as kelp for fertilizer; that material sounds better for plant food than pussy cats. While many other references could be listed, these will show how pleased the settlers were with the Boston area and we can infer that Deane Winthrop and a few other settlers in Winthrop itself experienced the same good fortune.

Certainly there is no reason to suppose that Winthrop was any different from the adjacent territory and crops must have flourished here as easily and as prosperously.

From these early accounts, it would seem that the abundance of wild life was even more remarkable. General Benjamin Butler, that unfortunate man more celebrated for his acid tongue than for his many accomplishments and services once remarked that the storied hardships of the first settlers were largely imaginary for there was so much wild life about in the woods and on the beaches, as well as in the sea and the rivers, that they could have starved only if they were lazy enough to fail to pick up what was lavishly laid out before them.

Deer were certainly very abundant. Indeed a quotation from William Wood's New England's Prospect, probably written about , makes this dear, while at the same time explaining how Deer Island and Pullin Point, Winthrop's first name, were so called. Towne, the river Mystic only parting them.

The chief islands which keepe out the winde and the sea from disturbing the harbours are, first Deare Island, which lies within a flight shot of Pullin Point. Some have killed sixteen deare a day upon this island.

The opposite shore across Shirley Gut is called Pullin Pointe, because that is the usual channell Boats use to passe threw into the bay Boston harbor ; and the tide being very stronge, they are constrayned to goe ashore and hale their boats, by the sealing, or roades, whereupon it was called Pullin Point.

Few men could read or write well; many could not do either at all. When a man was actually compelled to write, it was a task of considerable labor, not merely because it was unaccustomed work, but because the author, while he might have a fairly good oral vocabulary, had only a general idea of how the words he used should be spelled.

So, when he came to a word he did not really know, he was apt to spell it as it sounded to him. Thus much of the old writing is somewhat original. Then too, these writers made use of many words which have since been lost and forgotten save by scholars. Next to deer, perhaps a major game source was the wild turkey. These were big birds and very delicious. Then, they were abundant in and about Boston.

At a single shot a man or boy could bring home 20 pounds or so of the most highly prized meat. Wood wrote, in , " There have been seen a thousand in one day Just as the settlers exterminated the turkeys, so they were profligate with other game. Deer very soon became scarce; bear were nearly exterminated, save in the depths of the Maine woods. Probably the greatest waste of all was in wild birds.

The passenger pigeons are a classic example. Today, not one is known to be alive anywhere. When the settlers came, reports Wood, there were "millions and millions. Other writers speak of vast areas of the forest which were It is even reported that the birds, who were certainly gregarious, nestled so closely together and in such numbers, that their combined weight stripped giant oaks and maples of their larger boughs.

These pigeons were shot, netted and trapped and so squandered that within a few years, as civilization moved westward, they were literally wiped out of existence. The importance of wild fowl as a source of food was made evident in , just two years after settlement, when the General Court ordered, "That noe person whosoever shall shoote att fowle upon Pullin Point Winthrop or Noddles Island East Boston , but said places shall be preserved for Jobe Perkins to take fowle with netts.

Primarily it consists of taking birds alive by means of nets, snares and various devices such as bird-lime -- which last consisted of smearing the branches where birds roosted in numbers at night with a sticky paste which held them fast until morning when the fowler picked them off like fruit from a laden apple bough. The section then was heavily wooded, the beaches were numerous and there were the great unspoiled salt marshes -- ideal attractions for many kinds of birds.

What is now Belle Isle Inlet -- what is left of it -- was then a much deeper tidal estuary winding between the salt marsh grasses. Although no description of Perkins' work remains, it is to be imagined that he built a frame work of light saplings for several hundred yards along and over the creek. This frame work was wide at the open end and narrowed down to a very small diameter at the farther end. Perkins and his aides would wait until there was a considerable flock of birds, say at about where the present Winthrop-East Boston bridge is now and then, in row-boats, drive the birds into the net and force them deeper and deeper into its constrictive diameter until, at the end, they could pick up the birds by hand -- taking them alive to Boston market.

What happened to Perkins' concession, how much he paid for it and similar questions cannot be answered, but certainly Winthrop's first fowler had unlimited stock. Back in those days, before the wasteful habits of the settlers Winthrop, its woods, fields and beaches, was a nursery for multitudes of birds. Indeed, on the ledges and sands of the outer beach, the great auk, now extinct, and such other birds as the gannet, shag, cormorant, puffin and many kinds of gulls and terns, not to mention many more lesser birds were at home.

The wildness of the Winthrop beaches and rocks can be attested by the fact that they were also home to such animals as walrus and various types of seals. It was a hunter's paradise indeed. Here too were seen in considerable numbers the white swan, the sand hill crane, the heron, the brant, snow geese, Canada geese and such ducks as mallards, canvas backs, eider, teals, widgeons, sheldrakes and many others. Most of these commonly bred in Winthrop then, although of course the great breeding grounds then as now, were to the north.

Yet each Spring and Fall, during the migrations, the sky was filled with clouds of these birds and Winthrop's marshes often sheltered countless thousands of them at night.

It must have been a magnificent sight then, to go out in the early morning, or late in the twilight, to see and hear the geese and duck in their hosts. How they must have deafened the ear with their clamorous calling and the beating of their wings must have sounded like constantly rolling thunder. Morton reported in , "I have often had a thousand geese at the end of my gun. Yet they, with the passenger pigeons previously mentioned, were often taken and used in making pies -- which was a sort of massive dish consisting of several pounds of bird flesh baked between thick layers of biscuit -- like crust in a lordly dish.

This was a hearty meal and may be relished today, in a dwarfed and pale copy, in our modern chicken pie. These smaller birds were very easy to kill, although many hunters regretted wasting "their shotte upon such small fowles. I have killed between foure and five dozen at a shoote, which would load me downe. The living, seeing the dead, settle themselves in the same place againe, I myself, have killed twelve score att two shotts.

Of course birds were far from being the most important source of wild food. Deer was probably the great food staple. When the Puritans came the woods of Winthrop were teeming with the gentle animals as the name Deer Island attests but the animals were very soon exterminated and from then on, the only deer that came into Winthrop were refugees from the still unspoiled forests of what are now Saugus, North Revere and Malden.

Soon these forests were emptied also and that was the end of deer in our section. The moose was commonly seen in Winthrop too, in the early days, but this huge creature, larger than a horse, very soon vanished at the end of the settler's guns.

There were elk and caribou also, in very limited numbers probably, and they did not long satisfy the settlers' hunger for meat because they are creatures of the wilderness -- even more so than the moose.

Of the four animals the deer alone has managed to survive in numbers in New England. Indeed, it is said that there are more deer in New England today than there were when the settlers came. The reason is, of course, that the deer is comparatively small, very agile, and has managed to adapt himself to feeding on the fringes of the farm.

Any hunter will tell you that deer in open, that is farming country, are much larger than the forest deer as for instance in the depths of the Maine woods. There were many small animals in Winthrop at the beginning and these managed to survive longer than did the bigger creatures. Such were rabbits, squirrels and raccoons. The first was used for meat after the deer vanished, the raccoon was exterminated for its fur but the squirrel remained and still remains because he is of no value for either fur or food.

Of course in Winthrop today, with practically every inch occupied by houses there is no possibility of any wild animal, save mice and rats and squirrels existing. What is left of the marshes and the outer beach still provides resting places for migrating water fowl hut the glory of wild life that once made Winthrop noted has vanished.

Fish took the place of game as a source of food as the larger wild animals. And for many years, Winthrop was a splendid place for fish and for sea-food; it was not until contemporary times that the pollution of the harbor ended this. A mere catalog of the fish that have been and still are caught off Winthrop shores, though seldom now in the harbor exemplifies this sea-given wealth of the town: As for shellfish, oysters once abounded; they For many years, these have remained: Of small interest now but formerly valuable for oil, were such as whales, porpoises and blackfish.

A catalog of wild animals of Winthrop, made by the late George McNeil, includes such as: As for snakes Winthrop now has a very few harmless ones, such as blacksnakes, green snakes, garter snakes and possibly a few more but in the beginning, Winthrop had various slightly poisonous adders, such as the striped adder and the house adder while, sad to say, the virulent rattlesnake was once a nuisance, although scarcely a peril.

The poisonous snakes were quickly killed and none have been reliably reported for the past century. Geologically, Winthrop is part of the general New England region which is one of the oldest, that is unchanged, portions of the earth's crust.

Geologically, the basis of Winthrop runs back many millions of years, being part of the Appalachians, the mountains which are the mere stumps of what were once lordly peaks five miles high or more. Many ages ago, the rocks were crushed and folded like paper in a mountain building process. Up through the shattered rock then poured rivers of igneous rock which, however, seldom broke through the then existing surface. These "domes" or intrusions cooled in place and, when subsequently uncovered by erosion and glacial action, comprise the present day granite so characteristic of much of New England.

Since the mountain building, there have followed uncounted years and ages of erosion of various types. At least a mile-thick layer of surface has been removed in the process, much more of course from the higher elevations. Thus the original snow-capped mountains were ground off and washed away to mere hills, or even obliterated. Much of New England became a flattish peneplain -- known as the Cretaceous peneplain for its being formed in that period. Much of New England during the time was sunk beneath the ocean.

Next followed another period of stress and strain and New England was crumpled upward again. Volcanoes erupted, lava flowed and, when the motion ceased, most of New England was lifted bodily perhaps 2, feet with the worn away mountains once more respectably high. Oddly enough this uplift was not equal but was highest in what is now Vermont and lowest in 14 what is now the Cape Cod area. Thus all New England was tilted from northwest to southeast.

Once again followed another long period of erosion. Rivers carved themselves new valleys and, along shore, the ocean pounded rock to sand and built great beaches. This period was that of the Tertiary and the resulting peneplain is known by that name.

It came to an end with a very slight upheaval which served to elevate the north west and broaden the lower reaches near the Ocean. Perhaps, as a very general statement, the shore line then was an average of miles farther to the east. It was a remarkable shore line, especially along the southeastern Massachusetts coast.

Several now placid rivers, like the Charles, tore great canyons in the rock near the ocean, making gorges as great as those of the present Grand Canyon of the Colorado. These gorges still remain -- under the ocean. It was during this period that the sea alternately invaded the shore and then retreated, over swings of thousands of years. The present period is one in which the ocean is sweeping in and this has given us the characteristic drowned valley type of coast.

Rivers have been shortened and the salt water has entered into their valleys making tidal estuaries. As the land subsided, high spots on ridges would remain above water, making numerous islands, often connected one with another and with the mainland by a higher ridge, thus forming peninsulas.

Of course much of this outlined geological history is necessarily obscure since nearly all of its features have been obliterated by glaciation. It is to glaciers that Winthrop owes its form and character. This planet of ours has experienced several "ice ages," perhaps seven, so far. When the world went into one of these cold periods, sheets of ice, sometimes a mile in thickness, would creep down out of the north and in their coming -- as well as in their departure, when the climate warmed again -- they profoundly changed the face of things.

The last glacier, which created Winthrop and its vicinity, came during the Pleistocene age and receded from here something like 25, years ago. This great ice sheet, which apparently originated in the Laurentian region to the north and north-west, moved slowly, very slowly, in a northwest-southeast direction. It overwhelmed everything in its path. Tops of mountains were sheared off, loose rock, soil and sand picked up and carried along -- as snow from the edge of a plow. The mass of rock at its forefront acted like the cutting blade of a titanic bulldozer and cut off the topsoil and the 'hills and pushed the mass ahead of itself.

Even more, the ice changed the shape of the mountain masses it could not level. As it climbed up the northwest side of the hills, the cutting edge created a long smooth slope. At the top, the final several hundred or thousand feet was sheared away. Then, as the ice sheet tumbled down the southeast side of the mountains, it fell so easily that the side remained steep.

Indeed, if the southeast angle is projected upwards, and a similar angle projected from the base on the northwest side, it is demonstrated that the point where the lines intersect indicate the original height of the mountains. What are now a thousand or two feet high, were once mountains four and five thousand feet high.

New England was once as lordly mountainous as Switzerland -- long ago. The Alps are very young as mountains go. Eventually they too will be worn to stumps but by then New England may grow a new crop of snow-covered peaks. Finally, when, after many years, the ice edge reached about as far as present New York City, the climate turned warmer. The ice halted and then began to retreat; which is to say, the ice melted away. No living being can image the terrific confusion the ice left behind as inch by inch it retreated hack into Canada.

Streams of water gushed across and out from under the ice in massive torrents. This was the tool, these vast masses of swiftly rushing water, which carved New England into what is, more or less, its present face.

You see, as the ice halted, it left at a standstill the masses of rock and sand, clay and loam, which it had carried along as it moved south. This it promptly deposited, forming what is known as the terminal moraine at its southeasterly edge and its lateral moraine at its easterly edge.

According to some geologists, this terminal moraine formed Cape Cod and Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket -- for example. The melted ice rushing through and over these moraines shaped them into outwash plains, kames and eskers. In places the ice water washed the moraine completely away; in others it shaped the mass into domes and hills with valleys between.

Just as the wind after a snow storm drifts the soft snow into weird shapes in an hour, so through many years the water shaped the moraines into various forms.

Of course, the process thus begun has continued ever since for wind, rain, frost and sun constantly erode the face of the earth -- tearing it down and preparing for another age of mountain building, perhaps a million years from now, perhaps tonight.

New England is staid and quiet geologically now; but it may erupt into fire and flame at any moment as the rock beneath our feet awakens once again. The hills may seem eternal but to the geologist, a thousand years is but the tick of the second hand on a clock.

So far as Winthrop is concerned, when the ice sheet retreated from here, it created all our hills. These are a very peculiar type of formation-for, while most hills are at least in part masses of rock, our hills are made up of sand, pebbles, small boulders and clay -- "unconsolidated till" is the technical name, meaning loose soil. These hills are known as drumlins. They were not forgotten by the retreat of the glacier at the end of the ice age but were made during the ice age itself when, as the climate fluctuated, the glacier's edge alternately advanced and retreated over short distances -- perhaps a few hundred feet rather than several hundred miles as in the general advance and final retreat.

Take a piece of bread, a small piece, and roll it lightly back and forth on the table. The bread will form a sort of thick and pointed cigar. That is how drumlins were made. The glacier rolled back and forth beneath its edge great heaps of debris and thus what now resembles half footballs resulted. Winthrop's hills are all drumlins, so are the hills of Revere, East Boston and Chelsea. So are many of the Islands in the harbor -- what is left of them.

So is Point Shirley, Great Head and the four hills at the Highlands with a smaller group or pair of the drumlins making up the Center and Court Park sections. Of course, time and the ocean have not dealt kindly with the drumlins. Being soft as compared with rock, they have been greatly eroded.

An example of erosion has been the cut of Highway C 1 through the western end of the drumlin which is Orient Heights. This cut was originally wide enough only to keep the sides in permanent shape but rain washed away the soil until the road below was badly mudded over on the east side.

Not until the bare soil was sodded over was this erosion stopped. As the ice went away, the bare drumlins, until grass covered them and checked wind and rain erosion, washed down filling the space between the hills. Thus the salt marsh between Winthrop and Beachmont and between Winthrop and East Boston and Revere was brought into being.

Drainage of tidal waters formed Belle Isle Inlet and its "tributaries. Then the marshes open to the sea were closed away by the formation of what is known as barrier beaches and the placid marsh was allowed to build itself up to high water level, by means of silting with humus formed by the annual decay of the marsh grasses and weeds. A cross section Probably the greatest agent which affected the drumlins was the ocean.

The waves, especially during storms, battered them and ate mercilessly away at their substance. Orient Heights, protected by its marshes, is a good illustration of a drumlin which has not been much damaged by erosion. Only man has corroded its majesty. Great Head is a good example of a drumlin of which the ocean has destroyed about half of its length. Cherry Island bar, off Beachmont, is an example of a drumlin which has been completely leveled by the waves.

Of course, Apple Island and Governors Island are examples of drumlins leveled by man -- the Airport consumed their substance. As the ocean chewed away at exposed drumlins, the water carried away the sand and clay and the smaller pebbles while the larger boulders dropped down and were actually built into a sort of breakwater which gave some measure of protection against the waves.

Of course, it was not adequate protection and hence in modern times we have been compelled to build sea walls along the shore front from Revere Beach, past Beachmont, around the Highlands and right down to Point Shirley. The damage winter northeasters sometimes do to even these modern sea walls, shows that we have reined back, not entirely halted the ocean.

However, if the walls had not been built, it is altogether likely that Beachmont Hill, the Highlands and Point Shirley would all have been washed away -- as indeed they may be yet, unless we keep the sea walls in constant repair. These rocks formed reefs which alter tidal and storm currents so that the sand and small pebbles washed out are deposited along between the drumlins.

Thus our beaches came into being, composed of the ruins of the drumlins between the reefs -- as between the end of Beachmont and the Highlands, between the Highlands and Great Head and between Great Head and Point Shirley. As breakwaters and sea walls are built, the currents are altered still further. Thus in some places the beaches are being lowered and in others built higher. For example, the beach along the Crest, between the Highlands and Cottage Hill, has been notably elevated in the past few years since the breakwater was built off shore.

Probably, within a few more years, what was the area of water between the shore and the breakwater will be filled in and Winthrop Beach will be that much wider.

Every storm makes changes; and every change has its consequences. Undoubtedly we can keep the present area of Winthrop, and perhaps even persuade the ocean to enlarge it rather than wear the shore line away.

However, it must be remembered that this will only be so if constant vigilance is maintained and the walls and breakwaters kept in repair. These drumlins, when the Puritans arrived must have been very attractive, especially to sea-weary eyes. The hills stood up out of the levels of the salt marsh, not bare and shabby as we know them now, but clothed in heavy forests, probably of white pine, oak, birch and maple. This forest cover gave the soil protection against erosion and thus the hills had accumulated through the many centuries a rich and fertile humus.

The subsoil, being of unconsolidated till, was "tight" and thus the food elements put into the soil by the forest did not leach away -- as it does in sandy and loose soils. The Indians, of course, had cleared little areas here and there by fire for their corn but they were not farmers. They much preferred to live by hunting and fishing and hence while they did plant corn, beans and pumpkins, they did not "farm" in the sense that large, cleared areas were utilized.

The scene is so different now, with buildings, many of them not designed to be attractive, covering all the drumlins, with roads cutting through the hills, with ugly skeletons of electric wire poles strung everywhere -- and with every forest tree cut down long since, that we descendants of the Puritans cannot realize how the town and its neighborhood did look years ago. Mellen Chamberlain in his History of Chelsea visualized the aspect of his town by writing: Bordering us by the south and west lay splendid waterways for future commerce Neither of these exists, or did exist in our borders.

Their comments are particularly illuminating, both in reference to geography and to wild life, previously described. One of the original settlers of the Puritan colony at Charlestown, was Anne Pollard, who died in at the age of She claimed she "was the first to jump ashore" from the Winthrop party in the passage from Charlestown to Boston in and afterwards said she remembered the site of the future city as being "very uneven, abounding with small hollows and swamps, and covered with blueberry and other bushes.

He said that "At their first landing the hideous thickets in this place were such that wolves and bears nurse up their young from the eyes of all beholders. The Indian name for Charlestown, Mishawum, means "a great spring" while Boston's Indian name, Shawmut, means "living fountain. When the foundations of the new Post Office building were put into place, the engineers were reported to have had some trouble with the waters of this spring -- which were still flowing under the buildings and pavements of modern Boston.

Wood had much to say about water in the Boston section. Writing in , he remarked: Those that drink it Boston's spring water be as healthfull, fresh, and lustie, as they that drinke Beere; these springs be not onely within land, but likewise bordering upon the sea coasts, so that some times the tides overflow some of them Indeed, he wrote the following verses about the local trees: The Diars Shummach, with more trees there be, That are both good to use, and rare to see.

The two islands which are now East Boston, were never part of Winthrop or of any interest to Winthrop people. Actually Winthrop was tied to Revere as a pensinsula, and Beachmont and adjacent Revere, another peninsula, was tied to Chelsea, and Chelsea itself was also a peninsula, reaching Boston by means of a ferry over the Mystic and Charles rivers.

Chelsea, Revere and Winthrop, a series of three peninsulas, extended to the east and north of Boston but was sharply cut off from Boston by estuaries. The natural way of Winthrop people to go into Boston was, of course, by water -- row boats and sailing boats afforded the most rapid and the easiest way to town.

There was considerable need of visiting Boston, too, for Winthrop was in the beginning and ever since has been dependent upon the City. There was no bridge over Belle Isle Creek until Of interest is also the fact that the road across the marsh between Orient Heights and Beachmont, was not built until , while the road which gave a direct route from Chelsea to Revere was not constructed until Boats served passengers and small loads of freight between Winthrop and Boston, or Revere, or Chelsea, but the moving of heavy loads was difficult.

For example, previous to the Revolution, if a Winthrop farmer, and all Winthrop people were farmers then, wanted to take a load of hay or a dozen beef cattle into market, he could drive only by a very roundabout way. He would leave Winthrop by what is now Revere Street and pass along the eastern and northerly side of Beachmont to what is now Crescent Beach, Revere.

Crossing the Charles near Harvard Square, he would finally arrive in what is now Brookline and then, turning east again, go through Roxbury and so into Boston by way of Roxbury Neck. This was described in the writing of the day to be about fourteen miles although today it would seem to be a much longer trip.

In contrast, a sailing boat with a fair wind could make the trip in under an hour while a row boat could certainly reach Boston from Winthrop in an hour. This roundabout travel continued for perhaps a century because Winthrop and Revere were very small, farming sections. During these hundred years, many changes took place. The forests were wiped out. The soil was placed under cultivation -- although with the primitive tools, with only horse and oxen to do what man's awn muscles did not, agriculture was exceedingly primitive.

At about , for example, a carefully made map located only four houses in Winthrop, one in Beachmont, two in other parts of Revere and four on the water's edge in Chelsea. To serve the needs of these farms, several roads were laid out. These roads are not to be thought of as being real roads in the modern sense of a paved highway over which automotive vehicles roll at 40 to 50 miles an hour -- when the police are not around.

These roads were mere dirt tracks, hub-deep in mud in the Spring, dusty in hot weather and frozen tangles of ruts in Winter. Indeed, farmers used these roads as little as possible, save in Winter, when snow covered the roughness. All heavy moving possible was held until snows were deep and over the smooth surface sleds skidded more easily than at any time of year.

Actually, the first roads were just rutted tracks which were called roads because they were rights of way and because the more objectionable stumps and rocks were removed. Until bridges were built, these roads were primarily fixed by running from one fordable place in a stream to the next. They avoided the steepest grades and made detours often a long way around to make their way across the marshes.

As for foot travelers, almost everybody walked, or else rode horseback -- for to ride in the huge-wheeled carts over the rough surface of the Of course, it must always be remembered that Winthrop people commonly went to and from Boston by water -- safe, swift and easy. Winthrop people even went to church by boat, sailing up Belle Isle Inlet and down what is now the upper part of Boston harbor, near the present oil farm wharves and the gas tanks to as near Beach Street as possible.

Before that when Winthrop went to Church, services were either held in private homes, or else people sailed across the harbor to the churches at Boston itself -- about as near as the old Chelsea Church. This Rumney Marsh Church, which became Unitarian, is still standing, although somewhat reconstructed during its years. As Boston grew, and other towns, particularly to the south, as Plymouth, Taunton and the like developed, and as other towns, as Framingham and Worcester to the west, and Lynn, Salem and Newburyport to the north developed, the problem of land transportation became acute.

Mails had to be carried and passengers clamored for stage coaches. Thus, of particular interest to Winthrop, the old Salem Turnpike was built -- probably the first real road in what is now the United States. Basically, it was an old Indian trail, as indeed most of the early highways in New England were. The settlers used these trails and as such they served well enough for men and women on foot or on horse-back -- but of course no wheeled vehicle could roll over them until they were widened and smoothed.

The Old Salem Turnpike which has been considerably moved about since the early days, was picked out a number of years ago by Channing Howard of Winthrop and Mellen Chamberlain of Chelsea. When the road across the Lynn marsh was built, the Salem pike was relocated to go across Chelsea, probably what is now Broadway, straight down Broadway, Revere and so into Lynn.

This saved many miles. Today the highway of Route One, skips through the rear of Orient Heights, slides across Revere to cross the old pike at right angles and so to North Revere, Saugus and Danvers to the North. In the old days, highways were built to connect towns; now they are built to avoid towns. The first road in Winthrop of which there is any official record probably the officials merely recognized an existing fact, when they got around to it came in when the Selectmen of Boston, "Iaid out" a road which began at "Bill Tewksbury's gate" there are many spellings of the name Tewksbury at Pullin Point, along the shore by Beachmont to Crescent Beach and thence, turning left, up Beach Street, Revere, to the Chelsea church where it joined the Boston and Salem road.

By the time the Revolution came, this was about the physical condition of Winthrop, Revere and Chelsea. Men used the roundabout roads when they had to do so; otherwise they sailed or rowed boats.

This may seem strange, because Boston in was the largest and most prosperous city in the colonies. The reason is that Winthrop, and to a minor degree less, Chelsea and Revere, were still farming communities -- actually one town. In the early part of the 19th Century, Chelsea had grown and, as a separate town had its center with a town hall and a church at what is now Revere Center. A bridge was built across the Charles between Charlestown and Boston in -- before that the only way to leave Boston by land was out Roxbury Neck.

Then when the Boston-Salem turnpike was built in , a bridge was built over the Mystic between Charlestown and Chelsea. These conveniences to travel north and east resulted in a great development for Revere and Chelsea but Winthrop, being way out farther to the east was still aside from the stream of travel and commerce and hence drowsed along until almost the end of the 19th century as a peaceful farming community.

The growth of Chelsea and Revere was so great that in , Chelsea consented to Revere splitting away. Winthrop, of course went with Revere, a sort of tail to the dog. At mid-century, just a hundred years ago, the third great geographical change was accomplished, Winthrop people, who had by then increased in number, began to chafe under the rule of Revere. Revere, for its part, was not at all concerned with the square mile of marsh and drumlins which was Winthrop and so, in , Winthrop was established as the present town -- a separation which recent years have proved to be an excellent thing.

Winthrop at that time was still primarily agricultural. From time to time there had been attempts to establish industry From most points of view this has proved to be good -- for it has prevented the town from suffering the various evils and discomforts of industrial concentration. Economically, of course, there are disadvantages but on the whole Winthrop is very fortunate to be a town of homes alone.

Being so near Boston, Winthrop could not long continue to remain agricultural. Land increased in value to a point where it could not be profitably farmed. Outside pressure became so great that an opportunity developed for the division of the farms, and the subdivisions of the divisions so that almost every square foot of land, town property and marshes aside, became a house lot.

There are few towns which are so thoroughly well built up as Winthrop is today -- just as there is no area of comparable charm so easily accessible to Boston.

The development of Winthrop out of farms to homes was made possible, by the establishment of transportation. Steamers plied for a time between the town and the city, but primarily it was the railroad which made the town's metamorphosis directly possible.

Today the rails have been torn up and private cars and the bus line, feeding the Rapid Transit system at Orient Heights carry the load. Few communities are so thoroughly emptied of mornings and so filled up again at night in two brief peak loads as is Winthrop. But transportation is a story for a subsequent chapter. The Indian actually was very far from a noble savage. Judged by white standards, the redskin was mean, cruel, dirty and -- in short, vermin.

The old saying, "The only good Indian is a dead Indian" was a judgment based upon experience. There can be no doubt that, according to their own lights, the Indians were justified in attempting to retaliate upon the white settlers. Any man worth his salt would fight by whatever means possible to save his home, his family and himself from brutalization and exile.

No critic of the Indian, however bitter, would deny that the Indian was a first-class fighting man. The trouble was that the Indian culture was so different from the European that the two could not exist side by side. On one ground alone, economic, this is abundantly clear. The Indians were primarily hunters. To subsist as such, a hunting culture requires comparatively vast areas of forest and water.

The European culture was basically agricultural; a few acres would support a person. Thus New England could support a multitude more Englishmen than it could Indians. Now, to practice agriculture, it is necessary to destroy the forest cover, to allow the sun to strike in upon the soil. A hunting culture requires the forest be undisturbed. So -- conflict was inevitable and, given the superior weapons and social organization of the English, the result was inevitable.

The Indian had to go. The manner of going can be criticised as having been far too brutal and bloody but sentimentalists of the 20th Century do not realize what the handful of whites faced. There they were, a few men, women and children clutching grimly to a hand-hold along shore, practically safe only under the guns of their ships. Home and safety was not as now, perhaps 14 hours' flight away, but weeks and weeks of weary and uncertain voyaging over perilous seas in tiny ships.

The settlers had to depend upon themselves. It is true they had muskets against the Indian bow and arrow and tomahawk-and scalping It is true that every able-bodied man and boy was a member of the militia, practically ex officio. It is true that the Indians could not withstand an attack by a body of militia.

But, the Indian traditionally followed a policy of strike and run. No one knew when at dawn, they would wake, if they did, to the sound of the warwhoop with their homes afire over their heads. So, the settlers were compelled to fight the Indians Indian fashion. They had to match savagery with even more brutal savagery.

The only thing the Indian feared, and thus respected, was strength greater than he possessed. In other words, the Indian had to be shown it was not good business to kill a white man, woman or child.

The showing consisted of the settlers killing Indian men, women and children. When the Great and General Court of Massachusetts put a bounty on Indian scalps just as it did on wolves and wildcats, it was not mere savagery but sober business. The Indians killed for scalps; the settlers must be encouraged to do likewise.

The early history of New England is bloody and bitter with its series of Indian wars -- with the Indians eventually being instigated and led by first the French and then the British. It is one of the ugliest chapters in human history -- but it must be read in light of the fact that conditions, social, religious, economic and moral, have changed greatly since the last warwhoop died away and the Indians were herded into reservations.

In passing, it may be of interest to know that the Indians of New England, after being reduced to a mere fragment, are today increasing in numbers again. The occupation of this area by humans before Boston was settled is obscure. Apparently, the original inhabitants, so far as is known, were the so-called Red Paint People. Graves have been found in Maine with the skeletons dyed red and with pots of red pigment buried close beside.

Evidently, the Red Paint People were pushed out or exterminated by a nation of small-statured and swarthy aborigines who occupied at least all of northeastern America.

How long they were here, where they came from -- and all the rest, is a matter of mere legend. Very likely, the small, dark people were in turn pushed out, by the familiar Indian of recorded history.

These Indians, the red-skins, may have migrated out of Asia long, long ago, crossing into Alaska via the Bering Straits. Slowly these Indians made their way down the Pacific Coast, going southward until they either came into conflict with the tribes of Mexico, possibly the Mayas and the Incas, or their predecessors. Anyhow, the tide of red Indians turned left and came eastward across the Rockies Finally, a portion of them occupied the Northeast, pushing out the small, dark people mentioned.

The exiles seem to have gone north and east and it is possible that they are today either the Esquimaux or else their blood runs in Esquimaux veins. The red Indians in the North East were members of what is called the Algonquian Nation -- an immense but very loose con-federation of tribes. Practically, the only reason for such a nation being established by scholars is that the tribes so united spoke a language with a common or Algonquian stock.

For greater concern, the Eastern Indians were so-called forest Indians which is to say their culture, being dependent upon the forest which covered their holdings, was very different from the culture of the Indians of the Great Plains, where trees were almost unknown, where the staff of life was buffalo.

It is these Plains Indians, such as the Sioux, proud, fierce, eagle-nosed, and very accomplished fighters, that set the standard of the popular idea of the Indian.

Eastern or woods Indians did not have horses to ride, nor did they wear the picturesque war bonnet. They were extinguished with comparative ease while the Sioux, for example, stood off the Army of the United States, such of it as was employed, for more than a generation. The Indians of New England were sharply divided into various tribes -- although this word is actually a very loose term.

The white settlers from England had a habit of naming the Indians according to the locality in which they lived, being particularly fond of naming a "tribe" after a river -- as the Kennebecs and the Penobscots in Maine. The French settlers also bestowed tribal names and the result was that historians are somewhat confused, since often the same group of Indians were given two or even more names.

Thus the Indians who lived in Winthrop and vicinity have not been positively identified as to their tribe. There is a general understanding that they were members of the Massachusetts tribe but that is indefinite.

Perhaps, as some authorities assert, the Indians of Metropolitan Boston were Pawtuckets. The point is unimportant. The serious point is that these Indians when the Puritans came were in a sorry condition.

This was a very. The old Norse sagas speak of the fighting quality and the strength and numbers of the Indians. Armed with swords, the Vikings, who were the best fighting men of Europe at the time, were no match for the savages -- who probably overwhelmed the Norsemen by sheer force of numbers and thus extinguished the colonies, or colony. Certainly, after the experience of the Vikings, Europeans had a healthy respect for the red men.

No one knows how many Indians lived in and around Boston in the early days. Fishermen had frequented the coast, including Boston Bay, for many years prior to "discovery" and settlement. These traded with the Indians somewhat and, on the whole maintained a friendly relationship -- since the fishermen did not try to settle permanently. From reports of these rough and ready spirits, strange tales found their way into the British mind.

The woods of New England were imagined to be filled with wild beasts as horrid as anything a modern geologist can imagine while the Indians were counted as being "numberless as the leaves upon the trees. Louis, and claimed the area for the King of France. Des Monts asserted that Boston was the center of a vast Indian population, one numbering between , and , souls. There may have been that many Indians then in all New England, although that too is very doubtful.

The country simply would not support that many humans in a hunting culture. The description Des Monts gives of the Indians at Boston is interesting -- if he was a poor census taker. He said that around about the harbor some thirty thousand fighting men were busy carrying fire and massacre into the villages of neighboring tribes, while they stood ready, to use his terms, to repel any attempt at settlement.

The Indians, he reported lived in villages of bark houses, each large enough to shelter 30 or 40 persons, with the entire village fortified by a stout palisade of logs. These logs, poles is probably the better term, for the Indians did not have the tools to handle heavy timbers, were in turn surrounded by deep ditches.

Entrance into the village was by a single plank log is probably the better word laid across the ditch and giving into a very narrow gate.

Thus each village was very easily defended, against the stone-age weapons of the Indians themselves In actual combat with the settlers later, the villages were of course death traps, for just as they kept other Indians out so they kept the inhabitants caged.

The white militia, as in King Philip's War, simply surrounded the village stealthily and then, at a signal, discharged their muskets into the village, setting it ablaze.

Any Indian trying to escape was shot down and so the entire village was wiped out, men, women, children and dogs. Of the Islands in the harbor, Des Monts speaks particularly, saying that they were occupied by Indian villages surrounded by fields of corn, beans, squash pumpkins and tobacco. So he turned north, after visiting Cape Cod, and settled the French in Acadia. Thus Indian curiosity over a white man's ship prevented the French taking possession of New England.

Captain John Smith, the great English adventurer, when he visited New England in , had this to report to his backers of Boston and vicinity. We found the people in these parts kindly but in their fury no less valiant. A war party attacked the ship and killed the crew with the exception of four men who were taken as wild animals might be captured.

Under careful guard, the unlucky Frenchmen were taken from one Indian village to the next and exhibited to the curiosity of the savages. Undoubtedly, the squaws were not kind. The fate of the slaves is not known; likely enough it was not merciful for the four were seized in retaliation for a raid by a Captain Hunt in Hunt seized about twenty Indians and took them to Spain where he sold them into slavery.

Had John Winthrop, and the Pilgrims at Plymouth for that matter, attempted settlement during these years, the fate of the two first towns might have been very different. It seems unlikely the proud and able Indians of eastern Massachusetts would have allowed white men to seize their land and level their forests. However, about or , a fierce pestilence swept through the Indian villages. Possibly it was smallpox; probably it was a European disease which was communicated to the Indians by some fisherman or sailor.

In any event, the Indians were very nearly wiped out of existence; only an impotent handful remaining. And these few suffered further destruction at the hands of a very fierce tribe from Maine, the Tarrantines. The Tarrantines and the Massachusetts tribe were traditional enemies. For many years, the Massachusetts had been strong enough not only to hold the Maine Indians at arm's length but also had inflicted serious harm by almost annual raids.

When the Tarrantines learned of the pestilence, they swept down and completed the ruin of the once very powerful Indians, particularly those along the coast of Massachusetts. Probably not three hundred fighting Winthrop was certainly one of the choice items of Indian real estate but there is no knowledge of any particular activity here.

In fact, there never was any Indian trouble within the limits of the town. Certainly Indians lived here and probably in the Summer months, this was an Indian summer resort for members of friendly Indian groups. Indians commonly established two residences. During the warm months, they resorted to the sea shore, where they lived on fish and clams and lobsters.

In the Fall, they returned inland, harvested the crops which they had planted in the Spring and then settled down deep in the forest to live the cold, starving months away with the help of wild game. He married Mary Powell circa , in N. She was born circa , in N. Names of her parents may have been John and Alice Murrell Powell. His will was dated December 24, , and was recorded in Union District, S. His wife, Mary, died circa , in Union District, S.

They had four sons and three daughters. He was only eight years old when his father and mother died in She was born in New London, Connecticut, on October 14, The original church moved with Mulkey to what later became Union District, S. Obediah received a land grant of acres on the branches of Fairforest and Sugar Creeks on February 17, Obediah Howard moved with the only remaining ordained minister capable of administering the affairs of the church, the Reverend Alexander McDougal, and the Patriot membership of the church moved to a part of the McDougal land, where the church established by the Rev.

Philip Mulkey was continued. Obediah Howard was a Patriot soldier and served before and after the fall of Charleston as a private in the local militia in Col. John McCool was the commander of his company. His son, Joseph, was also a Patriot soldier and fought under Col. Thomas Brandon after the fall of Charleston. I, Deed Books A-F, page Joseph Howard took his own life in Union District, S. This relationship is not fully established. Jean was born circa He and the Reverend Alexander McDougal attended the meeting.

He was also elected a deacon of this church. After the census of Union District, S. This area later became a part of Tennessee. Nancy and her husband had three sons who were preachers, John, Philip and Isaac, and a grandson, John Newton Mulkey, who was also a minister.

They had a son, John Gibbs, a well-known pastor in Union District. The two Hart wives were sisters and daughters of Aaron Hart, who served as a Patriot soldier under Col. Thomas Brandon in the American Revolutionary War.

Others traveling with this group were: They had seven sons and seven daughters. A man named Jiles Thompson and his agents were to build the meetinghouse. Obediah and Priscilla Howard were deceased when their grandson, the Reverend John Mulkey, began to subscribe to the reform theology of the Christian Church.

Their log structure was eventually encased by weather boarding and then bricked as the congregation continued into modern times. Mill Creek Baptist Church still meets in this building today. She was born April 29, , in Groton. He and his wife lived near her parents in Groton until after August 11, , as evident by deeds executed during this time.

The Perry-Poole Family Tree. After assisting Daniel Marshall in a ministry to the Mohawks , he and his family moved with the Marshalls to Frederick County, Virginia, in After Shubal Stearns and his family arrived, they joined together and moved to Cacapon in Hampshire County, where they established a church.

He was fifty-one years old at this time. Their son, Joseph, was born in Groton, Connecticut, on April 8, He and his wife sold this land to his brother, Avery Breed, on May 27, They had four sons and four daughters.

Richard George was a son of James and Judith? Avery purchased this land in February of , from Bryan White. There is no record of his marriage. He traveled with his sister, Priscilla Breed Howard and her husband, Obediah, to Barren County, Kentucky, and died shortly after they arrived.

His brother, Nathan, was administrator of his will. He was a twin brother of Priscilla. Her parents were Quakers. Thomas Brandon with his brother, Joseph. Two sons and five daughters were born to their union. Both died in Barren County. No further information exists on this couple. They both died in Barren County, Kentucky. The writer was unable to obtain additional information on this couple. Their daughter, Sarah Breed, was born in Groton, Connecticut, in He was born circa , in Chatham County, North Carolina.

They had five sons and five daughters. Samuel Harlan died in Union District, S. He and his wife, Hannah, moved to Washington County, Tennessee, with his father and mother in John Sevier at the Battle of Kings Mountain.

Both were both buried in the Old Mulkey Church Cemetery. They had five daughters and three sons. He was born in , in Union District. Jesse and Ruth were also born in Union District. Before , they had moved to Barren County, Kentucky.

Their last three children: John Springer died in Barren County in She died in Barren County in He was born circa , in Chatham County, N. They had five daughters and one son. Priscilla Avery Breed, his wife, received payment after the American Revolutionary War for beef she gave to the Rebels in Thomas Thompson was born in , in Ireland.

Name of his wife has not been preserved. She was probably deceased before he moved to South Carolina. He had moved to this county with his son, Charles, in Charles was not married when they first moved to Craven County. We do not have an exact date of the demise of Thomas Thompson, but know that he left his acres near the Blackstock Ford to his son, Charles. Thompson had four sons and one daughter. At sometime he was in the militia under Col.

Elizabeth was still living when her husband died, but her death date has not been recorded. His son, Seaborn born , was already deceased when his father died. Susannah born , William born , John born and Charles born June 10, were all mentioned in his will. He sold this land to Tilman Bobo on June 10, She was born in , in Union District, S. They had nine sons and four daughters. Rachel Collins was born between and She married Adam Moses Collins The author is not positive that this is his right name.

He was born in the s. Apparently, Adam, was not a member of this church. They were in what later became Fairfield District, S. He was born in , in Tolland, Connecticut. She died in Chambers County in November of He was granted a parcel of land near Tompkinsville that later became known as the old Jordan White farm. He was a church leader and was ordained to the office of deacon on May 3, They were also members of Mill Creek Baptist Church.

Rachel was probably the widow of Adam Moses Collins. Mary could have been her daughter. Ezekiel and Rebecca obtained their letters from this church in August of , and moved to the state of Illinois.

Philip Mulkey was the first pastor of the Fairforest Baptist Church. In , the Reverend Oliver Hart wrote a letter to Dr. James Manning, president of the newly founded Brown University.

But He, poor Man, has sadly fallen, having become the Father of a spurious Child by a widow woman, a member of his own church. On account of which religion has suffered much, especially in those parts; and among that People. Charles Woodmason, the Anglican Bishop in Charleston, had been reared a gentleman in London society and found the frontiersmen, and especially the Separate Baptists, unbearably crude. In , he set about to win back these backcountry Baptists to the Anglican Church, but he underestimated his task.

Three years later , Woodmason gave this assessment of these frontier people, and, more particularly of their leader, Philip Mulkey:. Garrickis said to have learned a solemn pronunciation of the interjection O from Dr. Smith was an early teacher in Virginia. She was born in Richmond County, Virginia, in They were residing in Lunenburg County, Virginia, as early as , where he was listed as a vestryman of Cumberland Parish from In , he deeded land to Nehemiah Howard, who had married his daughter, Edith Smith.

Luke and Judith had the following children: Sarah Smith married Thomas Greer. Their grandsons were the Reverends Thomas S. Greer and Joshua Greer. Their daughter, Phebe Smith, first married Hosea Holcombe. Hosea Lot Holcombe was a Baptist preacher, well—known evangelist and church planter in Alabama. The Reverend Hosea Holcombe married his first cousin, Cassandra Jackson, and three of their eleven children became Baptist preachers. He spent his childhood in Onslow County near New River.

He married Edith Smith, daughter of Luke B. She was born circa , in Henrico County, Virginia. They had eight sons and six daughters. One of the grants was for acres on Fairforest Creek, and the other was for acres on Sugar Creek in South Carolina.

Nehemiah did smith work for the army and furnished supplies. During the Revolutionary War, a leading Tory in the vicinity called a meeting to stir up for the Tories. Nehemiah attended and although a simple farmer with no particular schooling and not accustomed to speaking publically, rose and convinced his neighbors not to throw their lot with the Tories.

Shortly thereafter, some Tories and several British officers came to his house and one of the officers attacked him with a sword. Nehemiah fended him off with a walking cane. His house was later burned by Tories. John Putnam in the South Carolina Militia.

Nehemiah Howard was later paid for Smiths Work and provisions for the public use in , during the American Revolutionary War. Their oldest daughter, Sarah, was born in Orange County, N. He was born on June 29, , in Culpepper County, Virginia.

John Putman moved to North Carolina with his parents at an early age. John Putman was a Patriot Soldier and served as a captain on foot and on horseback in the militia under Col.

Thomas Brandon from June 22, , to January 1, His brother, Barnett Putman, served as a horseman under Col. This church was later named the Putman Baptist Church. He sold acres on waters of Fairforest Creek to Archer Smith, his brother-in-law in He moved his family to Elbert County, Georgia, circa He died in Elbert County, Georgia, before April of , and was buried there. His wife, died on January 27, , in Milledgeville, Georgia.

Holcomb states that the information about the older Thomas Greer is based on a letter from J. Cooper to his son in Smith and his wife, Judith Farris. In , William Henry Drayton mobilized a band of patriots to overawe the Tory opposition. The result was the open opposition of two armed camps, each prepared for battle. Open warfare, however was forstalled by a truce, the so-called Treaty of Ninety Six District.

The following is a quotation from this treaty: Evan McLaurin, the Rev. Robert Merrick and Capt. Benjamin Wofford, deputies for, and sent by the part of the people aforesaid, have repaired to the camp of the Hon. William Henry Drayton, Esq.

Gibbs, Documentary History of the American Revolution, , , p. The reader will see that the pastor of the Fairforest Baptist Church, the Reverend Philip Mulkey, and at least one of his members, Capt. Thomas Greer, and perhaps other members, were deputies of the Loyalist Militia.

Thomas Greer signed the Treaty on September 15, The Reverend Philip Mulkey did not sign the document. Before the Revolutionary War was over, Capt. Thomas Greer switched sides and joined with the Patriots.

His son, William Greer, served as a horseman under Capt. Henderson and General Sumter during His son, Robert, served in the militia during and , and his son, James, served in the militia during , and He named his wife, Sarah Smith Greer, and children: He was licensed to preach by this church November 10, They had three sons and eight daughters.

He died August 23, , and his wife, Sarah, died February 5, They had three sons. He died in , and his wife, Sarah, died January 14, Their son, Thomas Jr. Morgan Edwards counts the Fairforest Baptist Church as one of the branches. Bailey thought that this may have been the Friendship Baptist Church, but he was mistaken. In the Furman Manuscript is found the following: On the same lot is the old house. They were originally Quakers. He was listed as a trooper in the Virginia Colonial Militia in March of He and Mary had five sons and eight daughters.

The Burson men took advantage of the Congressional Act for the opening of a Land Office in the State of Georgia, whereby soldiers of the Revolution could receive bounty land for service in the war. Joseph received a bounty land grant for service in the Colonial Militia and Jonathan and Isaac received Privateer grants for their service in the Revolution of two hundred acres in Wilkes County, Georgia.

The church was constituted in William Wood was a Patriot soldier and a member of Col. He was paid for duty on September 2, This transaction was recorded March 20, Though the direction given by Edwards does not fit exactly, we are quite sure that this is Bethel, now Woodruff. Leah Townsend, in her book, South Carolina Baptists, , wrote: Townsend on pages , wrote: It emerged from the obscurity of the Revolution in ; in , Jacob King was pastor and continued to serve the church with the help of Rev.

Jesse Owen after One at Thicketty, where is also a place of worship, twenty-nine miles to the northeast. Richard Kelly was their first pastor. He was the son of James Kelly and his wife? He was born in He had two wives. He was first married to Martha Gibbs in , and they had two sons. He next married Susannah? He had two surveys in what became Union District, S. Richard Kelly was anointed in a fever at the Fairforest Baptist Church and recovered the very hour.

Richard died in Union District, S. Kelly received pay for these supplies September 29, My father, Joseph A. This location was not far from Tyger River. After several years the church name was changed from Thicketty Baptist Church to Gosher Baptist Church following its removal to a new location near Gosher Creek.

The Headens were members of this church, and it is possible that James Horseshoe Robertson and James Turner, both Patriot soldiers in the American Revolutionary War, who married daughters of William Headen, at least attended the church. The church in several associational minutes was called Goshen, but this was simply a mis-reading of the word, Gosher. Today the church is called Goucher Baptist Church. This was some twelve to fifteen miles below Columbia, S.

His assistant was the Reverend John Newton. Bailley, in his booklet on the Reverend Philip Mulkey, wrote: This church seems to have been situated somewhere on Black River in the present county of Duplin North Carolina , and was probably in some way connected with the church on Bull Tail, which is a creek emptying into Black River. On March 7, , Rev. John Newton was ordained as its pastor, and probably served it in that capacity until his departure for South Carolina in Philip Mulkey near Roanoke in Halifax County, North Carolina, about ; was ordained in ; and after going to South Carolina, he was again ordained as colleague of Rev.

Joseph Reese in the ministry of the Congaree church in Both he and Reese got into trouble because they had accepted this ordination at the hands of two Particular Baptist ministers, Rev. Oliver Hart and Rev. Evan Pugh, and were silenced by the Sandy Creek Association. Reese making proper acknowledgments was restored, but Newton refusing was forced to leave off in the midst of a useful and successful work.

The association through its moderator, Shubal Stearns, responded by issuing an order for Congaree Church to silence John Newton from preaching. They had four sons all Patriot soldiers and three daughters all born before Their son, John Newton, born July 5, , was a patriot soldier and enlisted in the Second South Carolina Continentals as a sergeant, serving under Col.

Newton and his brother, Moses, were both in the Siege of Charleston in , and were imprisoned by the British. Moses escaped but his brother, John, died of small pox aboard a prison ship in June or July of Moses was young and served as a fifer. He resided near Fennis Bridge on the Ogeechee, until his death on November 20, His wife, Keziah, died in Newspaper Article dated October 9, , and published in the Savannah News.

It continues to maintain an orthodox doctrinal position in the tradition of conservative Baptists theology. Mulkey had regular places to stop over for the night, and whenever possible, the neighbors would gather in, and he would preach to them.

One of these stopping places was the home of Jacob Gibson, in what is now Fairfield County. The preaching there resulted in the organizing of a branch of Fairforest, which, on February 26, , was constituted a regular church. Gibson embraced the Baptist Faith, was ordained at Little River, November 7, , by the Reverends Daniel Marshall and Philip Mulkey, and thus became the first pastor of the church, which was originated in his own house.

Richard Winn attacked the Loyalists, who had been using the meeting house as a place to gather. Eight Loyalists were killed and sixteen captured. The present church building was constructed in , and placed on the National Register of Historic Places in The church is located 3. It is still a viable Southern Baptist Church with a present address of: Marshall kept a meeting in his house and baptized Samuel Newman, William Crow and wife. The first minister was Rev. It appears that a goodly number of the members going into this organization were dismissed from Fairforest, for Morgan Edwards states: Newman lived only four or five months after assuming the pastorate and was succeeded by Thomas Norris.

Norris was baptized by the Reverend Philip Mulkey at Congaree, but into the fellowship of Fairforest, and was ordained in October of , by the Reverends Daniel Marshall and Philip Mulkey, at which time he took on him the care of the church. Marks in Craven County, two hundred and fifteen miles northwest from Charlestown and seven hundred and seventy-six miles southwest from Philadelphia. The church was a constituent of Congaree Association in , at which time Mr. It was in this neighborhood that Rev.

William Tennent stopped in September, , on their journey to convert the back country to the American cause. Took the Storm to myself and did some good. No further record and no modern successor have been found. Thomas Norris, delegate; Little River church, Rev. Jacob Gibson, delegate; Buffalo church, Rev. Joseph Camp, delegate; Fairforest church, Rev. Philip Mulkey, delegate, which then being the only orderly constituted churches existing in the upper part of the Province of South Carolina.

This writer has had the privilege of reading this statement in the Scull Shoals records. It should have been They would not have welcomed him back a year later and certainly not as a delegate. Their member, Nehemiah Howard, had his house burned by the loyalists. This group requested the meeting of Congaree Association at Fairforest to constitute them a church. Ralph Jones, Joseph Camp and Joseph Logan met with them at Flat Rock meeting house, December 23, , assisted in drawing up the covenant, constituted the church, and at its request examined and ordained Rev.

Ralph Jones delivered the sermon and Rev. Joseph Camp the charge. The Reverend James Fowler was pastor of the church from its beginning though In , he was assisted by the Reverend William Woodward. He married Mary Stephenson, daughter of David and Annas? Stephenson, on January 6, , in Augusta County, Virginia. She was born in , in Augusta County, Virginia.

William, Robert and Stephenson. John Chambers and Col. William Bratton in York District, S. William married Hannah Tindall, daughter of Robert K. Tindall, in York County, S. She was born in February of , in York County, S. They had two sons and two daughters. They were liviing in Randolph, Illinois, when they died.

He died April 18, , and Hannah died on April 1, He married Mary Brock, daughter of Col. She was born in Spotsylvania, Viriginia, in Thacker and his wife, Mary, were still living in Spotsylvania, Virginia, in , when they became guardians for two sons and one daughter, orphans of his brother-in-law, William Brock, and sister-in-law, Mary? Joseph, William and Mary Brock. The land was on the north side of Tyger River. While living in Georgia, he sold acres of land to Edward Williams in Thacker Vivian and Mary Brock Vivian had the following children: One source states that his wife, Mary, died in , but the writer cannot confirm this date of death.

They were to visit the backcountry to encourage the settlers to go to war against Great Britain. The year after the death of Mr. Tennent, on Sunday, June 28, , General George Washington was about one hundred yards beyond the church door Old Tennent Presbyterian Church , when he met the first straggler, who told him that General Charles Lee had retreated before the British.

During the battle of Monmouth, New Jersey, wounded soldiers were carried to the Old Tennent church, where members of the congregation tended them. Waddleton, where we had some Coffee, set off from thence and missed our way twice, once before and once after we crossed Pagets Creek. Came down to one Mr. Mulkey was ill, the rest of the Family was well.

Found myself a good deal fatigued; but sat up till after midnight, and then lay down to rest. Upon discoursing with Mr. Mulkey, found that he rather sides withministerial Measures, and is against most adopted by the Country. I treated on Cant. He is altogether lovely; Song of Solomon 5: On the whole, they appear to be obstinate and irritated to an Extreme. Rees Joseph preached from Isaiah Upon the Whole there appears but little reason, as yet, to hope that these People will be brought to have a suitable Regard to ye Interest of America.

I wish their Eyes may be opened before it is too late. Rode Home with Mr. After Sermon, met with Br. Newton, was much rejoiced to see Him. After a proper Intermission, Br. Rees Joseph preached from Isaiah 2?. He was exceeding warm and held out near two Hours, when Mr. Rees Joseph then sung and dismissed the assembly. Went Home with Mr. Newton in Company, who gave us an account of the distracted State of the frontier Inhabitants, which at present wears the most alarming Face; insomuch that there is the greatest appearance of a civil War; unless God, by some remarkable Interposition of Providence prevent.

With Sorrow I saw Marks of approbation sit almost on every Countenance. I find that… Here, mid-sentence, Oliver Hart begins using a letter substitution coded in his writing as it is apparent that he may run into those, whose position is counter to his and who might wish to take some action against him.

I find that Col. Fletchall has all those people at his beck, and reigns amongst them like a little King. This magic Robertson had been with the Governor, and no doubt has brought proper instructions to Col. Robertson brings word that fifteen sail of men of war were lying off Charles Town, when he left town; If this be true, perhaps that devoted town may now be reduced to ashes; and God knows how it fares with my dear wife and Family.

In this meeting Col. Fletchall intimated that the people wanted them to go down and assist them against the Negroes, but he would be a Fool that would go, to which one answered they will not get a man from here.

Doth not this contradict the Col. This evening before we lay down to rest, Brother Mulkey, requested that he might wash my feet; with some reluctance I consented, after declaring that I did not believe that it to be an ordinance of Christ, he than, being girded with a towel, and having water in a basin with great humility and affection, proceeded to wash my feet,. Talking religiously and affectionately all the time; he than washed Br. Newton washed his; afterwards we went to rest.

Nothing material happened, save that I heard that Mr. Tennent were expected to be up at Col. I wish they would come, for I am tired doing nothing. Mulkey went out on a preaching excursion. I tarried at his house until evening, and then rode home with Mr.

Nehemiah Howard in company with Mr. This man seems to be sensible of our oppressions and of the necessity of resisting ministerial measures. I wish all the inhabitants were like minded. Hearing this morning that Messrs: Drayton and Tennent were at Col. Richardson, and many others. We were informed of a late engagement; or battle, in which it is said that the Regulars had lost men and the Provincials , that General Gage was taken prisoner, and General Washington wounded in the arm, etc.

Went this morning to Mr. Tennent, who was gone a few minutes before we arrived. The people are in general on the Congress side. Fletchall engaged the services of a man by the name of Robinson. This Robinson was a young man of classical education and respectable talents. He had been educated in Virginia for the ministry to the Presbyterian Church, but rendered himself peculiarly odious to that denomination by an attempt to obtain orders in the established church in the Province by fraud for one Cotton, an illiterate and abandoned wretch.

The nature of the transaction was reported to the proper authority and Cotton and Robinson fled from the country. Robinson was sent by Fletchall to Charlotte to confer with Lord William Campbell, the Royal Governor, as to the best means of keeping the people in a quiet and loyal state. Campbell sent a parcel of pamphlets, called cutters, to Fletchall for distribution among the people. On his return Fletchall called public meetings in different parts and put up Robinson to address the people in support of those measures which he wished to see triumphant.

One of these took place at the Dining Creek meeting house. The assemblage was larger than could be accommodated in the building. Robinson therefore took his stand upon a rock in the woods, read one of the cutters and was commenting on its contents. He alluded to the case of Saul and David to show the miseries, which result from rebellion. He heaped abusive epithets upon the Continental Congress, George Washington, and the principles they advocated. He stated that when the rascals had involved the people in inextricable difficulties they would run away to the Indians, Spaniards and Islands.

When this last sentence was uttered Samuel McJunkin remarked: As he was going he was heard to say: Fletchall, however, continued his efforts to lull the apprehensions of the people as to the measures of the Royal Government, and to induce the belief that their interests and loyalty were identical. And it is not surprising that His success was considerable.

James Hodge Saye, pages This group later established the Salem Presbyterian Church. William Tennent in Charleston Year Book, , page In the earlier part of the year, he had participated in the ordination of his son, Jonathan Mulkey, to the gospel ministry as well as one of his members, Alexander McDougal. From the Oliver Hart diary, it is apparent that the Reverend Joseph Reese, after closing the Congree Baptist Church, and his assistant, John Newton, visited and ministered with Mulkey for a brief period.

Thomas Fletchall, led him to declare himself a Loyalist. The split in the congregation between the Patriots and the Loyalists, probably came after the meeting of the Congaree Baptist Association, which the writer believes was in There was such a strong reaction between the patriot and loyalist members that they all refused to go back to the original meeting house.

Neither loyalist nor patriot would have gone into the Fairforest Meeting House in Two organized Loyalist groups were organized in the Fairforest area: Some said that there were more Loyalists than Patriots in this area. Just before leaving, Mulkey sold his plantation of acres on Fairforest Creek on the south side of Tyger River to Col. Benjamin Gist later switched sides, but there are no records to indicate that the Reverend Philip Mulkey ever took up arms against his King.

Members Benjamin Gist and Thomas Greer remained Loyalists during the early part of the Revolutionary War years, but both later switched sides. The rest of the constitutional members remained with the Patriots.

After the departure of the Mulkeys, the Fairforest Church did not have any preachers siding with the Loyalists. The Reverend Alexander McDougal became pastor of the church and moved its Patriot membership to his lands near the mouth of Rocky Creek on the eastside of Fairforest Creek.

He immigrated to America in He arrived aboard the Admiral Hawk and was listed as being from Londonderry. His residence in August of , was in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He married Hannah Done in , in Wilmington, N. She was born in , in New Hanover County, N. Unfortunately, the writer has been unable to locate names of her parents.

He was deeply convicted of sin. When he found peace in Jesus he united with a Baptist Church and soon began to exhort. He was ordained by this church in , by the Reverend Philip Mulkey.

In the summer of , he served as a Lieutenant under Capt. Thomas Blessingham and Colonel James Steen. From October until sometime in , he served as Lieutenant under Captain Thomas Blessingham and Colonel Thomas Brandon and was in charge of a blockhouse near his home.

An article on Rev. The court was made up of the following justices: The church was first a member of the Sandy Creek Baptist Association, a constituent member of the short-lived Congaree Baptist Association and a constituent member of the Bethel Baptist Association II, published in , page , stated: The writer has already given data on these men.

John Webb was also an assistant to the Reverend McDougal, but information is scarce on this minister. Leah Townsend in her book listed him as a Patriot soldier, receiving pay for varying periods of militia duty. He was a blacksmith and a Baptist preacher. Hezekiah and Martha had six sons and four daughters.

She died on September 2, , in Union District, S. He died December 18, , in Gibson County, Tennessee. One source states that he was buried in Poplar Springs Baptist Church cemetery. He died in his youth.

She died before She died unmarried in , in what became Larue County, Kentucky. She was married to? She died in Elizabethtown, Hardin County, Kentucky. Their son, Alexander W. LaRue, was a noted Baptist preacher. They were buried in the Nolynn Baptist Church cemetery. She married Charles Middleton on March 18, , in Kentucky. His first wife was Susannah Bayne, daughter of Thomas Bayne. He died September 15, , in Union District. Willett on April 22, , in Nelson County, Kentucky. He was a farmer in Larue County, Kentucky.

He and Mary had three sons and three daughters. Mary died August 13, , and John died June 20, She was married in Kentucky to William Harrison and to?

She died in Kentucky before She married George Whitehead. She died November 11, , in Larue County, Kentucky. He was born in Virginia in He and wife, Judith? He was on the Lunenburg County Tax List of He moved to Craven County Union District , in He had two brothers who also moved to South Carolina: In , Isaac Edwards had a survey of 50 acres touching Enoree River on the south below the Indian boundary.

Isaac Edwards and Judith? Their daughter, Nancy, married the Reverend Miles Rainwater. He moved to Franklin County, Georgia, where he died in Her parents names also have not been recorded. In , Alexander left Union District, S.

He and his wife, Hannah, traveled with at least a dozen or more of his members and their families. Traveling with him was his deacon and special friend, Obediah Howard, and his wife, Priscilla. Here, he assisted the pastor, the Reverend Robert Stockton. The Reverend Robert Stockston assisted in the constitution of the Nolynn Baptist Church on April 3, , and recommended the Reverend Alexander McDougal, and he became the first pastor of this new church.

It was in Hardin County at this time. He was pastor of Severns Valley Baptist Church when the first church building was erected. Alexander McDougal was paator of this church thorough Records state that his last house was about four miles southeast of Hodgenville. Hodgenville was in Hardin County, Kentucky, until The Nolynn Baptist Church, which he served until his retirement was in this area.

He applied for a pension in Hardin County, Kentucky, at the age of 94 years on January 21, , for services rendered as a Patriot Soldier in the American Revolution.

In his request for a pension in , in Hardin County, Kentucky, he mentions that he was drafted for two months to go in pursuit of a notorious Tory called Bill Cunningham. Greer were his South Carolina witnesses. He received a pension. Alexander resigned his charges at 95 years of age and died in this county on March 3, , aged years almost He and his wife were buried in the Nolynn Baptist Church Cemetery. The Fairforest Baptist Church was still searching for a pastor the latter part of Thomas Greer to be their Minister, but we could not accept the letter upon them terms, but send it back, and agreed to let him attend them once a month or as long as God in his Providence makes it duty.

Christopher Johnson, father of David Johnson later governor of S. He later became a Baptist pastor. He was listed as a licensed preacher at this time. He was pastor of the church in October 5, ; April 25, ; July 23, ; August 27, ; September 16, Then on Saturday, May 26, , the Arm was duly and legally constituted as a Baptist Church to be known, thereafter by the name of Lower Fairforest.

The Lower Fairforest Baptist Church became a newly constituted church with a constitutional date of May 26, They did inhabit the abandoned Brick Church building built under the leadership of the Reverend Philip Mulkey , but inhabiting the building does not make them the original Fairforest Baptist Church. After the departure of the Reverend Philip Mulkey in , the Reverend Alexander McDougal simply moved the original church organization to his land, and the original Mulkey church was continued and is continued until this day with its original name of Fairforest Baptist Church.

Philip Mulkey was a Loyalist and had to flee from the Fairforest area of South Carolina, the latter part of They had a child named, Ellis. He moved to the Natchez area sometime after his brother, Philip. He was listed in the Spanish Census. He was living there when his father visited between His father, the Reverend Philip Mulkey, performed the ceremony. Nancy was born October 16, , in Orange County, N. Jonathan was ordained as a Baptist preacher by his father in , at the Fairforest Baptist Church.

In , he fled to Washington County, N. The Benjamin Gist family also traveled with them. He was a leader in the Holston Baptist Association for many years. He was moderator of the association for seven years.

John, Philip and Isaac. They also had five daughters. Nancy Howard Mulkey died circa , in Tennessee. Anna Denton was first married to John Lacey. Anna Denton Lacey was born in He was pastor of Buffalo Ridge as long as he lived, and when too old and too feeble to preach standing, the church, it is said, made him a suitable and easy pulpit-chair, that he might sit down and pour out his soul in melting exhortations to a devoted people who would listen to every word.

He was buried in the Buffalo Ridge Baptist Church cemetery. His wife, Nancy, and his wife, Anna, were also buried in Buffalo Ridge, but their graves were not marked. He and his father served in the Virginia Militia to assist in fighting the Indians.

He was an instigator in an insurrection against the Spanish. After he escaped to South Carolina, repeated threats of his contemplated return with troops were reported. He married Mary Polly Chastain, on November 16, She was 25 years old at her marriage.

Mary was born in North Carolina, in Mulkey, Mark and four others were their children. But by July rumors had begun to swirl about Mulkey, bringing him under scrutiny of his new church brethren. This man was probably the son of Philip Mulkey, the famous evangelist who was baptized by Shubal Stearns and carried the New light doctrine to South Carolina.

Chastian, it turns out had also traveled through Tennessee and the Carolinas during the s as a Separate evangelist, and knew the elder Mulkey quite well. Mulkey witnessed a deed when Chastain purchased upcountry property in Greenville Deed book I, p. Mountain Creek had no jurisdiction over Chastain and his slanderous talk, but they did over Mulkey and his ill will toward Chastain, so when Mulkey confessed to being angry with and using bad language toward Chastain, the case was taken up by the church.

After restoring Mulkey in December , Mountain Creek excommunicated him in September , when he acknowledged his wrong at a Mountain Creek meeting. James Chastain , Internet. Name changed to Bethesda in His body was interred in Ebenezer Baptist Church Cemetery. In January of , Philiip Mulkey Sr.

His later years were sadly clouded. In , he was excommunicated by the Charleston Baptist Association, and the churches warned against him for adultery, perfidy and falsehood long continued in. This Philip Mulkey who appeared so eminent as a Christian and minister and has appeared to be the instrument of converting a number of souls; has been now for a course of years in the practice of crimes and enormities at which humanity shudders.

Floyd Mulkey in his article entitled, REV. There far away from the Baptist church authorities, who had excommunicated him, he had a chance to resume his preaching a short time. Richard Curtis, pastor of the Baptist Church in the Natchez region, had been forced to flee because of his difficulties with the Spanish authorities. Orders were promptly given for the arrest of Mulkey, but the congregation resisted and proceeded to the fort to demand immunity for him and his preaching.

Apparently, he was permitted to continue his service. In , the territory was ceded to the United States; shortly thereafter the regular pastor returned to his parish. There is a story that he helped to celebrate the observance of a memorial service in honor of Ex-Pesident George Washington, immediately after his death on December 14, According to this account he appeared on the same platform with his son, Jonathan, and his grandson, John, on which occasion Jonathan preached the sermon.

Sometime after the death of his wife, Ann, he was remarried to Fanny?

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