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Interracial marriage is a form of marriage outside a specific social group exogamy involving spouses who belong to different socially-defined races or racialized ethnicities. Virginia that race-based restrictions on marriages violated the Equal Protection Clause of the United States Constitution. Many jurisdictions have had regulations banning or restricting not just interracial marriage but also interracial sexual relations, including Germany during the Nazi period , South Africa under apartheid , and many states in the United States prior to a Supreme Court decision.

Interracial marriage in the United States has been fully legal in all U. Anti-miscegenation laws have played a large role in defining racial identity and enforcing the racial hierarchy. The United States has many ethnic and racial groups, and interracial marriage is fairly common among most of them. This share does not take into account the "interethnic" marriages between Hispanics and non-Hispanics. Some racial groups are more likely to intermarry than others.

The overall numbers mask significant gender gaps within some racial groups. Among blacks, men are much more likely than women to marry someone of a different race.

Fully a quarter of black men who got married in married someone who was not black. For Asians, the gender pattern goes in the opposite direction: Asian women are much more likely than Asian men to marry someone of a different race. However, Asian women are more likely to marry Asian men than any other men of different ethnic background.

Native Americans have the highest interracial marriage rate among all single-race groups. Women are slightly more likely to "marry out" than men in this group: Although the anti-miscegenation laws have been revoked, the social stigma related to Black interracial marriages still exists in today's society although to a much lesser degree. Research by Tucker and Mitchell-Kerman from has shown that Blacks intermarry far less than any other non-White group [6] and in , only These two counties had the highest rates of interracial marriages involving at least one black spouse in the United States.

The vast majority of these marriages involved black men marrying ethnic Mexican women or first generation Tejanas Texas-born women of Mexican descent. Since ethnic Mexicans were considered white by Texas officials and the U. Yet, there is no evidence that anyone in South Texas was prosecuted for violating this law. The rates of this interracial marriage dynamic can be traced back to when black men moved into the Lower Rio Grande Valley after the Civil War ended.

They married into ethnic Mexican families and joined other black people who found sanctuary on the U. The Chinese that migrated were almost entirely of Cantonese origin.

Hundreds of thousands of Chinese men in the U. S, mostly of Cantonese origin from Taishan migrated to the United States. Anti-miscegenation laws in many states prohibited Chinese men from marrying white women. After the Emancipation Proclamation, many Chinese Americans immigrated to the Southern states, particularly Arkansas, to work on plantations.

In , based on Liang research, of the , men in more than 20 Chinese communities in the United States, he estimated that one out of every twenty Chinese men Cantonese was married to white women. It also showed Chinese men married to Black women and vice versa The majority of the Hawaiian Chinese were Cantonese migrants from Guangdong with minority of Hakka descent also from Guangdong.

Most Asiatic-Hawaiian men also married Hawaiians and European women and vice versa. On the census, some Chinese with little "native blood" would be classified as Chinese — not as Asiatic-Hawaiians — due to "dilution of native blood".

Intermarriage started to decline in the s. For two years to 30 June , 38 of these children who were born were classified as pure Chinese because their fathers were Chinese.

In Canada, , 4. Major census metropolitan areas had higher frequencies of mixed unions 6. Younger people were more likely to be in a mixed union; the highest proportion of couples in mixed unions was among persons aged 25 to 34 7. There are a few examples of this:. One theory for this may include that those who immigrate as adults, may have already found a partner before immigrating to Canada.

There are no statistics that show data for Whites or Aboriginals. The study also stated that same-sex couples are about 2. They formed the Mestizo and Mulatto populations that populate the countries in Latin America.

Intermarriage and inter-relations occurred on a larger scale than most places in the world. In some countries, Asian immigrants have also intermarried among the groups. About , Cantonese coolies and migrants almost all males were shipped to Latin America, many of them intermarried and cohabited with the Black, Mestizo, and European population of Cuba, Peru, Guyana, Trinidad.

Many of them also intermarried with Black women and East Indian women. Unlike in Trinidad Tobago and Guyana who were predominantly Cantonese men who intermarried with Black women and Indian women. In Jamaica, the Chinese who married Black women were mostly Hakka. According to the Census from Jamaica and Trinidad alone, 12, Chinese were located between Jamaica and Trinidad. Because almost all of the Chinese indentured immigrants were men, they tended to intermarry with both East Indians and Africans, and thus the Chinese of Guyana did not remain as physically distinct as other groups.

While intermarriage between Hakka Chinese and Indians hardly occur. In Guyana, the prospect of sexual relations with Indian women was at first unappealing to the mostly male Chinese migrants like in Mauritius although there was a lack of Chinese women, but eventually their attitude changed and Indian women and Chinese men established sexual relationships with each other. Over time, although there were more Creole marriages with Chinese, there was a growth of Indian marriages with Chinese and it was reported that "It is not an uncommon thing to find a cooly woman living with a Chinaman as his wife, and in one or two instances the woman has accompanied her reputed husband to China.

Comins in , with six Indian women marrying Chinese men in as reported by The Immigration Report for In Trinidad some Chinese men had sexual relations Indian coolie women , siring children with them, and it was reported that "A few children are to be met with born of Madras and Creole parents and some also of Madras and Chinese parents — the Madrasee being the mother", by the missionary John Morton in , Morton noted that it seemed strange since there were more Indian coolie men than Indian coolie women that Indian coolie women would marry Chinese men, but claimed it was most likely because the Chinese could provide amenities to the women since the Chinese owned shops and they were enticed by these.

The situation in Trinidad and British Guiana with Indian women being fewer than Indian men led to Indian women using the situation to their advantage by leaving their partners for other men, leading to a high incidence of "wife murders" by Indian men on their wives, and Indian women and culture were branded as "immoral" by European observers, an Indian man named Mohammad Orfy petitioned as a representative of "destitute Indian men of Trinidad", to the colonial authorities, complaining of Indian women's behavior and claiming that it was "a perforating plague The situation on Trinidad enabled unprecedented autonomy in the sexual activities of Indian women and freedom.

Is this not an act of sacrilege and a disgraceful scandal according to the Christian faith to entice and encourage Indian females to lead immoral lives? Indian men used violence against Indian women in response to Indian women engaging in sexual relations with multiple men due to the shortage of them in Trinidad. On plantations white European managers took advantage of and use indentured Indian woman for sex, [75] in addition, English, Portuguese, and Chinese men were also in sexual relationships with Indian women as noted by Attorney General W.

Haynes Smith, while Creole women were abhorred or ignored by Indian men. In British Guiana and Trinidad, white overseers and managers would take advantage of Indian coolie women and use them in sexual relationships, the Indian women were then blamed for these incidents and viewed as allegedly "loose" and promiscuous by colonial officials, and Indian women were subjected to a high rate of "wife murders" by Indian men, the Indian women were also blamed for this due to their "inconstancy" due to alleged low "sexual morality".

In one incident in Trinidad, seven Indian women were impregnated at the same time by an estate manager in The managers sexual relations with Indian women caused riots, at the most significant one, at the hands of the police, 59 Indians were wounded and 5 Indians were killed, in Non Pareil in , due to an Indian woman cohabiting with Gerad Van Nooten, the acting manager.

The low ratio of Indian women compared to Indian men, along with the factor of Portuguese, white overseers and managers, and Chinese men having sexual relations with Indian women, aggravated the problem of rivalry for Indian women between Indian men, and drove up the value of Indian women. The incidents of overseers and managers taking sexual advantage of the women laborers led to Indian laborers causing stoppages and protests.

The deficit in Indian women compared to men was caused by the recruitment quota ratio of men to 40 women, most of the women were young and single, [92] and the shortage of Indian women for Indian men was aggravated when Indian women were taken by Africans and European overseers, leading to high amounts of wife murders against Indian women by Indian men and a decrease in morals. Indian nationalists ashamed of the sexual reputation of Indian coolie women often attacked the coolie trade for that reason instead of other reasons such as bad working conditions.

The Indian women had a sexual bargaining chip since they could frequently change lovers due to the fact that there were less Indian women than men, The Daily Chronicle described Indian coolie women as "pretty and youthful", laborers had to be moved around plantations by managers to prevent men from killing their adulterous wives, and the aura surrounding the sexuality and perils of Indian coolie women was enhanced by the widespread worship of the goddess Kali by them.

Riots and murders were blamed on the sexual liaisons between white overseers, managers and Indian coolie women in addition to their constant changing of sexual partners and the sexuality of coolie women were viewed shamefully as a deviation of the expected behavior of Indian women.

The Indian coolie women both had sexual advantages due to being less in number and suffered from sexual exploitation, in total, around , Indian women migrated as coolies. A stereotype of an uncontrollable sexual libido was attributed to Indian women in the Caribbean and they were described as having "white liver" because of this.

Sexual abuse, horrible living standards, and tough work were all things Indian coolie women had to contend with. In seeking potential mates the Indian coolie women has some amount of free choice due to their scarce numbers, some of them were able to end their indenture when married by white overseers.

There were cases of sexual abuse of Indian women on the ships and one man prostituted his 8-year-old daughter, [] and in another case a British surgeon married a young widow, [] the women obtained an advantage in sexual relations from being less numerous than men but this led to a large amount of killings called "wife murders" of the women by men they rejected.

Postcards were made of Indian coolie women and girls bedecked in jewelry made of gold and silver such as bangles and nose rings which seemed to be aiming to show them as wealthy and pretty.

Indian coolie women wore their wealth in the form of jewellery, [] [] [] [] like bangles and nose rings. In Port of Spain in Trinidad, Chinese coolies were described as going about almost naked while Indian coolie women wore "scanty drapery" and had "arms and ankles covered with bangles". One Indian woman on the way to Guiana had to be given jewelry like bangles made of silver and nose rings made of gold to by her husband in order to make her not leave him.

Estimates for Chinese-Peruvian is about 1. In Peru non-Chinese women married the mostly male Chinese coolies. There were almost no women among the nearly entirely male Chinese coolie population that migrated to Peru and Cuba.

In Peru and Cuba some Indian Native American , mulatto, black, and white women engaged in carnal relations or marriages with Chinese men, with marriages of mulatto, black, and white woman being reported by the Cuba Commission Report and in Peru it was reported by the New York Times that Peruvian black and Indian Native women married Chinese men to their own advantage and to the disadvantage of the men since they dominated and "subjugated" the Chinese men despite the fact that the labor contract was annulled by the marriage, reversing the roles in marriage with the Peruvian woman holding marital power, ruling the family and making the Chinese men slavish, docile, "servile", "submissive" and "feminine" and commanding them around, reporting that "Now and then According to Osberg the free Chinese conducted the practice of buying slave women and freeing them expressly for marriage.

In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, Chinese men Cantonese engaged in sexual activity with white Cuban women and black Cuban women, and from such relations many children were born.

In the s an additional 30, Cantonese and small groups of Japanese also arrived; both immigrations were exclusively male, and there was rapid intermarriage with white, black, and mulato populations. In the study of Genetic origin, admixture, and asymmetry in maternal and paternal human lineages in Cuba. The study does not include any people with some Chinese ancestry.

All the samples were White Cubans and Black Cubans. The Chinese who migrated to Mexico in the 19th to 20th centuries were almost entirely Chinese men. Males made up the majority of the original Chinese community in Mexico and they married Mexican women.

The Mexicali officials estimate was that slightly more than 2, are full-blooded Chinese and about 8, are mixed-blood Chinese-Mexicans.

Other estimates claimed 50, residents more than thought who are of Chinese descent. The sentiment against Chinese men was due to and almost all Chinese immigrants in Mexico were men stealing employment and Mexican women from Mexican men who had gone off to fight in the Revolution or in World War I. The Chinese originated from the Cantonese male migrants. Many men came alone to work and married Costa Rican women and speak Cantonese.

However the majority of the descendants of the first Chinese immigrants no longer speak Cantonese and feel themselves to be Costa Ricans.

Interracial marriage - Wikipedia

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The theory that most of the Eurasian mixed-race Hong Kong people are descended only from Tanka women and European men, and not ordinary Cantonese women, has been backed up by other researchers who pointed out that Tanka women freely consorted with foreigners because they were not bound by the same Confucian traditions as the Cantonese, and having relationships with European men was advantageous for Tanka women, but Lethbridge criticized it as "a 'myth' propagated by xenophobic Cantonese to account for the establishment of the Hong Kong Eurasian community".

Carl Smith's study in the late s on the protected women seems, to some degree, to support Eitel's theory. Smith says that the Tankas experienced certain restrictions within the traditional Chinese social structure. Being a group marginal to the traditional Chinese society of the Puntis Cantonese , they did not have the same social pressure in dealing with Europeans. The ordinary Cantonese women did not sleep with European men; the Eurasian population was formed mostly from Tanka and European admixture.

They invaded Hongkong the moment the settlement was started, living at first on boats in the harbon with their numerons families, and gradually settling on shore. They have maintained ever since almost a monopoly of the supply of pilots and ships' crews, of the fish trade and the cattle trade, but unfortunately also of the trade in girls and women.

Strange to say, when the settlement was first started, it was estimated that some 2, of these Tan-ka lieople had flocked to Hongkong, but at the present time they are abont the same number, a tendency having set in among them to settle on shore rather than on the water and to disavow their Tan-ka extraction in order to mix on equal terms with the mass of the Chinese community.

The half-caste population in Hongkong were, from the earliest days of the settlement of the Colony and down to the present day, almost exclusively the off-spring of these Tan-ka people.

But, like the Tan-ka people themselves, they are happily under the influence of a process of continuons re-absorption in the mass of the Chinese residents of the Colony. Elizabeth Wheeler Andrew — and Katharine Caroline Bushnell 5 February 26 January , who wrote extensively on the position of women in the British Empire, wrote about the Tanka inhabitants of Hong Kong and their position in the prostitution industry, catering to foreign sailors.

The Tanka did not marry with the Chinese; being descendants of the natives, they were restricted to the waterways. They supplied their women as prostitutes to British sailors and assisted the British in their military actions around Hong Kong. South Asians have been living in Hong Kong throughout the colonial period, before the partition of India into the nations of India and Pakistan. They migrated to Hong Kong and worked as police officers as well as army officers during colonial rule.

Due to a few Chinese living in Macau, the early Macanese ethnic group was formed from Portuguese men with Malay, Japanese, Indian women. Macanese men and women also married with the Portuguese and Chinese, and as a result some Macanese became indistinguishable from the Chinese or Portuguese population.

Because the majority of the population who migrated to Macau were Cantonese, Macau became a culturally Cantonese speaking society; other ethnic groups became fluent in Cantonese. Most Macanese had paternal Portuguese heritage until After the handover of Macau to China in many Macanese migrated to other countries. Many of the Portuguese and Macanese women who stayed in Macau married local Cantonese men, and many Macanese also now have Cantonese paternal heritage.

There are between 25, — 46, Macanese, only — of whom live in Macau, while most live in America, Latin America, and Portugal. Unlike the Macanese of Macau who are strictly of Chinese and Portuguese heritage, many Macanese living abroad are not entirely of Portuguese and Chinese ancestry. Many Macanese men and women intermarried with the local population of America and Latin America, etc. Koxinga took Hambroek's teenage daughter as a concubine, [] [] [] and Dutch women were sold to Chinese soldiers to become their wives.

In some of these Dutch wives were still captives of the Chinese. Some Dutch physical features like auburn and red hair among people in regions of south Taiwan are a result of this episode of Dutch women becoming concubines to the Chinese commanders. Inter-ethnic marriage in Japan dates back to the 7th century, when Chinese and Korean immigrants began intermarrying with the local population.

By the early 9th century, over one-third of all noble families in Japan had ancestors of foreign origin. In the 16th and 17th centuries, around 58, Japanese travelled abroad, many of whom intermarried with the local women in Southeast Asia. Portuguese traders in Japan also intermarried with the local Christian women in the 16th and 17th centuries. During the anti-Christian persecutions in , many Japanese Christians fled to Macau and other Portuguese colonies such as Goa , where there was a community of Japanese slaves and traders by the early 17th century.

A large-scale slave trade developed in which Portuguese purchased Japanese as slaves in Japan and sold them to various locations overseas, including Portugal itself, throughout the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Japanese slaves are believed to be the first of their nation to end up in Europe, and the Portuguese purchased many Japanese slave girls to bring to Portugal for sexual purposes, as noted by the Church in King Sebastian feared that it was having a negative effect on Catholic proselytization since the slave trade in Japanese was growing to massive proportions, so he commanded that it be banned in Japanese slave women were even sold as concubines to Indian and African crewmembers, along with their European counterparts serving on Portuguese ships trading in Japan, mentioned by Luis Cerqueira, a Portuguese Jesuit, in a document.

Kuznetsov, dean of the Department of History of the Irkutsk State University , one of the first researchers of the topic, interviewed thousands of former internees and came to the following conclusion: What is more, romantic relations between Japanese internees and Russian women were not uncommon. For example, in the city of Kansk , Krasnoyarsk Krai , about 50 Japanese married locals and stayed.

Today many Russian women married Japanese men, often for the benefit of long-term residence and work rights. Some of their mixed offspring stay in Japan while other's to Russia. In , there were , marriages in Japan, of which 28, involved a non-Japanese bride and 7, involved a non-Japanese groom.

Non-Japanese women who married a Japanese man were predominantly of Chinese 10, , Filipino 7, , Korean 5, , Thai 1, and Brazilian nationality. Non-Japanese men who married a Japanese woman were predominantly of Korean 2, , United States 1, , Chinese , British and Brazilian nationality. In there were , marriages in Japan, of which 40, involved a non-Japanese bride and 8, involved a non-Japanese groom.

Non-Japanese women who married a Japanese-born man were predominantly of Filipino 12, , Chinese 12, , Korean 6, , Thai 1, and Brazilian Non-Japanese men who married a Japanese woman were predominantly of Korean 2, , United States 1, , Chinese 1, , British and Filipino nationality.

There were 43, international marriages between Koreans and non-Koreans in , up However, majority of these brides are ethnic Koreans from China and Han Chinese. Since the s, young women had an incentive to move from countryside to the city due to the desire of chasing a better life. Hence, there are only young men remaining in their hometown to look after their farm and keep the agriculture industry going. In recent times, about one third of South Korean men in rural areas married women from abroad, according to Korea National Statistics Office data published in There is mounting evidence to suggest that there is a statistically higher level of poverty, violence and divorce in the Korean men married to foreign women cohort.

Interracial marriage in Korea dates back to at least the Three Kingdoms period. Somewhat later, during the arrival of Muslims in Korea in the Middle Ages , a number of Arab , Persian and Turkic navigators and traders settled in Korea.

They took local Korean wives and established several Muslim villages. Interracial marriage in Southeast Asia dates back to the spread of Indian culture , including Hinduism and Buddhism , to the region. From the 1st century onwards, mostly male traders and merchants from the Indian subcontinent frequently intermarried with the local female populations in Cambodia , Burma , Champa , central Thailand , the Malay Peninsula , the Philippines , and Indonesia.

From the 9th century onwards, some male Arab traders from the Middle East settled in Maritime Southeast Asia and married local Malay , Indonesian and Filipina female populations, which contributed to the spread of Islam in Southeast Asia.

This tradition continued among Spain and Portuguese traders who also married within local populations. In the late 20th century in European males in Southeast Asia engaged in foreign mail order bribes for marriage. Tens of thousands of single women throng the beaches of Bali in Indonesia every year. For decades, young Balinese men have taken advantage of the louche and laid-back atmosphere to find love and lucre from female tourists—Japanese, European and Australian for the most part—who by all accounts seem perfectly happy with the arrangement.

Much of the business conducted with foreign men in southeast Asia was done by the local women, who served engaged in both sexual and mercantile intercourse with foreign male traders. A Portuguese- and Malay-speaking Vietnamese woman who lived in Macao for an extensive period of time was the person who interpreted for the first diplomatic meeting between Cochin-China and a Dutch delegation. She served as an interpreter for three decades in the Cochin-China court with an old woman who had been married to three husbands, one Vietnamese and two Portuguese.

Those Vietnamese woman were married to Portuguese men and lived in Macao which was how they became fluent in Malay and Portuguese. Foreigners noted that in southeast Asian countries, foreigners would be offered already married local women for sex. It is accounted a piece of Policy to do it; for the chief Factors and Captains of Ships have the great men's Daughters offered them, the Mandarins or Noblemen at Tunquin It is used at Tunquin also to my knowledge; for I did afterwards make a voyage thither, and most of our men had women on board all the time of our abode there.

In Africa, also, on the coast of Guinea, our merchants, factors, and seamen that reside there, have their black misses.

It is accounted a piece of policy to do it; for the chief factors and captains of ships have the great men's daughters offered them, the mandarins' or noblemen's at Tunquin, and even the King's wives in Guinea; and by this sort of alliance the country people are engaged to a greater friendship; and if there should arise any difference about trade, or any thing else, which might provoke the native to seek some treacherous revenge, to which all these heathen nations are very prone, then these Dalilahs would certainly declare it to their white friends, and so hinder their countrymen's design.

Alexander Hamilton said, "The Tonquiners used to be very desirous of having a brood of Europeans in their country, for which reason the greatest nobles thought it no shame or disgrace to marry their daughters to English and Dutch seamen, for the time they were to stay in Tonquin, and often presented their sons-in-law pretty handsomely at their departure, especially if they left their wives with child; but adultery was dangerous to the husband, for they are well versed in the art of poisoning.

During British Indian rule, millions of Indians , mostly Muslim, migrated there. The small population of mixed descendants of Indian men and local Burmese women are called "Zerbadees", often in a pejorative sense implying mixed race. The Rohingya claim to have descended from Bengalis who intermarried with the local women, but this remains a hotly contested issue.

The political situation surrounding the actual history of the Rohingya, the lack of evidence, and the counter-claims, mean that proper ancestry cannot be established. Burma has an estimated 52, Anglo-Burmese people , descended from British and Burmese people. Anglo-Burmese people frequently intermarried with Anglo-Indian immigrants, who assimilated into the Anglo-Burmese community.

In Malaysia and Singapore , the majority of inter-ethnic marriages are between Chinese and Indians. The offspring of such marriages are informally known as " Chindian ". The Malaysian and Singaporean governments, however, only classify them by their father's ethnicity.

As the majority of these marriages involve an Indian groom and Chinese bride, the majority of Chindians in Malaysia are usually classified as " Indian " by the Malaysian government. As for the Malays , who are predominantly Muslim , legal restrictions in Malaysia make it less common for them to intermarry with either the Indians, who are predominantly Hindu , or the Chinese, who are predominantly Buddhist and Taoist.

It is common for Arabs in Singapore and Malaysia to take local Malay wives, due to a common Islamic faith. According to government statistics, the population of Singapore as of September was 4.

There is also a significant minority population of Eurasians who are descended from Europeans — Singapore and Malaysia being former British colonies — and local women. Centuries of migration , diaspora , assimilation , and cultural diversity have made most Filipinos open-minded in embracing interracial marriage and multiculturalism. Following independence, the Philippines has seen both small and large-scale immigration into the country, mostly involving Chinese, Americans, Europeans , Japanese , and South Asians.

More recent migrations into the country by Koreans , Persians , Brazilians and other Southeast Asians have contributed to the enrichment of the country's ethnic landscape.

Thousands of interracial marriages between Americans and Filipinos have taken place since the United States took possession of the Philippines after the Philippine—American War.

Due to the strategic location of the Philippines, as many as 21 bases and , military personnel were stationed there since the U. These bases were decommissioned in after the end of the Cold War , but left behind thousands of Amerasian children.

Buck International foundation estimates there are 52, Amerasians scattered throughout the Philippines. In the United States intermarriage among Filipinos with other races is common. They have the largest number of interracial marriages among Asian immigrant groups, as documented in California. Interracial marriages particularly among Southeast Asians are continually increasing. At present, there is an increasing number of Southeast Asian intermarriages, particularly between Filipinos and Malaysians Dumanig, Such marriages have created an impact on language, religion and culture.

Dumanig argues that Filipino-Malaysian couples no longer prefer their own ethnic languages as the medium of communication at home. Birth in the Philippines to foreign parents does not in itself confer Philippine citizenship, although RA, the Administrative Naturalization Law of , does provide a path for administrative naturalization of certain aliens born on Philippine soil Jus soli.

The Indian subcontinent has a long history of inter-ethnic marriage dating back to ancient history. Various groups of people have been intermarrying for millennia in South Asia, including speakers of Dravidian , Indo-Aryan Indic , Iranian , Austroasiatic , and Tibeto-Burman languages. This was particularly common in the northwestern and northeastern parts of the subcontinent where invaders of Central Asian origin often invaded throughout history.

Many Indian traders, merchants and missionaries travelled to Southeast Asia where Indianized kingdoms were established and often took local wives from the region. The Romani people " Gypsies " who have origins in the Indian subcontinent travelled westwards and also took local wives in Central Asia , the Middle East , and Europe.

Genetic studies show that the majority of Romani males carry large frequencies of particular Y chromosomes inherited paternally that otherwise exist only in populations from South Asia , in addition to nearly a third of Romani females carrying particular mitochondrial DNA inherited maternally that is rare outside South Asia.

They settled in different parts of India and befriended and traded with the local Indian population. Intermarriage occurred, and to this day the Indian Jews physically resemble their surrounding Indian populations due to intermarriage. There are also cases of Indian princesses marrying kings abroad. According to the Samguk Yusa, the princess' parents had a dream sent by a god who told them about a king from a faraway land. In Goa during the late 16th and 17th centuries, there was a community of Japanese slaves and traders, who were either Japanese Christians fleeing anti-Christian sentiments in Japan, [] or Japanese slaves brought or captured by Portuguese traders and their South Asian lascar crewmembers from Japan.

Inter-ethnic marriages between European men and Indian women were very common during colonial times. According to the historian William Dalrymple, about one in three European men mostly British , as well as Portuguese , French , Dutch , and to a lesser extent Swedes and Danes had Indian wives in colonial India.

One of the most famous intermarriages was between the Anglo-Indian resident James Achilles Kirkpatrick and the Hyderabadi noblewoman and descendant of prophet Mohammed, Khair-un-Nissa. During the British East India Company 's rule in India in the late 18th century and early 19th century, it was initially fairly common for British officers and soldiers to take local Indian wives.

The , strong Anglo-Indian community has descended from such unions. There is also a story of an attractive Gujjar princess falling in love with a handsome English nobleman and the nobleman converted to Islam so as to marry her. The 65, strong Burgher community of Sri Lanka was formed by the intermarriages of Dutch and Portuguese men with local Sinhalese and Tamil women.

Intermarriage also took place in Britain during the 17th to 19th centuries, when the British East India Company brought over many thousands of Indian scholars, lascars and workers. A small number of which settled down in Britain and took local British wives, as well as a limited number going with their husbands. In Assam , local Indian women married several waves of Chinese migrants during British colonial times, to the point where it became hard to physically differentiate Chinese in Assam from locals during the time of their internment during the war , and the majority of these Chinese in Assam were married to Indian women, and some of these Indian women were deported to China with their husbands.

In the 19th century, when the British Straits Settlement shipped Chinese convicts to be jailed in India, the Chinese men then settled in the Nilgiri mountains near Naduvattam after their release and married Tamil Paraiyan women, having mixed Chinese-Tamil children with them.

They were documented by Edgar Thurston. Edgar Thurston described the colony of the Chinese men with their Tamil pariah wives and children: An ambassador was sent to this miniature Chinese Court with a suggestion that the men should, in return for monies, present themselves before me with a view to their measurements being recorded. The reply which came back was in its way racially characteristic as between Hindus and Chinese.

In the case of the former, permission to make use of their bodies for the purposes of research depends essentially on a pecuniary transaction, on a scale varying from two to eight annas. The Chinese, on the other hand, though poor, sent a courteous message to the effect that they did not require payment in money, but would be perfectly happy if I would give them, as a memento, copies of their photographs.

The colour of the children was more closely allied to the yellowish tint of the father than to the dark tint of the mother; and the semimongol parentage was betrayed in the slant eyes, flat nose, and in one case conspicuously prominent cheek-bones. Vikings explored and eventually settled in territories in Slavic -dominated areas of Europe. Europe, especially the Balkans, was an important source of captives for the Arab slave trade then, and Saqaliba Slavic slaves taken to the Arab World often intermarried or had unions with their Arab owners.

The French Normans were descended from Danish Vikings who were given feudal overlordship of areas in northern France —the Duchy of Normandy —in the 8th century.

In that respect, descendants of the Vikings in France and Britain continued to have an influence in northern Europe as well. Many of the medieval kings of Norway and Denmark married into English and Scottish royalty and occasionally got involved in dynastic disputes.

During World War I , there were , soldiers from British India , [] a large number of soldiers from French North Africa , [] and 20, labourers from South Africa , [] who served in France. Much of the French male population had gone to war, leaving behind a surplus of French females, [] many of whom formed interracial relationships with non-white soldiers, mainly Indian [] [] and North African.

On the other hand, Hindu soldiers in France were restricted from intermarriage on the basis of the Indian caste system. The administrations of the German colonies in Africa and the South Seas enacted bans on marriages with non-European natives in the early 20th century.

When the issue was debated in the Reichstag in , this ban was rejected by a majority and an inclusive marriage law was demanded see German interracial marriage debate However, it never came to pass because of the beginning of World War I a few years later. Nazi Germany introduced the Nuremberg Laws in , among which was the Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honour that banned marital as well as extramarital relations between Germans incl.

Although Slavs could be in theory included as Aryans , [] Nazi Germany's legal practice consisted in strict segregation of Germans and most subjugated Slavs and harsh punishment for miscegenation, as exemplified by the Polish decrees of Comparative sociologist Amparo Gonzalez-Ferrer argues that one of the main reasons why Turkish men marry Germans more than Turkish women do is due to Islam permitting men but not women to marry non-Muslims.

In ancient history , the Iberian Peninsula was frequently invaded by foreigners who intermarried with the native population. One of the earliest foreign groups to arrive to the region were the Indo-European Celts who intermarried with the pre-Indo-European Iberians in prehistoric Iberia. They were in turn followed by the Germanic Visigoths , Suebi and Vandals and the Sarmatian Alans who also intermarried with the local population in Hispania during late Antiquity.

In the 6th century, the region was reconquered by the Byzantine Empire Eastern Roman Empire before it was lost again to the Visigothic Kingdom less than a century later. After the Umayyad conquest of Hispania in the early 8th century, the Islamic state of Al-Andalus was established in Iberia. Due to Islamic marital law allowing a Muslim male to marry Christian and Jewish females, it became common for Arab and Berber males from North Africa to intermarry with the local Germanic, Roman and Iberian females of Hispania.

By the 11th or 12th century, the Muslim population of Al-Andalus had merged into a homogeneous group of people known as the " Moors ". After the Reconquista , which was completed in , most of the Moors were forced to either flee to Morocco or convert to Christianity.

The ones who converted to Christianity were known as Moriscoes , and they were often persecuted by the Spanish Inquisition on the basis of the Limpieza de sangre "Cleanliness of blood" or " blue blood " doctrine.

According to Gilberto Freyre , a Brazilian sociologist, miscegenation was commonplace in the Portuguese colonies , and was even supported by the court as a way to boost low populations and guarantee a successful and cohesive settlement. Thus, settlers often released African slaves to become their wives.

The children were guaranteed full Portuguese citizenship , provided the parents were married. Miscegenation was still common in Africa until the independence of the former Portuguese colonies in the mids.

Most Icelanders are descendants of Norwegian settlers and Celts from Ireland and Scotland , brought over as slaves during the age of settlement. As was the case in other areas occupied by Muslims, it was acceptable in Islamic marital law for a Muslim male to marry Christian and Jewish females in southern Italy when under Islamic rule — namely, the Emirate of Sicily , and, of least importance, the short-lived Emirate of Bari between the 8th and 11th centuries. In this case, most intermarriages were between Arab and Berber males from North Africa and the local Greek , Roman and Italian females.

Such intermarriages were particularly common in the Emirate of Sicily , where one writer visiting the place in the s expressed shock at how common it was in rural areas. After a brief period when the Arab-Norman culture had flourished under the reign of Roger II of Sicily , later the mainlander Italians migrated to Sicily persecuted the Muslims of Sicily and they killed many of them; [] later the remnants were expelled in with the persecution of Frederick II , who deported the Muslim survivors in Lucera.

In Malta , Arabs and Italians from neighbouring Sicily and Calabria intermarried with the local inhabitants, [] who were descended from Phoenicians , Greeks , Romans and Vandals.

The Maltese people are descended from such unions, and the Maltese language is descended from Siculo-Arabic. At times, the Italian city-states also played an active role in the Arab slave trade , where Moorish and Italian traders occasionally exchanged slaves. For example, two researchers suggest that Leonardo da Vinci 's mother Caterina may have been a slave from the Middle East.

Their Ottoman Turkish descendants went on to annex the Balkans and southern parts of Central Europe in the 15th and 16th centuries. Due to Islamic marital law allowing a Muslim male to marry Christian and Jewish females, it was common in the Ottoman Empire for Turkish males to intermarry with European females. Due to the common occurrence of such intermarriages in the Ottoman Empire, they had a significant impact on the ethnic makeup of the modern Turkish population in Turkey , which now differs from that of the Turkic population in Central Asia.

The concubines of the Ottoman Sultan consisted chiefly of purchased slaves. Because Islamic law forbade Muslims to enslave fellow Muslims, the Sultan's concubines were generally of Christian origin. The mother of a Sultan, though technically a slave, received the extremely powerful title of Valide Sultan , and at times became effective ruler of the Empire see Sultanate of women. Intermarriage with non-European populations began as early as the Agricultural Revolution.

Researchers have found that a majority of British males have DNA that can be traced back to Middle Eastern male farmers from around present-day Iraq and Syria who around 10, years ago began migrating to Britain, introducing agriculture to the island, and settling down with local British females. Britain has a long history of interethnic marriage among the various European populations that inhabited the island, including the Celtic , Roman , Viking , Anglo-Saxon and Anglo-Norman peoples.

In the late 15th century, the Romani people arrived. The arriving Romani nomads took local British wives, forming a distinct community known as the Romnichal. Due to intermarriage, Romnichal today are often indistinguishable from the general white British population.

Inter-ethnic marriage began occurring more often in Britain since the 17th century, when the British East India Company began bringing over many Indian scholars, lascars , servants and workers. Though mixed marriages were not always accepted in British society, there were no legal restrictions against intermarriage at the time. The small number of ethnic minority women in Britain were often outnumbered by "half-caste Indian" daughters born from white mothers and Indian fathers although mixed race families were still very unusual in Britain at this time.

Following World War I , there were significantly more females than males in Britain, [] and there were increasing numbers of seamen from the Indian subcontinent , Arab World , Far East and Caribbean. A number of the seamen intermarried and cohabited with local British women, which raised increasing concerns from a minority over miscegenation and led to a handful of race riots in at the time. A few concerns were voiced regarding white adolescent girls forming relationships with men of colour, including South Asian seamen in the s, [] Muslim immigrants in the s to s, [] African American GIs during World War II, Maltese and Cypriot cafe owners in the s to s, Caribbean immigrants in the s to s, and South Asian immigrants in the s although the continuing record of mixed marriages and the later acceptance of successful mixed-race offspring in public and cultural life suggests tolerance at the time was the norm.

But a recent ethnographic study [] argues that there are a number negative impacts despite the veneer of tolerance. The first Chinese settlers were mainly Cantonese from south China , with some also from Shanghai.

The figures of Chinese for are 2, men and women. Many Chinese men married British women while others remained single, possibly supporting a wife and family back home in China. During the second world war —45 another wave of Chinese seamen from Shanghai and of Cantonese origin married British women. Records show that about some of these men had married British women and supported families. In , an international incident was created when the British government took exception to the "difficult problem" [] of the marriage of Seretse Khama and Ruth Williams , whom he had met while studying law in London.

The interracial marriage sparked a furore among both the tribal elders of the Bamangwato and the apartheid government of South Africa. The latter objected to the idea of an interracial couple ruling just across their northern border, and exerted pressure to have Khama removed from his chieftainship. Britain's Labour government, then heavily in debt from World War II , could not afford to lose cheap South African gold and uranium supplies. They also feared South Africa might take direct action against Bechuanaland, Khama's homeland, through economic sanctions or a military incursion.

Though the investigation reported that he was eminently fit for the rule of Bechuanaland, "but for his unfortunate marriage", [] the government ordered the report suppressed.

It would remain so for thirty years. It exiled Khama and his wife from Bechuanaland in It was many years before the couple was allowed to live in Africa, and several more years before Khama became president of what is now Botswana. Their son Ian Khama served as the president of that country decades later.

The largest differences between people who were married and cohabiting were in the Asian ethnic groups. The proportion of people in inter-ethnic relationships was lower in , compared to Oftentimes, couples in intercultural marriages face barriers that most married couples of the same culture are not exposed to. Intercultural marriages are often influenced by external factors that can create dissonance and disagreement in relationships.

When these foundations are operating alongside the foundation of different cultural roots, as in intercultural marriages, problems and disagreement oftentimes occur.

Interracial relationships can also be affected by immigrations problems, passport and citizen issues if they are residing abroad with their partner [] However, interracial marriages are not always intercultural marriages, as in some countries, such as the United States, people of different races can share the same cultural background and society.

According to studies by Jenifer L. Bratter and Rosalind B. King made publicly available on the Education Resources Information Center , unions between White males and non-White females and between Hispanics and non-Hispanic persons have similar or lower risks of divorce than White-White marriages, unions between white male-black female last longer than white-white pairings or white-Asian pairings.

The most common external factors influencing intercultural relationships and marriages are the acceptance of the family and the society in which the couple lives. Many intercultural couples report conflict arising over issues of how to carry out child raising and religious worship as well.

Dealing with racism from outside sources is also a common area of potential conflict. Intercultural couples may possess differing communication styles. Individuals from a high context culture are not verbally explicit in their communication behaviors. By contrast, individuals from a low context culture use direct obvious communication styles to convey information. Challenges posed by differing communication styles are common among intercultural marriage couples. If one or more partners within the marriage is relatively new to the dominant culture the likelihood for conflict to unfold on these bases increases.

Intercultural couples tend to face hardships most within-culture relationships do not. Specialized counseling and support groups have also become available to these couples. Conflict resolution and mediation of the infrastructural issues faced by intercultural couples leads to a broader understanding of culture and communication. It has been claimed by a number of scholars that diversity within a family system "enhances open communication for individuals to cultivate so they can have greater depth, and views of people within our world".

It has also been claimed that the offspring of interracial marriages have a number of health and well being advantages. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Marriage laws and Anti-miscegenation laws.

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