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Boyd in his, A History of Baptists in America, page 26 states: What Roger Williams established is still worth standing for. At first they had neither a meeting house nor a pastor of their own. Williams doeth exaceys amongst us and sayeth he will contuny itt.
He precheth well and abel, and much pepell comes to hear him to theyr satisfaction. Roger and Mary had four daughters and three sons. The congregation apparently continued, for some years, to use Cocumscussoc for their gatherings.
The first mention of a building for the Six-Principle Baptist group was a deed of The Reverend Obadiah Holmes was pastor at this time. David Benedict states that these seceders had several objections to the mother church: John Komar in his Baker Genealogy wrote: He was buried in the North Kingstown Baptist Church cemetery in a marked grave.
Thomas Baker married Sarah circa She was born in They had three sons and two daughters. By trade he was a tailor. During his pastorate in North Kingstown he ordained the Reverend Valentine Wightman to the gospel ministry circa On the current web page of the North Kingstown Baptist Church is found the following: As of , it was the last surviving historical congregation of the Six Principle Baptist denomination and one of the oldest churches in the United States.
She was born in , in Newport, Rhode Island. He was the last person to be burned at the stake for heresy in England.
On August 12, , Capt. He was ordained to the gospel ministry by the Reverend Thomas Baker circa , and moved in , to Groton, Connecticut, where he led in the constitution of the Groton Baptist Church the same year.
They had eight sons and three daughters. His son, Timothy, married his step-sister, Mary, as his second wife. Valentine Wightman was very much a part of the Great Awakening. The Reverend Valentine Wightman baptized the first converts. This church was established two years after the Reverend George Whitefield conducted a revival campaign in the Connecticut Valley. Valentine, his son, Timothy, and his grandson, John Gano Wightman, except for the pastorate of the Reverend Daniel Fisk, served the church until Wightman, served as pastor of the church from until Ten years after it was built a road was surveyed and laid out from Pawcatuck Bridge to Voluntown line, which passed this church.
Daniel Brown and Thomas Holmes gave the land for the meeting house. Elder Wait Palmer received no support from the church. He owned a farm of ninety acres. He was a plain man, common education, yet of strong, vigorous intellect, of sound practical sense. Elder Palmer was an active patriot of the Revolutionary War.
The original building was at a site just south of our current church building. The congregation soon outgrew the original church, however, and in , a new meeting house was built at the top of Pendleton Hill.
The building still serves the members today. She was born November 28, , in Stonington. They had six sons and two daughters.
After becoming convinced that infant baptism was not scriptural, he was baptized by the Reverend Wait Palmer in He was baptized at night in the Willimantic River due to the great opposition to his views. Joseph Breed, whose mother was a Palmer, was also born in Stonington, Connecticut. They were married in Westerly, Rhode Island, in He was acquainted with George Whitefield, and caught much of the zeal of that famous itinerate.
Most of their children were born in New London. They had six daughters and five sons. He later moved to Sandisfield, Massachusetts, where he died in July of General History of the Baptist Denomination , Vol. II, by David Benedict.
In , Palmer working with emancipated slave and newly-converted George Leile who would become the first ordained African Baptist pastor in Georgia assisted in the formation of an African congregation in Silver Bluff, South Carolina, on the Galphin Plantation, located near Savannah, Georgia.
He was a powerful preacher. Brother Palmer Wait came again and wished us to beg Master to let him preach to us, and he came frequently. There were eight of us now, who had found the great blessing and mercy from the Lord, and my wife was one of them, and Brother Jesse Peter Galphin. Brother Palmer Wait appointed Saturday evening to hear what the Lord had done for us, and next day, he baptized us in the mill stream.
Then I David George began to exhort in the Church and learned to sing hymns. Afterwards the church advised with Brother Palmer Wait about my speaking to them, and keeping them together. So I David George was appointed to the office of an elder, and received instruction from Brother Palmer how to conduct myself. I proceeded in this way till the American War was coming on, when the Ministers were not allowed to come amongst us, lest they should furnish us with too much knowledge.
On January 9, , the Stonington Baptist Church sent a letter to the Reverend Wait Palmer in which, after reviewing the course of discipline, they proceeded to say: Palmer, pastor of the church. The graves were located on Col. Many fervent New Lights concluded that it was impossible to reform established churches from within.
They resolved to start new churches. Their favorite verse of scripture was II Cor. He married Rebecca on November 27, , in Tolland, Connecticut.
She was born circa At the age of thirty-nine, he heard George Whitefield preach, caught his glowing spirit, and fully believed with many others, including his friend, Joseph Breed, who had also been affected by the ministry of the Reverend Whitefield.
She was born in Windsor on March 29, Hannah died in , giving birth to their son, Daniel. Marshall and Breed remained in Onnaquaggy, east central New York, for eighteen months and then were forced to move to a place in Pennsylvania called Conococheague for a short stay. The move was caused by the strife among the Indians caused by the French and English struggle and attempts to gain the support of various tribes. This disrupted their work and threatened their families.
The community, where this church was located, is today called Gerrardstown, West Virginia. This church was established in , and a meeting house was built in that year by John Hays.
They erected a forge near the Black River. After depleting the forest around their forge, they gave up on the venture. Samuel had been raised a Presbyterian, however his wife, Abby Tuttle was a staunch Baptist. Samuel had desired that their first child be baptized in the Presbyterian Church, but Abby was not in agreement. She desired him to show her one passage in the Bible that advocated infant baptism. Samuel consulted a minister who admitted that no such passage existed.
After Samuel had studied the Bible so carefully to prove his point he became interested in the ministry, and went to Kingwood to study under a Baptist clergyman. He was ordained and began to preach at a Baptist church on Schooleys Mountain. This church also gave a license to preach to Marshall and Breed. Breed was living in Frederick County, Virginia, on June 15, , when he was granted a patent to acres of land lying in Frederick County, by the Hon. The Reverend Shubal Stearns wrote a letter to the Reverend Noah Alden, who had just been ordained to the gospel ministry a few days before the letter was written.
The same year they built a little meeting house. Soon after, the neighborhood was alarmed, and the Spirit of God listed to blow as a mighty rushing wind in so much that in three years time they had increased to three churches and upwards of communicants, viz.: It is a mother church, nay a grandmother and a great grandmother.
All the Separate Baptists sprang hence: The word went forth from this Sion, and great was the company of them who published it, in so much that her converts were as drops of morning dew. As soon as the little group of sixteen persons arrived at Sandy Creek from Virginia, they chose Shubal Stearns as pastor, and he had at that time for his assistants, Daniel Marshall and Joseph Breed, neither of whom were ordained. Seymour York, a native of England, gave the land for the construction of their first church building.
He was one of the original grantees of Tolland, Connecticut, serving as selectman for two years and was the second Town Clerk. He died in Orange County, North Carolina, in This may not be an accurate date. They had eleven children, four sons and seven daughters.
At the age of nine he moved with his family to Tolland, Massachusetts.
In the industrial areas of western Pennsylvania and northern West Virginia the composite Joe Magarac steelworker story has been handed down. Regional folk heroes such as the railroad worker John Henry and frontiersmen Davy Crockett , Mike Fink and Johnny Appleseed are examples of real-life figures that evolved into popular folk tale subjects.
Ghost stories, or " haint tales" in regional English,  are a common feature of southern oral and literary tradition. Since the s the Point Pleasant, West Virginia , legend of Mothman has originated and been explored in popular culture including the film The Mothman Prophecies loosely retelling the original tale.
Urban Appalachians are people from Appalachia who are living in metropolitan areas outside the Appalachian region. In the decades following the Great Depression and World War II, many Appalachian residents moved to industrial cities in the north and west in a migration that became known as the " Hillbilly Highway ".
Mechanization of coal mining during the s and s was the major source of unemployment in central Appalachia. Many migration streams covered relatively short distances, with West Virginians moving to Cleveland and other cities in eastern and central Ohio , and eastern Kentuckians moving to Cincinnati and southwest Ohio in search of jobs.
More distant cities like Detroit and Chicago attracted migrants from many states. Enclaves of Appalachian culture can still be found in some of these communities. In the s through the s, Wheeling, West Virginia , became a cultural center of the region because it had a clear-channel AM radio station, WWVA , which could be heard throughout the entirety of the eastern United States at night. Although Pittsburgh's KDKA was a 50 kilowatt clear channel station that dated back to the early s as well as spanning all the East Coast in signal strength , WWVA prided itself on rural and farm programming that appealed to a wider audience in the rural region.
Cincinnati's WLW also was relied on by many in the central and northern areas of Appalachia. Appalachia as an academic interest was the product of a critical scholarship that emerged across the disciplines in the s and s. With a renewed interest in issues of power, scholars could not dismiss the social inequity, class conflict, and environmental destruction encountered by America's so-called " hillbillies ".
Appalachia's emergence in academia is a result of the intersection between social conditions and critical academic interests, and has resulted in the development of many Appalachian studies programs in colleges and universities across the region, as well as in the Appalachian Studies Association.
The economy of Appalachia traditionally rested on agriculture, mining, timber, and in the cities, manufacturing. Since the late 20th century, tourism and second-home developments have assumed an increasingly major role. While the climate of the Appalachian region is suitable for agriculture, the region's hilly terrain greatly limits the size of the average farm, a problem exacerbated by population growth in the latter half of the 19th century. Subsistence farming was the backbone of the Appalachian economy throughout much of the 19th century, and while economies in places such as western Pennsylvania, the Great Valley of Virginia, and the upper Tennessee Valley in east Tennessee, transitioned to a large-scale farming or manufacturing base around the time of the Civil War, subsistence farming remained an important part of the region's economy until the s.
In the early 20th century, Appalachian farmers were struggling to mechanize, and abusive farming practices had over the years left much of the already-limited farmland badly eroded. Various federal entities intervened in the s to restore damaged areas and introduce less-harmful farming techniques. In recent decades, the concept of sustainable agriculture has been applied to the region's small farms, with some success. Early Appalachian farmers grew both crops introduced from their native Europe as well as crops native to North America such as corn and squash.
Tobacco has long been an important cash crop in Southern Appalachia, especially since the land is ill-suited for cash crops such as cotton. Apples have been grown in the region since the late 18th century, their cultivation being aided by the presence of thermal belts in the region's mountain valleys.
Hogs, which could free range in the region's abundant forests, often on chestnuts , were the most popular livestock among early Appalachian farmers. The American chestnut was also an important human food source until the chestnut blight struck in the 20th century. The early settlers also brought cattle and sheep to the region, which they would typically graze in highland meadows known as balds during the growing season when bottomlands were needed for crops.
Cattle, mainly the Hereford , Angus , and Charolais breeds, are now the region's chief livestock. The mountains and valleys of Appalachia once contained what seemed to be an inexhaustible supply of timber. The poor roads, lack of railroads, and general inaccessibility of the region, however, prevented large-scale logging in most of the region throughout much of the 19th century. While logging firms were established in the Carolinas and the Kentucky River valley before the Civil War, most major firms preferred to harvest the more accessible timber stands in the Midwestern and Northeastern parts of the country.
By the s, these stands had been exhausted, and a spike in the demand for lumber forced logging firms to seek out the virgin forests of Appalachia. Logging in Appalachia reached its peak in the early 20th century, when firms such as the Ritter Lumber Company cut the virgin forests on an alarming scale, leading to the creation of national forests in and similar state entities to better manage the region's timber resources.
Arguably the most successful logging firm in Appalachia was the Georgia Hardwood Lumber Company, established in and renamed Georgia-Pacific in when it expanded nationally. Although logging in Appalachia declined as the industry shifted focus to the Pacific Northwest in the s, rising overseas demand in the s brought a resurgence in Appalachian logging.
In , there were 4, lumber firms operating in the region. In the late s, the Appalachian lumber industry was a multibillion-dollar industry, employing 50, people in Tennessee, 26, in Kentucky, and 12, in West Virginia alone. Removal of vegetation and other alterations in the land increased erosion and flooding of surrounding areas.
Water quality and aquatic life were also affected. Coal mining is the industry most frequently associated with the region in outsiders' minds,   due in part to the fact that the region once produced two-thirds of the nation's coal. Most mining activity has been concentrated in eastern Kentucky, southwestern Virginia, West Virginia, and western Pennsylvania, with smaller operations in western Maryland , Tennessee and Alabama.
The Pittsburgh coal seam , which has produced 13 billion tons of coal since the early 19th century, has been called the world's most valuable mineral deposit. There are over 60 major coal seams in West Virginia, and over 80 in eastern Kentucky. Most of the coal mined is bituminous , although significant anthracite deposits exist on the fringe of the region in central Pennsylvania. In the late 19th century, the post-Civil War Industrial Revolution and the expansion of the nation's railroads brought a soaring demand for coal, and mining operations expanded rapidly across Appalachia.
Hundreds of thousands of workers poured into the region from across the United States and from overseas, essentially overhauling the cultural makeup of eastern Kentucky , West Virginia, and western Pennsylvania.
Mining corporations gained considerable influence in state and municipal governments, especially as they often owned the entire towns in which the miners lived. The mining industry was vulnerable to economic downturns, however, and booms and busts were frequent, with major booms occurring during World War I and II, and the worst bust occurring during the Great Depression.
The Appalachian mining industry also saw some of the nation's bloodiest labor strife between the s and the s. Mining-related injuries and deaths were not uncommon, and ailments such as black lung disease afflicted miners throughout the 20th century.
After World War II, innovations in mechanization such as longwall mining and competition from oil and natural gas led to a decline in the region's mining operations. Coal mining has made a comeback in some regions in the early 21st century because of the increased prominence of Consol Energy , based in Pittsburgh.
The Quecreek Mine rescue in and continuing mine subsidence problems in abandoned coal mines in western Pennsylvania as well as the Sago Mine disaster and Upper Big Branch Mine disaster in West Virginia and other regions have also been highlighted in recent times. The manufacturing industry in Appalachia is rooted primarily in the ironworks and steelworks of early Pittsburgh and Birmingham , and in the textile mills that sprang up in North Carolina's Piedmont region in the midth century.
Factory construction increased greatly after the Civil War, and the region experienced a manufacturing boom between and This economic shift led to a mass migration from small farms and rural areas to large urban centers, causing the populations of cities such as Birmingham, Knoxville, Tennessee , and Asheville, North Carolina , to swell exponentially.
Manufacturing in the region suffered a setback during the Great Depression, but recovered during World War II and peaked in the s and s. However, difficulties paying retiree benefits, environmental struggles, and the signing of the North American Free Trade Agreement NAFTA in led to a decline in the region's manufacturing operations. Steel , founded in Pittsburgh in , was the world's first corporation with more than a billion dollars in initial capitalization.
Companies such as Champion Fibre and Bowater established large pulp operations in Canton, North Carolina , and Greenville, South Carolina , respectively, although the former was dogged by battles with environmentalists throughout the 20th century. One of the region's oldest industries, tourism became a more important part of the Appalachian economy in the latter half of the 20th century as mining and manufacturing steadily declined.
The mineral-rich mountain springs of the Appalachians—which for many years were thought to have health-restoring qualities—were drawing visitors to the region as early as the 18th century with the establishment of resorts at Hot Springs, Virginia , White Sulphur Springs, West Virginia , and what is now Hot Springs, North Carolina. Along with the mineral springs , the cool and clear air of the range's high elevations provided an escape for lowland elites, and elaborate hotels—such as The Greenbrier in West Virginia and the Balsam Mountain Inn in North Carolina—were built throughout the region's remote valleys and mountain slopes.
The end of World War I which opened up travel opportunities to Europe and the arrival of the automobile which changed the nation's vacation habits led to the demise of all but a few of the region's spa resorts. The establishment of national parks in the s brought an explosion of tourist traffic to the region, but created problems with urban sprawl in the various host communities.
In the late 20th and early 21st centuries, states have placed greater focus on sustaining tourism while preserving host communities. Poverty had plagued Appalachia for many years but was not brought to the attention of the rest of the United States until , when James Agee and Walker Evans published Let Us Now Praise Famous Men , a book that documented families in Appalachia during the Great Depression in words and photos.
In , John F. Kennedy established the President's Appalachian Regional Commission. His successor, Lyndon B. Johnson , crystallized Kennedy's efforts in the form of the Appalachian Regional Commission , which passed into law in In Appalachia, severe poverty and desolation were paired with the necessity for careful cultural sensitivity.
Many Appalachian people feared that the birth of a new modernized Appalachia would lead to the death of their traditional values and heritage. Because of the isolation of the region, Appalachian people had been unable to catch up to the modernization that lowlanders have achieved.
In the s, many people in Appalachia had a standard of living comparable to Third World countries'. The film series "West Virginia", produced during the term of Governor Gaston Caperton , makes the point that at least on some level images of poverty were contrived.
Johnson declared a " War on Poverty " while standing on the front porch of an Inez, Kentucky , home whose residents had been suffering from a long-ignored problem. The Appalachian region of the United States, while abundant in natural resources and rich in potential, lags behind the rest of the Nation New roads, schools, health care facilities, water and sewer systems, and other improvements have brought a better life to many Appalachian residents.
In the s, counties in the state Appalachian Region were considered economically distressed. Now that list has been cut by more than half, to 82 counties, but these are "hard-core" pockets of poverty, seemingly impervious to all efforts at improving their lot. Like Johnson, President Bill Clinton brought attention to the remaining areas of poverty in Appalachia. On July 5, , he made a public statement concerning the situation in Tyner, Kentucky.
Clinton told the enthusiastic crowd:. I'm here to make a simple point. This is the time to bring more jobs and investment to parts of the country that have not participated in this time of prosperity. Any work that can be done by anybody in America can be done in Appalachia. The region's poverty has been documented often since the early s. John Cohen documents rural lifestyle and culture in The High Lonesome Sound , while photojournalist Earl Dotter has been visiting and documenting poverty, healthcare and mining in Appalachia for nearly forty years.
In a seven-volume study conducted by the Appalachian Land Ownership Task Force was issued by the Appalachian Regional Commission which investigated the issue of absentee land ownership.
The study covered 80 counties in six states approximating the area designated "Southern Appalachia" as defined by Thomas R. The states selected were Alabama 15 counties , Kentucky 12 counties , North Carolina 12 counties , Tennessee 14 counties , Virginia 12 counties , and West Virginia 15 counties. In its summary the report stated that "over 55, parcels of property in 80 counties were studied, representing some 20,, acres of land and mineral rights The federal government is the single largest owner in Appalachia, holding over 2,, acres.
The government-held lands are tax exempt, but the government makes a payment in lieu of taxes , which is usually less than the normal tax rates. The effect, essentially, is to produce a situation in which a the small owners carry a disproportionate share of the tax burden; b counties depend upon federal and state funds to provide revenues, while the large, corporate and absentee owners of the regions's resources go relatively tax-free; and c citizens face a poverty of needed services despite the presence in their counties of taxable property wealth, especially in the form of coal and other natural resources.
In , a similar study that concentrated solely on West Virginia found that 25 private owners hold The federal government owns 1,, acres in West Virginia, 7.
Congress in to bring poor areas of the 13 U. The commission is a partnership of federal, state, and local governments, and was created to promote economic growth and improve the quality of life in the region.
The region as defined by the ARC  includes counties, including all of West Virginia; counties in 13 other states: The ARC is a planning, research, advocacy and funding organization; it does not have any governing powers. The ARC's geographic range of coverage was defined broadly so as to cover as many economically underdeveloped areas as possible; it extends well beyond the area usually thought of as "Appalachia".
For instance, parts of Alabama and Mississippi were included in the commission because of problems with unemployment and poverty similar to those in Appalachia proper, and the ARC region extends into the Northeastern states, which are not traditionally considered part of Appalachia culturally though a "northern Appalachia" identity has emerged in recent times in parts of both NY and PA, particularly in rural areas.
More recently, the Youngstown, Ohio , region was declared part of Appalachia by the ARC due to the collapse of the steel industry in the region in the early s and the continuing unemployment problems in the region since, though aside from Columbiana County, Ohio , the Youngstown DMA isn't traditionally or culturally considered part of the region.
Transportation has been the most challenging and expensive issue in Appalachia since the arrival of the first European settlers in the 18th century. With the exception of the October 1, , opening of the Pennsylvania Turnpike , the region's mountainous terrain continuously thwarted major federal intervention attempts at major road construction until the s. This left large parts of the region virtually isolated and slowing economic growth.
Before the Civil War, major cities in the region were connected via wagon roads to lowland areas, and flatboats provided an important means for transporting goods out of the region. By , railroads connected most of the region with the rest of the nation, although the poor roads made travel beyond railroad hubs difficult.
When the Appalachian Regional Commission was created in , road construction was considered its most important initiative, and in subsequent decades the commission spent more on road construction than all other projects combined. The effort to connect Appalachia with the outside world has required numerous civil engineering feats. Isaac and Rebecca Johnson Stearns are not listed as constitutional members of the Sandy Creek Baptist Church, but must have moved to the area later.
They had one child, a daughter, Hepzibah, who was born in , in Tolland. Historians tell us that the Reverend Shubal Stearns was caring for his brother, who had both physical and mental problems. In general, it may be said that while the Baptist from parts of North Carolina to the north of Sandy Creek went to Tennessee, those from Little River and the southeastern parts of the Province went rather to South Carolina, when they despaired of being protected in their rights by the Government of North Carolina.
In , the Sandy Creek Baptist Church split, between members supporting the missionary movement, and members who were non-missionary. Members supporting the missionary movement left and established a church near a school known as Shady Grove. Today the two churches, Primitive Baptist and Missionary Baptist, stand alongside the site of the original church and share ownership and maintenance of the grave of Shubal Stearns.
Two of Shubal Stearns disciples: She was born in , in Virginia. The Tax List showed that he owned acres in Columbia and Washington counties of Georgia. She was once jailed in Virginia, for refusing to stop preaching the Gospel, although she was three months pregnant at the time.
Her preaching was powerful enough to convince a man named Cartledge to become a preacher. She also converted her arresting constable and magistrate. Martha also assisted her husband, Daniel, in his churches and preached to his congregations. Marshall had a rare felicity of finding in this lady, a Priscilla, a helper in the Gospel. In fact, it should not be concealed that his extraordinary success in the ministry, is ascribable in no small degree to Mrs.
Marshall, being a lady of good sense, singular piety, and surprising elocution, has, in countless instances melted a whole concourse into tears by her prayers and exhortations! Martha Stearns Marshall, great numbers turned to the Lord. Samuel Harris, with whom he immediately afterwards made several tours, preached and planted the gospel in several places, as far as James-river.
Marshall is credited with helping lay the foundation that produced the phenomenal growth of the Virginia Baptists. In the course of their marriage, Martha Stearns Marshall gave birth to ten children, eight sons and two daughters.
He purchased sixty-seven acres in , and four and one-half acres in , in Tolland. Sarah, his mother, stayed with her son, Jonathan, until she died on May 3, In , he and his wife moved with the Reverend Shubal Stearns, his brother-in-law, to Virginia.
He purchased one hundred fifty acres of land and two hundred forty-four acres on North River in Hampton County, Virginia which then included what is now all of Mineral and the western part of Morgan counties, West Virginia. Jonathan died while living in what later became Union District, S. His mother moved there with her son, where she lived close to her sister, Martha Stearns Marshall.
Thomas Brandon, after the fall of Charleston. Micajah obtained land in , which adjoined land previously owned by Rev. His mother, Rebecca, died in Richmond County, Georgia, in Micajah was not the Primitive Baptist preacher.
He first married Hannah Stimson, daughter of Dr. She was his first cousin. James Stimson, was the first physician in Tolland, Connecticut. Hannah died in , while residing in the fort. He and his first wife had four sons and two daughters. When Mulkey and his members moved to what became Union District, South Carolina, Peter, and his children did not join them. Margaret was born circa Her first husband was killed while transporting prisoners for the Sheriff of Orange County, North Carolina.
He was stabbed by a prisoner and died in In , Jacob Gibson gave land to build a meeting house, and the Little River Baptist Church, in what later became Fairfield District, South Carolina, was constituted February 26, , from members remaining from the church that the Reverend Philip Mulkey had moved to what became Union District, S. Peter Stearns, his second wife, Margaret, and their family were members of this church.
Peter served seven hundred six days as a Patriot soldier in the militia from March 3, , to October 4, , under Capt. Anderson Thomas during the American Revolutionary War.
Levi fought under Col. Peter Stearns died in , in Fairfield District, S. His second wife, Margaret, died after He married Anna Field, daughter of John and Anna? Field, on August 26, , in Tolland, Connecticut. Anna was born circa , in Tolland. They joined Orange County friends, brothers: Aaron and Joseph Pinson, and their families.
The Pinsons had moved to this area of South Carolina in They were early converts of the Reverend Shubal Stearns. Aaron had four tracts of land surveyed for him in late Aaron Pinson received a grant of acres of land on the Saluda River in May of He may have received a license to preach by the Reverend Shubal Stearns before moving to what later became Laurens District, S.
He was ordained to the Gospel Ministry shortly after the Raeburn Creek Baptist Church was constituted in September of , and became pastor of the church.
By the late summer of , the Reverend Aaron Pinson with his family and various other members of several South Carolina churches settled in the Watauga colonies of present day North East Tennessee.
They prepared to protect their community from attacks as the revolution began. The sons and sons-in-law of the Rev. Aaron Pinson served the cause by bearing arms or giving material aid or both.
He moved to Wilkes County, N. Aaron Pinson died between and , in Laurens District, S. Their daughter married Thomas Shirley. He was a Patriot soldier, serving, while a resident of North Carolina. Some sources state that her name was Ruth. She was his second wife. A record of her name was not been preserved. Nancy was given the title of Beloved Woman.
This title was one given the principal woman in the female councils and endowed her with power to speak in the council of the Chiefs. Without that victory the story of America could have been different. It probably disappeared in the next few years. They had three sons and five daughters. Eneas Stimson, son of Dr. She was born August 30, , in Tolland, Connecticut.
He and his wife were related. They were constitutional members of the Sandy Creek Baptist Church in Eneas and Elizabeth moved to what became Laurens District, S. Eneas indicated in his will that they had adopted a girl named, Mary. It was constituted in , and a Meeting House thirty by twenty-six feet was erected about ten miles from Augusta, Georgia.
It was on one of these tours that he was arrested for illegally conducting a religious service. When he appeared before the magistrate, Col. Barnard, he forbade him to reenter Georgia to hold religious services.
An interesting result of this encounter was that Samuel Cartledge, the man who arrested Marshall was later converted and became a faithful Baptist pastor for over fifty years, and the magistrate, Col. Barnard, became a zealous and effective Christian. On January 1, , Marshall choosing to obey God rather than man, moved his family into Georgia. This colony settled in Georgia on Kiokee Creek, St. He was the only pastor to remain in Georgia during the American Revolutionary War.
This scene continued, until his wife could bear the suspense no longer, and undertook herself to make the disclosure. During the last thirteen years of his life he was able to organize several churches and at least fourteen ministers were either called or influenced by his ministry. Just before his death he acted as moderator of the Georgia Baptist Association, founded in , at Kiokee Church. This night I shall, probably expire. But I have nothing to fear.
I have fought a good fight, I have finished my course, I have kept the faith. And henceforth there is laid up for me a crown of righteousness. God has shown me that he is my God, that I am His son, and that an eternal weight of glory is mine!
Hold out to the end. Eternal glory is before us. I have been praying that I may go home tonight. I had great happiness in our worship this morning, particularly in singing, which will make a part of my exercises in a blessed eternity.
A suitable discourse to his memory was delivered from II Timothy 4: His wife, Martha, died in , and was buried beside her husband, but her grave was not marked.
Daniel Marshall was succeeded as pastor of Kiokee Baptist Church by his son, Abraham Marshall , and Abraham was succeeded by his son, Jabez Marshall These men served as pastors of Kiokee for a period of sixty years of its history. He was ordained by the Kiokee Baptist Church in Abraham preached to thousands on his New England tours in and In nothing, perhaps was he more remarkable than the power of description.
He would portray the glories of heaven with such matchless force and breadth, that his hearers could scarcely remain upon their seats; and he would depict the miseries of the lost in such terrible, burning language, as almost to make the hair stand erect upon your head. He was affectionately called the Friend of Black People. He was a trustee of Franklin College now the University of Georgia. He was also moderator of the Georgia Baptist Association for 19 years. He was the son of David Mulkey and an unknown wife.
David was born circa , and died before His grandfather was Philip Mulkey Sr. He had a brother named Jonathan Mulkey. Sarah was first married to? He was born circa They married circa , and had a son, George Lewis, born circa Philip died in , in Edgecomb Precinct, North Carolina. He was born circa , probably in Bertie Precinct, North Carolina.
His first wife was Mary Couch. Sarah died in Orange County, N. John Patterson also died in Orange County, N. Philip Mulkey, son of David, was first a member of the Episcopal Church.
She was born circa , possibly in Mecklenburg County, Virginia. Philip and Ann had six children, four sons and two daughters. Their last child, Robert, was born in what later became Union District, S. However, I mounted my horse and went homewards.
My fears had so disordered my understanding that I fancied the first tree I came to bowed its head to strike at me, which made me start from it. Happening to look up, I fancied that the stars cast a frowning and malignant aspect upon me. When I came home, I went to bed and endeavored to conceal the matter from my wife; but it could not be; for thenceforth I could neither eat, nor sleep nor rest for some days; but continued to roar out, I am damned!
I shall soon be in hell! Her attempts to comfort me were vain; and my emaciated body and ghastly visage terrified her. It is hardly credible that such a thought should relieve; but so it was, that I found myself much easier when I perceived that God had any use for me, or that I should be any way profitable to him and the he made me for his glory. I strove to please him by reformation and obedience for some space of love came in with the forced mentioned thought , but yet was I a wretched man.
As I was reading these words If ye have not been faithful in that which is another mans who will give you that which is your own? Upon this I resolved to serve the devil faithfully.
Mean while a benighted stranger Rev. John Newton came to my house who read a chapter 33 rd of Isaiah and prayed; and thereby turned by thoughts to Christ, and Salvation by him, for the time. The novelty of this matter and the possibility it introduced, that my sins had been laid on Christ and that God had stricken and smitten Christ for them so that he could spare me without falsifying his threatenings or violate his justice affected me in such a manner as exceeds description.
I found an inclination to adore the stranger, and to question whether he was an angel or man? But made no discovery there of nor of my thoughts to him. The next day he departed, and as he was going this thought came in my mind, There is Lot going out of Sodom as soon as he disappears fire will come down and burn me and mine!
I ran after him, and kept my eye upon him; but the wood presently intercepted the sight; upon which I threw my self with my face to the ground expecting fire and brimstone.
I continued in this posture for some time almost dead with terror. Finding the fire did not come immediately I began to hope that it would not come at all; and thereupon prayed that God would spare me. I received comfort; and was running to tell my wife of it; but before I reached the house I lost all comfort and my distress came on again.
In my agony I said many a time, O that John Newton had said! O that I was as good as John Newton! Upon which this text crowded into my head, The Spirit of Elijah doth rest on Elisha. I could not discern how this text concerned me; or why it bore so on my mind? I persuade myself this was the signification; and, blessed be God, my hope was not disappointed: My wife saw a surprising change in my countenance. I told the whole matter; and began to preach up conversion to her.
She understood me not, though I persuaded myself I was able to make everyone sensible what the newbirth means. I took my Bible and hastened to my neighbor Campbell; when I came in I opened it at the third ch.
My neighbor swore at me most desperately, adding, What devilish project are you now upon with the Word of God in your hand? Upon which he stripped, and sprang out of doors, challenging me to fight! I sat down in the house and began to weep. He sprang in and skipping and bounding about the floor spitting on his hands and clenching his fists dared me to fight. I replied, You know, my dear neighbor, that I am able to beat you; but now you may beat me if you will; I shall not hinder you!
Hearing this and seeing me all in tears made him look as a man astonished! He put on his shirt, and sat by me, and we both wept. But my talk of the new birth was not understood by him any more than by my wife. Soon after I made myself known to Shubal Stearns and church, and was surprised to find that they understood the new birth, and had knowledge of the tribulations attending it which I had fancied were peculiar to my own cast, etc. They soon increased to over one hundred members.
Alice was born in Prince Edward County in Benjamin had land in Bute County, N. His land was bounded by lands of Ralph Jackson Sr. Benjamin Holcombe gave the church under the leadership of the Reverend Philip Mulkey two acres of land for a meeting house. They all served under Col. Benjamin and Alice had seven children, five sons and two daughters. He made his will on August 13, , which was probated October 17, He died in Union District, S.
It was this Sequoyah who invented the Cherokee alphabet and enabled the Cherokee to write in their language. She was born in Lunenburg in Their first two children, Joseph and Mary, were born in Lunenburg County.
Joseph Gist was born August 27, His family moved first to Orange County, N. He moved with his wife, Hannah, his daughter, Sarah, and his son, William, and his father and mother, to Washington County, North Carolina Tennessee , in Joseph and Hannah moved with his parents to Barren County, Kentucky, in She died in Barren County on May 14, They had two sons and five daughters.
She was the daugher of Zachariah and Mary Bullington Belew. He received several wounds. John died in , in Barren County, Kentucky. She and Joseph had two sons and a daughter. Here he petitioned to build a gristmill, was appointed a road overseer and a constable.
The Reverend Philip Mulkey was pastor at this time. The church was located about ten miles upstream from the Deep-Haw confluence near present-day Lockville, N. She moved with her parents to Orange County, N. Mary married James Stevenson in , several months after their move to Washington County. He was born December 10, , in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. They had seven daughters and four sons. The writer was unable to obtain names of James parents.
John Gist was born in North Carolina on November 23, He moved with his parents to Craven County, S. He was a Patriot soldier in the American Revolution War, serving in the counties of Washington and Sullivan in what later became Tennessee. He was a magistrate with his father, Benjamin, in Greene County, Tennessee, and when the county was organized under the state of Franklin, served as a Justice of the Peace.
He married Hannah Geron, daughter of Hiram and Susannah? Geron, in , in Knox County, Tennessee. They moved with his parents to Barren County, Kentucky, circa They had five sons and one daughter.
On March 5, , he and his wife, received a grant of acres of land in Craven County later Union District at the mouth of Sugar Creek. He was a deacon in the Fairforest Baptist Church. William Breed Gist Sr. She was born in , in Greene County, Tennessee. She and William had at least two sons and two daughters. They lived in Barren County, Kentucky, for several years.
He was a member of the Mill Creek Baptist Church. They had seven sons and three daughters. His wife, Elizabeth, died in White County, after , and he died there March 22, He was born on January 30, , in Augusta County, Virginia. They moved to White County, Tennessee, where most of their children were born. They had four sons and two daughters. She died in White County on August 4, , and her husband died there August 20, She married James McClain. He was born in , in Greene County, Tennessee. They had one son and two daughters.
She died in Hardin County, Tennessee, before James next married Kizziah Hardin, daughter of James W. They had a son named William. He moved with his parents to Washington County, Tennessee, in She died April 24, , in Knox County, Tennessee. Hinds, in Knox County, Tennessee, in He moved his family with the family of his father, Benjamin Gist Sr.
He witnessed a deed made by his father, Benjamin Sr. At this time, he and his father had already moved their families to Jackson County, Tennessee. He served in the War of He and his second wife, Rhoda, had four sons and four daughters and another adopted son.
On June 16, , Benjamin Gist, Jr. It was sixty miles from Barren County, to Jackson County. Sevier John to head off an Indian uprising and thus give time for the expedition to get home. They moved to Smith County, Tennessee, in the fall of In May of , Benjamin Sr. They moved to Jackson County, Tennessee, in , or before. He married Mary Powell circa , in N. She was born circa , in N. Names of her parents may have been John and Alice Murrell Powell.
His will was dated December 24, , and was recorded in Union District, S. His wife, Mary, died circa , in Union District, S. They had four sons and three daughters. He was only eight years old when his father and mother died in She was born in New London, Connecticut, on October 14, The original church moved with Mulkey to what later became Union District, S.
Obediah received a land grant of acres on the branches of Fairforest and Sugar Creeks on February 17, Obediah Howard moved with the only remaining ordained minister capable of administering the affairs of the church, the Reverend Alexander McDougal, and the Patriot membership of the church moved to a part of the McDougal land, where the church established by the Rev.
Philip Mulkey was continued. Obediah Howard was a Patriot soldier and served before and after the fall of Charleston as a private in the local militia in Col. John McCool was the commander of his company. His son, Joseph, was also a Patriot soldier and fought under Col. Thomas Brandon after the fall of Charleston.
I, Deed Books A-F, page Joseph Howard took his own life in Union District, S. This relationship is not fully established. Jean was born circa He and the Reverend Alexander McDougal attended the meeting.
He was also elected a deacon of this church. After the census of Union District, S. This area later became a part of Tennessee. Nancy and her husband had three sons who were preachers, John, Philip and Isaac, and a grandson, John Newton Mulkey, who was also a minister. They had a son, John Gibbs, a well-known pastor in Union District. The two Hart wives were sisters and daughters of Aaron Hart, who served as a Patriot soldier under Col.
Thomas Brandon in the American Revolutionary War. Others traveling with this group were: They had seven sons and seven daughters. A man named Jiles Thompson and his agents were to build the meetinghouse. Obediah and Priscilla Howard were deceased when their grandson, the Reverend John Mulkey, began to subscribe to the reform theology of the Christian Church.
Their log structure was eventually encased by weather boarding and then bricked as the congregation continued into modern times. Mill Creek Baptist Church still meets in this building today. She was born April 29, , in Groton. He and his wife lived near her parents in Groton until after August 11, , as evident by deeds executed during this time.
The Perry-Poole Family Tree. After assisting Daniel Marshall in a ministry to the Mohawks , he and his family moved with the Marshalls to Frederick County, Virginia, in After Shubal Stearns and his family arrived, they joined together and moved to Cacapon in Hampshire County, where they established a church.
He was fifty-one years old at this time. Their son, Joseph, was born in Groton, Connecticut, on April 8, He and his wife sold this land to his brother, Avery Breed, on May 27, They had four sons and four daughters.
Richard George was a son of James and Judith? Avery purchased this land in February of , from Bryan White. There is no record of his marriage.
He traveled with his sister, Priscilla Breed Howard and her husband, Obediah, to Barren County, Kentucky, and died shortly after they arrived. His brother, Nathan, was administrator of his will. He was a twin brother of Priscilla. Her parents were Quakers. Thomas Brandon with his brother, Joseph.
Two sons and five daughters were born to their union. Both died in Barren County. No further information exists on this couple. They both died in Barren County, Kentucky. The writer was unable to obtain additional information on this couple. Their daughter, Sarah Breed, was born in Groton, Connecticut, in He was born circa , in Chatham County, North Carolina. They had five sons and five daughters. Samuel Harlan died in Union District, S. He and his wife, Hannah, moved to Washington County, Tennessee, with his father and mother in John Sevier at the Battle of Kings Mountain.
Both were both buried in the Old Mulkey Church Cemetery. They had five daughters and three sons. He was born in , in Union District. Jesse and Ruth were also born in Union District.
Before , they had moved to Barren County, Kentucky. Their last three children: John Springer died in Barren County in She died in Barren County in He was born circa , in Chatham County, N. They had five daughters and one son.
Priscilla Avery Breed, his wife, received payment after the American Revolutionary War for beef she gave to the Rebels in Thomas Thompson was born in , in Ireland. Name of his wife has not been preserved. She was probably deceased before he moved to South Carolina.
He had moved to this county with his son, Charles, in Charles was not married when they first moved to Craven County. We do not have an exact date of the demise of Thomas Thompson, but know that he left his acres near the Blackstock Ford to his son, Charles. Thompson had four sons and one daughter.
At sometime he was in the militia under Col. Elizabeth was still living when her husband died, but her death date has not been recorded. His son, Seaborn born , was already deceased when his father died. Susannah born , William born , John born and Charles born June 10, were all mentioned in his will. He sold this land to Tilman Bobo on June 10, She was born in , in Union District, S. They had nine sons and four daughters. Rachel Collins was born between and She married Adam Moses Collins The author is not positive that this is his right name.
He was born in the s. Apparently, Adam, was not a member of this church. They were in what later became Fairfield District, S. He was born in , in Tolland, Connecticut. She died in Chambers County in November of He was granted a parcel of land near Tompkinsville that later became known as the old Jordan White farm.
He was a church leader and was ordained to the office of deacon on May 3, He later published these accounts in the book The Underground Railroad: Authentic Narratives and First-Hand Accounts , a valuable resource for historians to understand how the system worked and learn about individual ingenuity in escapes. According to Still, messages were often encoded so that they could be understood only by those active in the railroad.
For example, the following message, "I have sent via at two o'clock four large hams and two small hams", indicated that four adults and two children were sent by train from Harrisburg to Philadelphia. The additional word via indicated that the "passengers" were not sent on the usual train, but rather via Reading, Pennsylvania.
In this case, the authorities were tricked into going to the regular location station in an attempt to intercept the runaways, while Still met them at the correct station and guided them to safety. They eventually escaped either to the North or to Canada, where slavery had been abolished during the s. Following upon legislation passed in , in , Congress passed H.
The National Park Service has designated many sites within the network, posted stories about people and places, sponsors an essay contest, and holds a national conference about the Underground Railroad in May or June each year.
Since the s, claims have arisen that quilt designs were used to signal and direct slaves to escape routes and assistance. According to advocates of the quilt theory, ten quilt patterns were used to direct slaves to take particular actions.
The quilts were placed one at a time on a fence as a means of nonverbal communication to alert escaping slaves. The code had a dual meaning: The quilt design theory is disputed. The first published work documenting an oral history source was in , and the first publication of this theory is believed to be a children's book. In addition, Underground Railroad historian Giles Wright has published a pamphlet debunking the quilt code.
Similarly, some popular, nonacademic sources claim that spirituals and other songs, such as "Steal Away" or " Follow the Drinking Gourd ", contained coded information and helped individuals navigate the railroad. They have offered little evidence to support their claims. Scholars tend to believe that while the slave songs may certainly have expressed hope for deliverance from the sorrows of this world, these songs did not present literal help for runaway slaves.
The Underground Railroad inspired cultural works. For example, " Song of the Free ", written in about a man fleeing slavery in Tennessee by escaping to Canada, was composed to the tune of " Oh! Every stanza ends with a reference to Canada as the land "where colored men are free". Slavery in Upper Canada now Ontario was outlawed in ; in , John Robinson , the Attorney General of Upper Canada, declared that by residing in Canada, black residents were set free, and that Canadian courts would  protect their freedom.
Slavery in Canada as a whole had been in rapid decline after an court ruling, and was finally abolished outright in When frictions between North and South culminated in the Civil War , many blacks, slave and free, fought for the Union Army.
Frederick Douglass , writer, statesman, and an escaped slave, wrote critically of the Underground Railroad in his seminal autobiography, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave: I have never approved of the very public manner in which some of our western friends have conducted what they call the Underground Railroad , but which I think, by their open declarations, has been made most emphatically the upperground railroad.
He went on to say that, although he honors the movement, he feels that the efforts serve more to enlighten the slave-owners than the slaves, making them more watchful and making it more difficult for future slaves to escape. Estimates vary widely, but at least 30, slaves, and potentially more than ,, escaped to Canada via the Underground Railroad. These were generally in the triangular region bounded by Niagara Falls , Toronto , and Windsor.
Several rural villages made up mostly of ex-slaves were established in Kent and Essex counties. Fort Malden in Amherstburg, Ontario , was deemed the "chief place of entry" for slaves seeking to enter Canada. The abolitionist Levi Coffin supported this assessment, describing Fort Malden as "the great landing place, the principle terminus of the underground railroad of the west. Appleby, a celebrated mariner, facilitated the conveyance of several fugitive slaves from various Lake Erie ports to Fort Malden.
Another important center of population was Nova Scotia , for example Africville and other villages near Halifax see Black Nova Scotians. Important black settlements also developed in other parts of British North America now parts of Canada.
These included Lower Canada present-day Quebec and Vancouver Island , where Governor James Douglas encouraged black immigration because of his opposition to slavery. He also hoped a significant black community would form a bulwark against those who wished to unite the island with the United States. Upon arriving at their destinations, many fugitives were disappointed, as life in Canada was difficult.
While the British colonies had no slavery after , discrimination was still common. Many of the new arrivals had to compete with mass European immigration for jobs, and overt racism was common. For example, in reaction to Black Loyalists being settled in eastern Canada by the Crown, the city of Saint John, New Brunswick , amended its charter in specifically to exclude blacks from practicing a trade, selling goods, fishing in the harbour, or becoming freemen; these provisions stood until With the outbreak of the Civil War in the U.
While some later returned to Canada, many remained in the United States. Thousands of others returned to the American South after the war ended. The desire to reconnect with friends and family was strong, and most were hopeful about the changes emancipation and Reconstruction would bring.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For train transportation used underground, see Rapid transit. For other uses, see Underground Railroad disambiguation. People who helped slaves find the railroad were "agents" or "shepherds" Guides were known as "conductors" Hiding places were "stations" or "way stations" "Station masters" hid slaves in their homes Escaped slaves were referred to as "passengers" or "cargo" Slaves would obtain a "ticket" Similar to common gospel lore, the "wheels would keep on turning" Financial benefactors of the Railroad were known as "stockholders" .
Retrieved July 17, Retrieved July 25, Taking the Train to Freedom. Archived from the original on March 21, Retrieved March 23, Retrieved February 10, Archived from the original on January 6, Retrieved January 30, Freedom on My Mind: A History of African Americans, with documents.
The Separate Baptist Movement – The Story Of The Early Beginnings Of The Fairforest Baptist Church In Union District FIRST BAPTIST . The Underground Railroad was a network of secret routes and safe houses established in the United States during the early to midth century, and used by African-American slaves to escape into free states and Canada with the aid of abolitionists and allies who were sympathetic to their cause. The term is also applied to the abolitionists, both . Dear Twitpic Community - thank you for all the wonderful photos you have taken over the years. We have now placed Twitpic in an archived state.