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Leslie Stahl is very thinly read on virtually everything. Trump has a monumental ego—so big it is a liability. His administration has been a great success, but his ego prevents it from being the hugely tremendous success—the transformative success it could be. His goal of having the E.
But he is constitutionally incapable of doing that, so we fear the worst though not in the Senate. Everyone should see this video: Of course it is always possible that Kavanaugh may be a disappointment—we had urged a more consistently textualist nominee in the form of Amy Coney Barrett—but our hopes remain that he will live up to his hype. In other words, to achieve maximum Republican motivation and turnout on November 6, it would actually have been much better if the nomination had failed.
If that had happened, we have little doubt Republican voters would have been so fired up they would have produced a Senate majority—and would have even maintained the House. Now—again quite naturally—the passion and motivation move back to the Leftist side. We pray conservative forces stay motivated, but human nature would suggest a letdown.
Students of history know this venerable institution—the oldest political party in the world—dating to , has at least an arguably respectable place in history. Today it is sad to note that this party has disintegrated into little more than a mob. It more resembles a product of the French Revolution than the American. With its runaway hordes of paid rioters, screamers, and people who are committing acts of violence and attempted intimidation, the Democrat Party today appears to be rejecting the American Experiment, and appears to be telling Americans that the Party will no longer operate within established legal and social norms.
That this party appears to have near-majority or possibly actual majority support is a warning to all Americans that our republic is a fragile thing. As we predicted, both Senators Collins and Manchin have announced their support for the Kavanaugh nomination. We enjoyed the Collins speech.
It was thorough and comprehensive, outlining in very diplomatic terms the fraudulent, highly deceptive, and dishonest tactics the Democrats employed this past summer.
Feinstein repeatedly lied to the committee. If he follows through and votes for Kavanaugh tomorrow, it will be a very insincere vote—cast only to shore up his re-election campaign. She probably believes that because she did an end-run once before—winning as a write-in candidate after losing a Republican primary—that she is invulnerable. But she will not be able to overcome this. This will be proof positive that she is a fake.
The most intellectually honest of the three, she plans to stay in the Senate and she knows Kavanaugh is qualified; and that the Democrats have disgraced themselves and have treated Kavanaugh and the American people dishonestly. The stupidest Republican in the Senate—and goating it out with Mazie Hirono for stupidest in the entire chamber.
However, he now realizes that Sen. Coons made a fool of him and the whole world knows it. Phony as the day is long, but savvy. Republicans should be hoping he votes no—it would probably tip his seat to the GOP. She wants to keep alive a potential role for herself in national Democrat politics. Gets beat by at least 20 points. She gets beat, by about 7 points. He is exposed for what he really is. He gets beat by 4 points. Will vote no, but the WI Senate race will get tighter.
The GOP could pick up this seat yet. Republicans are in trouble in only one race: Heller may get beat by 2 points. Republicans experience a net gain of 5 or 6 seats and end up with either a or advantage in the US Senate. He is much better off letting his presidency achieve—without crippling his own accomplishments with nonsensical tweets and off-the-cuff remarks. What Trump said about about Christine Blasey Ford was essentially true—after all, we have made the case that Ford has lied at numerous points in her story and testimony.
We are all already FOR Kavanaugh. And he cannot discipline himself to sculpt his remarks in such a way as to Help Them Help Him. We think Kavanaugh will be approved, but if he is not the defeat will rest at the feet of an undisciplined Trump. And all of us who voted for him will be—rightfully—very angry at his self-inflicted wound. First of all, the FBI investigation this week should include a very thorough array of investigations into Ford as well as a seventh background check on Kavanaugh.
We also note that the Democrats have changed their charges against Kavanaugh from his being guilty of sexual assault to his being unqualified because he drank a lot in high school and college.
As an aside, we wonder what happened to the mantra of "young people's brains are not fully developed until age 25 —but that's for another day. Our Initial Take on the Ford Testimony: Like millions of Americans, our first take on the testimony of Christine Blasey Ford was one of great sympathy, empathy, and yes, belief and acceptance. Acceptance that what she was saying was sincere—that it was not only true, in the sense that she believed what she was saying, but in the sense that she had actually been a victim of a sexual assault—perhaps not by Brett Kavanaugh, but by someone, sometime in her life.
To be sure, there were some parts that made us uncomfortable—the obvious lies about fear of flying, about not knowing who paid for the lie detector test, about not knowing when it took place, or whether it was filmed or recorded, about claiming not to know anything about the offer of investigators coming to her.
The lies were many and not even convincingly delivered. But in our sympathy and in our emotional empathy we passed over those, and quickly forgot about them in the tsunami of the definitive, absolute, over-the-top endorsements from mainstream media all the rest of the day. Then we started getting some pushback from readers and from within the NMPJ team. Three women, two men weighed in, each urging that New Mexico Political Journal take a step back.
The admonition was this: And it was a different experience. First, there is the voice. A second and now a third time through it comes across fake as hell. The scratchy, little voice with periodic little breaks and sighs sounds more like a six- or seven-year-old than a year-old woman. Whose idea was the polygraph? When was the polygraph? More of the same.
This seems completely implausible. It was about seven weeks ago. No matter what question was posed—whether it had to do with the alleged incident or was merely an administrative question about her letter, the polygraph, or whether she needed a drink of water or a break, the little girl, scratchy voice was employed throughout.
Is there any existing video of her talking to a college class? Or any other recordings? Is that her real voice? Does she talk like that all the time? We doubt it very seriously. Despite unanimous media characterization as tearful and emotional, Ford did not actually shed a tear throughout her sensational tale of a near-death and near-rape experience.
His eyes were filled with tears. Dry as a bone—a lot like the scratchy, little girl voice. There was pain in his eyes? Hard to see her glasses were filthy as hell but in reality none. This makes no sense. She was bound to be found out on this. With frequent flights to extremely remote parts of the world and routine cross country flights, Ford may have something approaching a million frequent flyer miles.
There is no explanation for lying like that. Does she really have no idea how the polygraph came about? Who paid for it? Whether she was looking at a camera or not? Whether it was recorded or not?
She testified that she and her husband went to a therapist in while remodeling their home. But the Palo Alto city records show the second front door had been installed four years earlier because the couple was developing a separate rental unit in the home.
She and her defenders say she has nothing to gain. She has no idea where the house was—but her own description places it 8 miles from her home, and remembers Kavanaugh was there. But has no idea by whom.
And no one has emerged who remembers driving her. She says she ran out of a house in which her close friend was left behind alone to face the prospect of rape. Kavanaugh has preserved all records about his life, his whereabouts, his yearbooks, and everything. She has either destroyed everything about her life contemporaneous with the alleged events, or she has hidden them. Kavanaugh was supported at the hearings and in testimonials by his family and friends.
No one showed up to show support for Ford. We know we are now alone in this. We believe she has published professional papers and done work for organizations that support Ru and other abortifacients and that she is a very strong, highly motivated supporter of open-ended abortion on demand laws.
The history of New Mexico is based on both archeological evidence, attesting to varying cultures of humans occupying the area of New Mexico since approximately BC, and written records.
The earliest peoples had migrated from northern areas of North America after leaving Siberia via the Bering Land Bridge.
Artifacts and architecture demonstrate ancient complex cultures in this region. The first written records of the region were made by the Spanish Conquistadors , who encountered Native American Pueblos when they explored the area in the 16th century. Since that time, the Spanish Empire , Mexico , and the United States since have claimed control of the area. The area was governed as New Mexico Territory until , when it was admitted as a state.
The relatively isolated state had an economy dependent on mining. Its residents and government suffered from a reputation for corruption and extreme traditionalism. New Mexico introduced the atomic age in , as the first nuclear weapons were developed by the federal government in the research center it established at Los Alamos.
Ethnically the state has historically been divided among Native American, Hispanic and Anglo elements—the latter mostly migrants from Texas in the early years. Human occupation of New Mexico stretches back at least 11, years to the hunter-gatherer Clovis culture. After the invention of agriculture, the land was inhabited by the Ancient Pueblo Peoples , who built houses out of stone or adobe bricks.
They experienced a Golden Age around AD , but climate change led to migration and cultural evolution. From those people arose the historic Pueblo peoples who lived primarily along the few major rivers. The Pueblo people built a flourishing sedentary culture in the 13th century A. By AD, they had developed planned villages composed of large terraced buildings, each with many rooms.
These apartment-house villages were often constructed on defensive sites- on ledges of massive rock, on flat summits, or on steep-sided mesas, locations that would afford the Anasazi protection from their Northern enemies.
The largest of these villages, Pueblo Bonito , in the Chaco Canyon of New Mexico, contained around rooms in five stories and may have housed as many as persons. Then, around , Chaco Anasazi society began to unravel. Long before the Spanish arrival, descendants of the Anasazi were using irrigation canals, check dams and hillside terracing as techniques for bringing water to what had for centuries been an arid, agriculturally marginal area.
At the same time, the ceramic industry became more elaborate, cotton replaced yucca fiber as the main clothing material and basket weaving became more artistic. The Spanish encountered Pueblo civilization and elements of the Athabaskans in the 16th century. Cabeza de Vaca in , one of only four survivors of the Panfilo de Narvaez expedition of , tells of hearing Indians talk about fabulous cities somewhere in New Mexico. Coronado camped near an excavated pueblo today preserved as Coronado National Memorial in The Spanish maltreatment of the Pueblo and Athabaskan people that started with their explorations of the upper Rio Grande valley led to hostility that impeded the Spanish conquest of New Mexico for centuries.
There are three different languages spoken by the pueblos. The Navajo and Apache peoples are members of the large Athabaskan language family, which includes peoples in Alaska and Canada, and along the Pacific Coast.
The historic peoples encountered by the Europeans did not make up unified tribes in the modern sense, as they were highly decentralized, operating in bands of a size adapted to their semi-nomadic cultures. From the 16th to the 19th centuries, the European explorers, missionaries, traders and settlers referred to the different groups of Apache and Navajo by various names, often associated with distinctions of language or geography.
These two tribes led nomadic lifestyles and spoke the same language. Some experts estimate that the semi-nomadic Apache were active in New Mexico in the 13th century.
Spanish records indicated that they traded with the Pueblo. Various bands or tribes participated in the Southwestern Revolt against the Spanish in the s. By the early 18th century the Spanish had built a series of over 25 forts to protect themselves and subjugated populations from the traditional raiding parties of the Athabaskan. The Navajo Nation , with more than , citizens the largest federally recognized tribe in the United States, is concentrated in present-day northwestern New Mexico and northeastern Arizona.
The Mescalero Apache live east of the Rio Grande. The Jicarilla Apache live west of the Rio Grande. The Chiricahua Apache lived in southwestern New Mexico and south eastern  Arizona until the late 19th century.
He traveled mostly overland from Florida to Mexico. These four survivors had spent eight arduous years getting to Sinaloa, Mexico on the Pacific coast and had visited many Indian tribes.
Coronado and his supporters sank a fortune in this ill-fated enterprise. They took horses and mules for riding and packing, and hundreds of head of sheep and cattle as a portable food supply. Coronado's men found several adobe pueblos towns in but no rich cities of gold. Further widespread expeditions  found no fabulous cities anywhere in the Southwest or Great Plains.
A dispirited and now poor Coronado and his men began their journey back to Mexico, leaving New Mexico behind. Over the next two centuries, they made horses at the center of their nomadic cultures. Only two of Coronado's horses were mares. This means "Saint John of the Knights".
San Juan was in a small valley. Nearby the Chama River flows into the Rio Grande. The Franciscans found the pueblo people increasingly unwilling to consent to baptism by newcomers who continued to demand food, clothing and labor. Acoma is also known as the oldest continually inhabited city in the United States.
Governor Pedro de Peralta moved the capital and established the settlement of Santa Fe in at the foot of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains. Peralta built the Palace of the Governors in Although the colony failed to prosper, some Catholic missions survived. Spanish settlers arrived at the site of Albuquerque in the midth century.
Missionaries attempted to convert the natives to Christianity, but had little success. Contemporary scholars believe that the objective of Spanish rule of New Mexico and all other northern lands was the full exploitation of the native population and resources. As Frank McNitt writes,. They exploited Indian labor for transport, sold Indian slaves in New Spain, and sold Indian products The exploitative nature of Spanish rule resulted in their conducting nearly continuous raids and reprisals against the nomadic Indian tribes on the borders, especially the Apache , Navajo , and Comanche.
Both colonists and the Franciscans depended upon Indian labor, mostly the Pueblo, and competed with each other to control a decreasing Indian population. They suffered high mortality because of infectious European diseases, to which they had no acquired immunity , and exploitation that disrupted their societies.
The struggle between the Franciscans and the civil government came to a head in the late s. Governor Bernardo Lopez de Mendizabal and his subordinate Nicolas de Aguilar forbade the Franciscans to punish Indians or employ them without pay. They granted the Pueblo permission to practice their traditional dances and religious ceremonies.
After the Franciscans protested, Lopez and Aguilar were arrested, turned over to the Inquisition , and tried in Mexico City. Thereafter, the Franciscans reigned supreme in the province. Pueblo dissatisfaction with the rule of the clerics was the main cause of the Pueblo revolt.
The Spanish in New Mexico were never able to gain dominance over the Indian peoples, who lived among and surrounded them. The isolated colony of New Mexico was characterized by "elaborate webs of ethnic tension, friendship, conflict,and kinship" among Indian groups and Spanish colonists. Because of the weakness of New Mexico, "rank-and-file settlers in outlying areas had to learn to coexist with Indian neighbors without being able to keep them subordinate.
Later the nomadic Indians, especially the Comanche , mounted attacks that weakened the Spanish. Many of the Pueblo people harbored hostility toward the Spanish, due to their oppression of the Indians and prohibition of their practice of traditional religion. The economies of the pueblos were disrupted, as the people were forced to labor on the encomiendas of the colonists. The Spanish introduced new farming implements which the Pueblo adopted and provided some measure of security against Navajo and Apache raiding parties.
The Pueblo lived in relative peace with the Spanish from the founding of the Northern New Mexican colony in In the s, drought swept the region, causing famine among the Pueblo, and attracting increased attacks from neighboring nomadic tribes trying to gain food supplies. Spanish soldiers were unable to defend the settlements adequately. At the same time, European-introduced diseases caused high mortality among the natives, decimating their communities.
Dissatisfied with the protective powers of the Spanish crown and its god of the Catholic Church, the Pueblo returned to their old gods. This provoked a wave of repression on the part of Franciscan missionaries. He dispatched runners to all the Pueblos carrying knotted cords, the knots signifying the number of days remaining until the appointed day for them to rise together against the Spaniards.
The Spanish were driven from all but the southern portion of New Mexico. They set up a temporary capital at El Paso while making preparations to reconquer the rest of the province.
The retreat of the Spaniards left New Mexico controlled by the Indians. He also wanted to destroy Spanish livestock and fruit trees. He forbade the planting of Spanish crops of wheat and barley. He took over control of the Governor's Palace as ruler of the Pueblo, and collected tribute from each Pueblo until his death in Following their success, the different Pueblo tribes, separated by hundreds of miles and six different languages, quarreled as to who would occupy Santa Fe and rule over the territory.
These power struggles, combined with raids from nomadic tribes and a seven-year drought, weakened the Pueblo strength. In July , Diego de Vargas led Spanish forces that surrounded Santa Fe, where he called on the Indians to surrender, promising clemency if they would swear allegiance to the King of Spain and return to the Christian faith. While developing Santa Fe as a trade center, the returning settlers founded Albuquerque in , naming for the viceroy of New Spain, the Duke of Albuquerque.
Prior to its founding, Albuquerque consisted of several haciendas and communities along the lower Rio Grande. The settlers constructed the Iglesia de San Felipe Neri Development of ranching and some farming in the 18th century were the basis for the culture of many of the state's still-flourishing Hispanics.
While the Pueblo achieved a short-lived independence from the Spaniards, they gained a measure of freedom from future Spanish efforts to impose their culture and religion following the reconquest.
The Spanish issued substantial land grants to each Pueblo, and appointed a public defender to protect the rights of the Indians and argue their legal cases in the Spanish courts. From the date of the founding of New Mexico, the Pueblo Indians and Spanish settlers were plagued by hostile relationships with nomadic and semi-nomadic Navajo, Apache, Ute , and Comanche Indians. The southwestern Indians developed a horse culture, raiding Spanish ranches and missions for their horses, and ultimately breeding and raising their own herds.
The Indian horse culture quickly spread throughout western America. Navajo and Apache raids for horses on Spanish and Pueblo settlements began in the s or earlier. The Navajo, in addition to being among the first mounted Indians in the U.
By the early 18th century, the Navajo households typically owned herds of sheep. After the Pueblo revolt, the Comanche posed the most serious threat to the Spanish settlers. Confronted with Spanish, Mexican, French, and American outposts on their periphery in New Mexico, Texas, Louisiana, and Mexico, they worked to increase their own safety, prosperity and power.
The Comanche used their military power to obtain supplies and labor from the Americans, Mexicans, and Indians through cunning, tribute, and kidnappings. The Comanche empire was primarily an economic construction, rooted in an extensive commercial network that facilitated long-distance trade.
Dealing with subordinate Indians, the Comanche spread their language and culture across the region. In terms of governance, the Comanche created a decentralized political system, based on a raiding, hunting and pastoral economy. They created a hierarchical social organization in which young men could advance through success in war.
In , colonists in New Mexico first recorded the Comanche; by they were raiding the colony as well as the other Indian tribes. The other tribes had primarily raided for plunder, but the Comanche introduced a new level of violence to the conflict. They preyed on other Indians. The Comanche were pure nomads, well mounted by the s.
They were especially prominent at the annual Taos trade fair, where they peacefully exchanged hides, meat and captive, often before or after raiding other settlements.
They endangered the survival of colonial New Mexico, stripping the settlements of horses, forcing the abandonment of many settlements, and in killing Spanish settlers and Pueblo Indians.
The New Mexicans on their part took care not to re-antagonize the Comanche and lavished gifts on them. Peace with the Comanche stimulated a growth in the population of New Mexico; settlements expanded eastward on to the Great Plains. The inhabitants of these new settlements were mostly genizaros , Indians and the descendants of Indians who had been ransomed from the Comanche. The Navajo were defeated in by Kit Carson , but the Apache leader Geronimo did not surrender until The Ute had earlier allied with the New Mexicans for mutual protection against the Comanche.
The Comanche empire collapsed after their villages were repeatedly decimated by epidemics of smallpox and cholera , especially in ; their population plunged from about 20, in the 18th century to 1, by , when they surrendered to the U. The Comanche no longer had the manpower to deal with the U. Army and the wave of white settlers who encroached on their region in the decades after the Mexican—American War ended in Following Lewis and Clark many men started exploring and trapping in the western parts of the United States.
Sent out in , Lt. Zebulon Pike 's orders were to find the headwaters of the Arkansas and Red rivers. He was to explore the southwestern part of the Louisiana Purchase. In , when Pike and his men crossed into the San Luis Valley of northern New Mexico they were arrested and taken to Santa Fe, and then sent south to Chihuahua where they appeared before the Commandant General Salcedo.
After four months of diplomatic negotiations, Pike and his men were returned to the United States, under protest, across the Red River at Natchitoches. The decade that led up to independence was a painful period in the history of Mexico. In catholic priest Miguel Hidalgo instigated a war for independence in central Mexico, a struggle that quickly took on the character of a class war. The following year, military captain Las Casas instigated a coup within the Imperial regime.
Sympathizing with the poor underclass, Las Casas opened up a line of dialogue with the revolutionaries. This caused the Spanish elite to instigate its own counter coup and executed Las Casas. For years afterward the regime failed to regain coherency and the mandate to administrate. These ideological struggles affected peripheral New Mexico much less than they did the national center, but it resulted in a sense of alienation with central authority.
Furthermore, in a longstanding peace between the settled communities of New Mexico and the neighboring nomadic Indian tribes broke down. Just a month after swearing loyalty to the new Mexican government in , governor Melgares led a raid into Navajo country. Isolated from other settled regions and surrounded on all sides by nomadic Indian tribes, New Mexicans tended to a communal sense of imperilment and the placement of security above all other concerns.
For these reasons it is highly surprising that the transition from Spanish to Mexican rule occurred as peacefully as it did. In New Mexico the event passed with few shows of enthusiasm or partisanship. Festivals were largely a lackluster affair and held only at the behest of the revolutionary government which expressed that they should be held, "in all the form and with the magnificence that the oaths of allegiance to the Kings have previously been read". But there was no renewed civil war and the provisional government was given the grudging support of most of society.
Trade along the Santa Fe Trail was opened following Mexican independence. With this trade came a new influx of citizens from the United States. Prior to independence, the estranjeros foreigners were not allowed to participate in receiving land grants , but now, along with the open trade, a few would become participating owners of these merceds grants. In a new constitution was drafted, that established Mexico as a federalist republic. A generally liberal minded atmosphere that had pervaded Mexico since independence led to generous grants of local autonomy and limited central power.
New Mexico in particular was able to take advantage and to carve out significant privileges in this new system. Classified as a territory as opposed to a state, it had reduced representation in the national government but broad local autonomy. Because of the advanced age of New Mexican society and its relative sophistication, it was uniquely placed to take advantage of its position as a frontier but still effecting influence in the rest of the country.
One of the defining features of the Mexican period in the history of New Mexico was the attempt to instill a nationalist sentiment. This was a tremendous challenge considering the nature of identity in Mexico during the Spanish empire. Under the official dictates of the empire, subjects were classified in terms of ethnicity, class and position in society. Between these legal distinctions kept groups separate and movement between groups was regulated.
Ethnic Europeans of course made up the upper crust of this system with Peninsulars, those born in Spain itself, comprising the true elite while Mexican born Europeans, the creoles, were ranked just below them. At the bottom were the masses of Indians and Mestizos, who had few legal rights and protections against the abuse of their superiors. In contrast the new 'Mexican' elite attempted to create a common identity between all classes and ethnicities.
Embracing an incredibly wide range of peoples and cultures, from nomadic Indians to the high society of Mexico City, this was incredibly ambitious and met with mixed success. In New Mexico, there was already a highly structured and differentiated society at the time of independence, unique along the Mexican frontier. At the top were ethnic Europeans who then merged with a large community of Hispanics. The more Indian blood you possessed, the lower on the social scale you tended to reside until the bottom was made of settled Pueblo communities and the nomadic Indians who existed outside of the polity.
Nationalists attempted to establish equality, if only legally, between these disparate groups. The local autonomy New Mexicans had established inhibited these endeavors and throughout the Mexican period the elite continued to maintain their privileges. Nevertheless, the inhabitants of New Mexico were able to adapt their old identity as Spanish subjects to Mexican nationals. Instead of a purely modern liberal sense of identity, this adapted Spanish feudalism to a geographic area.
The evidence of this success in nationalism can be seen in the Pueblo myth of Montezuma. This held that the original Aztec homeland lay in New Mexico, and the original king of the Aztecs was a Pueblo.
This creates a symbolic, and completely artificial, connection between the Mexican center and an isolated frontier society. The federalist and liberal atmosphere that pervaded Mexican thought since independence fell apart in the mids.
Across the political spectrum there was the perception that the previous system had failed and needed readjustment. This led to the dissolution of the constitution and the drafting of a new one based on centralist lines. As Mexico drifted farther and farther toward despotism, the national project began to fail and the nation fell into a crisis.
Along the frontier, formerly autonomous societies reacted aggressively to a newly assertive central government. The most independent province, Texas, declared its independence in , triggering the sequence of events that led directly to Mexico's collapse. The Revolt of in New Mexico itself overthrew and executed the centrally appointed governor and demanded increased regional authority.
This revolt was defeated within New Mexican society itself by Manuel Armijo. This was motivated not by nationalist sentiment but by the class antagonism within New Mexican society. When central rule was reestablished, it was done so on Armijo's lines he became governor and he ruled the province with even greater autonomy than any other time during the Mexican period. As the situation within central Mexico fell further and further into confusion, New Mexico began to draw closer economically to the United States.
This was epitomized in the growth in traffic and prominence of the Santa Fe Trail as a means of communication and trade. Merchants making their way over the Great Plains would stop in Santa Fe , where they would meet with their counterparts from Los Angeles and Mexico City.
The result was that as central Mexico fell into turmoil, New Mexico grew economically and shifted into the orbit of the United States. In the governorship of Armijo was interrupted when the regime of Santa Anna replaced him as governor with political outsider Mariano Martinez. In the growing threat of war with the United States, the national center sought to bring the frontier under tight control as it is there that any war would be fought.
To prevent revolution, Martinez was swiftly removed and Armijo reinstated, but any confidence the central government still enjoyed was completely destroyed.
The following year rumors arrived in New Mexico that the Mexican government was planning on selling the territory to the United States.
There was so little trust in the central government by this point that instead of investigating these rumors which were completely false leading members of New Mexican society drafted a threat of secession to the government. This stated that if any such actions were taken then New Mexico would declare independence as El Republica Mexicana del Norte. It was not until invading American troops reached New Mexico in August that they learned of war with the United States.
The Republic of Texas seceded from Mexico in and claimed but never controlled territory as far south and west as the Rio Grande. While most of the northwestern territory was then the Comancheria , it would have included Santa Fe and divided New Mexico.
The wagon train, supplied for a journey of about half the actual distance between Austin and Santa Fe, followed the wrong river, back-tracked, and arrived in New Mexico to find the Mexican governor restored and hostile. Surrendering peaceably upon a pledge to be allowed to return the way they came, the Texians found themselves bound at gunpoint and their execution put to a vote of the garrison.
By one vote, they were spared and marched south to Chihuahua and then Mexico City. Kearny marched down the Santa Fe Trail and entered Santa Fe without opposition to establish a joint civil and military government. He then divided his forces into four commands: The Mormon Battalion , mostly marching on foot under Lt.
George Cooke , was directed to follow Kearny with wagons to establish a new southern route to California. When Kearny encountered Kit Carson , traveling East and bearing messages that California had already been subdued, he sent nearly of his dragoons back to New Mexico.
Fremont and another men under Commodore Robert Stockton of the U. Navy and Marines had taken control of the approximately 7, Californios from San Diego to Sacramento. New Mexico territory, which then included present-day Arizona, was under undisputed United States control, but the exact boundary with Texas was uncertain.
Texas initially claimed all land North of the Rio Grande; but later agreed to the present boundaries. Kearny protected citizens in the new US territories under a form of martial law called the Kearny Code ; it was essentially Kearny and the U. With the recovery of the national economy since , the city experienced a real-estate boom.
Despite this increased supply, both price and rent have increased sharply compared to the values during the s. According to experts, this growth was propelled by the increased purchasing power of farmers around Rosario, helped by competitive exports, and the overall preference for safer investment options. Rosario has a number of public health centers: Rosario is the main epicentre of a metropolitan region whose economy is based on services and industry, generating the second largest urban gross regional product of Argentina, after Greater Buenos Aires.
Other important sectors include the petrochemical sector, with three plants located in the suburbs of San Lorenzo and Port San Martin; the chemistry sector, with plants for sulphuric acid, fertilizers, resins and other products; the cellulose industry; the meat industry; ironworks; auto parts; the plants and equipment for bottled oil; agricultural machinery; and the materials and equipment for the construction industry.
The main financial bank at the city of Rosario is the Municipal Bank of Rosario. It is focused on small and medium enterprises and other organizations, especially through micro credits , and may be considered an " ethical bank. The Municipal Bank was founded in to support the financial needs of the citizens and small businesses in the highly productive region of southern Santa Fe Province, centered in Rosario. The idea of creating a municipal financial institution was expressed in by Mayor Floduardo Grandoli, citing the proliferation of "centers of usury " that exploited those in need of credit, especially the poor something not addressed by the profile of the Provincial Bank of Santa Fe , which granted loans only to demonstrably solvent persons.
Acting on this, the municipal Counseling Commission passed a bill on 1 February dictating an "Organic Charter of the Municipal Bank of Loans and Savings Accounts;" the bank opened exactly one year later. The seat of the bank was moved in Its name was changed to its present form on 14 May by a municipal bill.
Its location was moved again, for the last time so far, in A special clause was added, dictating that this minimum share is unchangeable, so as to prevent hypothetical attempts at privatization. The banking sector includes the state-owned Municipal Bank of Rosario , with branches and offices throughout the city, and the central branch of the New Bank of Santa Fe.
The center focus mainly on research and development of the three following areas: Rosario has many cultural activities in many artistic disciplines with national and international reach. The city has produced important personalities in the fields of music, painting, philosophy, politics, poetry, literature, medicine, and law. If completed it will be one of the largest centers for musical performance in Latin America. In , after years without progress, it was put on indefinite hold due to financial constraints.
The city has several museums , including: Rosario also has a public astronomy complex, located in Urquiza Park , which consists of an observatory inaugurated in and a planetarium It has organized a Neapolitan music concert, performances of Madame Butterfly and numerous talks about the present and future of Argentina.
The Independence Hippodrome opened on December 8 of , when the first ride meeting was held. The Hippodrome was located in the heart of the Parque de la Independencia and occupied a prominent place in the city's social scene.
In , construction began of the Popular Opinion. La Tribuna rises Partners in Moreover, it had begun the construction of a new box office. In , the Tribune Paddock formerly Partners Tribune was demolished. The final podium of professional construidaes, begun in Independence Hippodrome was the initiator in Argentina night time racing, with lighting facilities for this purpose.
The racecourse features three tracks that are used for entertainment, vacation and skills. This track is open on Monday, Wednesday and Friday for tests, with Sunday competitions. It was commissioned in and inaugurated on June 20, — the anniversary of the death of Manuel Belgrano , creator of the Argentine flag, who raised it for the first time on an island in the river on February 27, Under the Propylaeum there is the Honor Room for the Flags of America where the flags of all American nations are displayed.
The passage is flanked by statues by famous sculptor Lola Mora. The 50th anniversary of the inauguration of the complex, in , was marked by a special celebration and by the unveiling of a new lighting system.
Architect Oscar Niemeyer came up with the concept by expanding the show from inside the theater to a much larger outside audience. Construction will begin at the end of and is expected to be completed by Located in Urquiza Park, Rosario's Astronomic municipal Complex is one of the principal astronomic centers of the region. The planetarium has a core team, together with its secondary elements, providing an artificial image of the sky, through projections made on a fixed hemispherical dome that functions as a display.
The assembly is installed in the Room "Oscar Claudio Caprile", located in the heart of the magnificent building that is shaped like a comet. For its technical characteristics in terms of size, quality of sound and image, and interior comfort, this room is considered among the best in the world. The building in the shape of comet forms a part of the complex that includes the "Prof.
Victor Capolongo" observatory and the experimental science museum. Municipal Astronomical Observatory "Prof. Victor Capolongo" was inaugurated on June 18, and named its first director. The Observatory facilitates outreach, teaching and research in the field of astronomy and related sciences and informs the public of phenomena that occur in the sky, such as eclipses, planetary configurations, passages of comets, etc.
To that end, the Observatory has installed two telescopes. There are realized observations and astronomic photography of all the celestial visible objects in Rosario's sky, according to time of year and especially the Sun, the Moon and the planets Jupiter, Saturn, Mars and Venus.
This museum was inaugurated on September 24, It is the first in Argentina and differs from traditional museums, in that it has equipment and instruments to demonstrate the laws of nature, which can be used by the general public in an interactive way. Thus, visitors of all ages can use telescopes and microscopes, or experiment with lasers, sound mixers, radios of various types, computers, solar cells, etc. To complement this, exhibit panels have photographs and explanatory texts of science and technology: In addition, an important area is intended for periodic samples, such as the Space Age , energy: The museum staff is supported by contributions from the Ministry of Science and Technology Office, the Municipality of Rosario and the contributions made by institutions and individuals.
The museum works in the evening similar to the Planetarium. Educational institutions at all levels are treated in shift assignments. The 4 metre-tall bronze statue of Che Guevara was unveiled on 14 June  to commemorate his 80th birthday. It is made from 75, bronze keys donated by Argentines nationwide  and weighs 2.
The statue was made by artist Andres Zerneri and is the first such monument to Guevara in his native Argentina. Rosario is located in the Province of Santa Fe , Argentina. This metropolis has a population of about 1. These settlements were incorporated into the metropolis due to their vicinity to major roads leading into Rosario, and many people living there habitually commute to Rosario.
The prelude to the economic crisis in the s largely dismantled the industrial infrastructure and damaged agricultural exports. These sectors were largely revitalized by as the national economy continued to recover; but high levels of poverty and unemployment persist in the city's western neighborhoods official surveys indicated that in , 6. In the total population was , Most of them were Italian, and among them, a majority from the north-western region of Liguria.
As of the Census, there are 1,, people residing in the city and 31 surrounding districts , making Greater Rosario the third-largest metro area in Argentina even as its population growth has leveled off.
The Census showed a relatively aged population, as well: The ethnic make-up of Rosario changed in the late 19th century, when significant numbers of European immigrants arrived in the city.
Prior to this, Rosario's population had been almost completely European-descent in ethnic origin. As Buenos Aires was the first landfall in Argentina for many migrant ships coming from Europe in the s and s, Rosario started to experience a diverse influx of people. By the s, 43 percent of the city population was non-native Argentine after immigration rates peaked. Most immigrants, regardless of origin, settled in the city or around Greater Rosario.
Christianity is the dominant faith with Roman Catholicism as the most practiced, followed by Protestantism. Judaism is the second-most professed religion in the city as Rosario has one of the largest Jewish communities in Argentina. There is also a local Islamic society. Rosario is divided into six districts, most named by location although the eastmost is called Centre District as it includes the oldest part of the city historicaliy called Centro City Centre.
At their confluence starts the Parque de la Independencia , that houses the Juan B. The city ends in the Saladillo Stream. Next to the stadium there is the Parque Alem , and nearby the Sorrento thermal power plant.
Kennedy's Alliance for Progress development plans and Rucci. An important part of Rosario's urban character is its river bank. Through the years, Rosario has spread in all directions. This is just south of the great barrio Grandoli. To the north-east there lie the neighborhoods of Pichincha a red-light district in the early 20th century, now home to an open-air antiquities fair: Next to the Rosario Central stadium there is a large park, Parque Alem , and not far from it there stands the Sorrento thermoelectric power plant.
North of the Lisandro de la Torre neighborhood there are Alberdi formerly an independent town , La Florida with a popular beach resort of the same name and Rucci.
The main streets in the north are Alberdi Avenue and its continuation, Rondeau Boulevard which leads to the north exit of the city, the access to the Rosario-Victoria Bridge and the town of Granadero Baigorria. These major arteries are crossed by several avenues: The Rosario public transport system includes buses, trolleybuses and taxicabs. The Rosario trolleybus system consists of only one main trunk line. Plaza Sarmiento is the hub of the city bus system, about 40 urban lines in the metropolitan area that provide service every 5 to 10 minutes.
Bus fares are pre-paid by means of either a rechargeable plastic card or a disposable paper card with a magnetic stripe which can be bought from post offices , automatic vending machines, and private businesses. For occasional use, a larger fare can be paid using a coin machine in the bus unit. The interurban lines have differential fares and some allow payment in cash only. The municipal administration is phasing out the paper cards, in favor of the plastic ones, during the second half of The urban bus fleet was partially renewed during the recovery of the national economy, since , and consists of about units.
In the average age of the buses was 5 years and 11 months. Improvements in the economy have led to increased use of public transport, and comparatively less use of bicycles.
According to the Rosario Transportation Office, in there were about 11 million bus journeys per month,  by , usage has climbed to , people every day A significant number of buses run on natural gas , as it happens also in Argentina as a whole, since the price of this fuel is quite low compared to the alternatives.
The idea to transform all buses to this system did not prosper; most buses run on heavily subsidized diesel fuel. In bus lanes were added to several pairs of parallel streets traversing the downtown area.
For the most part they leave room to only one additional, narrow lane on the left for cars and other vehicles. They can be used for taxis carrying passengers as well. They are exclusive for public transport during weekdays and on Saturday morning; stopping or parking on the affected streets is forbidden, as well as right turns.
Their implementation attracted opposition from residents and shop owners but was well received by habitual bus users, since they reduce the time needed to get out of the crowded central area by a noticeable amount. Rosario has a medium-sized taxi fleet, with units painted black and outlined in yellow.
Some belong to radio-taxi companies and can be reserved by telephone; others only in the streets. As the economy of Argentina recovers, the capacity of the taxi fleet has been strained by higher usage. In September , the Deliberative Council approved the compulsory installation of radio-call systems in all taxi units, but this requirement has not been fulfilled.
Rosario is also a major hub for long-distance overland transportation from the Mariano Moreno Bus Terminal,  Terminal de Omnibus , across from the Patio de la Madera Convention and Exposition Centre complex, about 15 blocks west of Plaza San Martin. The transportation facility serves 73 bus companies in short, medium and long-distance travel, carrying 1, The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Rosario, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 50 min.
The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 4. Rosario was one of the main cities chosen by the British and French railway companies that built and operated some of the railways in Argentina during the 19th and early 20th centuries, with more than 15 stations operating in the city. As of January , only two stations remain active for passenger services in the city.
The following chart describes the total of existing railway stations in Rosario:. The passenger train system was severely damaged by the privatization of most railway companies in the early s during Carlos Menem 's presidency, but is slowly recovering. Additionally, two private companies provided limited passenger services to several major cities. Nowadays, passenger services to Rosario are being operated by State-owned company Trenes Argentinos , running trains to Rosario Norte  and remodelled Rosario Sur station.
More recently, a metro system was proposed for the city, though this was shelved in favour of a new urban tramway network. The network is currently in the bidding process, with large firms like Siemens and Industrial and Commercial Bank of China bidding for its construction. Rosario is linked to the rest of the country by a number of roads: Some sections are named after different personalities by local decree.
The A is the second beltway at the southeast of the city. It has a semi-circular length centered around the city, running as a long-length beltway. This road is popularly known as the Second Rosario Beltway , as it borders the metropolitan area of greater Rosario. Through National Decree of  this road switched to federal control.
Beforehand this road was called Provincial Route The city of Funes lies directly to the west of the airport, and part of the city limit shares a border with the property of the airport grounds.
The airport covers an area of hectares acres and is operated by the Province of Santa Fe. This allows for downstream navigation of vessels up to Panamax standards. It directly services the area of Santa Fe that produces a large portion of Argentine exports, and indirectly the whole Mercosur trade bloc.
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