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Because your leaders, who know better then you do, said so. Ok, not on to the business at hand. There is no scat, ws or anything gross like that. Captain Donald Marissco looked down from the observation deck of the cruise ship Luxury and frowned. There they were, prancing about in next-to-nothing, many already making out, clearly ready for a week of nothing but sex, sex, and more sex.
His first officer, Lt. Smith was as bland as his name, and lord knew he did nothing to improve that image. He seemed almost personality-less, really. Marissco rolled his eyes. These women are all horny. Somewhere on the top deck of the Luxury, TRL lay on a lounge chair. He was wearing just a pair of Darth Vader swim trunks, and squeezed a very topless Eva Longoria to him, enjoying the feel of her nipples as they pressed against his bare chest.
Her crotch was pressed to his, and the way she was gently humping him, he knew he was about to get rather lucky. Eva rewarded him by slowly starting to slide herself up and down his cock. Both were in a soundstage in Miami where Evil has just finished watching his new movie Cable. Anyway, you know how the papers said it was her and Ben getting married?
You know how it mentions and unidentified friend? Especially when they belong to a teenage girl. Renee Olstead wandered around the deck of the boat, her red hair catching the sunlight and casting a slight halo around her angelic looking face.
Now that she was here she was beginning to have second thoughts. All around her people were getting naked and cavorting like monkeys in the zoo. The whole ship seemed to have an aura of sex about it and it was making the sixteen year old slightly nervous. She was old enough to know about the birds and the bees, and had even lost her virginity the year before, but she was still inexperienced enough that watching a giant orgy develop in front of her eyes was overwhelming.
As she walked past the pool, where a guy was sitting on an inflatable raft in the middle with his legs dangling in the water while a blonde was in the water with her head and shoulders sticking out giving him a blowjob, she noticed Jennifer Garner.
Jennifer Garner was sitting on the stairway leading up to the next deck. Kojain waited quietly at the south end of the ship, looking out at the endless water before him. He was wearing some sky blue shorts with an orange shirt. Not in his blood at all. He started to fall asleep in his chair when suddenly he felt a gentle stroking on his cheek. Kojain was fully awake now as he observed the dark skinned beauty before him, wearing a yellow bikini. He caressed her toned body as she began to work her way out of her bikini bottom and climb on top of him.
He decided to remove his shorts, allowing his cock to spring out before her. Her body shook as wave after wave of pleasure wracked her body. I think she was in that Pirates movie last year. Sheridan nodded and grabbed a silver case from the car. The case was twice as long as a normal guitar case and twice as wide. Evil grabbed the other one. Better to be safe then sorry in the end. Evil and Sheridan boarded the ship and went straight for their cabin, which was in first class so it was luxurious.
Sheridan grabbed the case, and then glared at Evil. Sheridan pushed her off slightly. Keira shrugged and walked out of the room, as she closed the door she winked at Evil. Besides, I thought he was cute. The point is we were supposed to be escaping questions like that.
Oh yeah, how about when he asked when we were going to find Earth. How the frak should I know? Katee swam over to her co-star and kissed her on the lips. Both blondes moved towards the Korean girl. Natalie Portman got out of her limo, hefted her single bag over her shoulder, and adjusted her sunglasses. But a role was a role, and it was growing back all right. She had more than peach fuzz right now, which was good. Natalie made her way towards the ship, basically enjoying the ocean breeze on her bare arms, and thinking about everything she was going to do.
Or, rather, everyone she was going to do. As she approached the boarding ramp, Natalie spotted a gorgeous young woman. Long black hair cascaded down the back of her yellow sun dress, and she seemed just a bit out of place in that dress — as if she were used to wearing more manly things.
The joyous mood on the pier was broken as people noticed a heated exchange develop between a tall young blonde and an older, balding man. The young woman was trying to board the ship while the man was trying his best to stop her. The last few losses have been a direct result of you choking under pressure! The blonde was brought to the verge of tears with that last statement.
And I am not about to let you throw away all those years of hard work to go on this ridiculous pleasure cruise! They say these things are filthy orgies! Can I please just have a break for once? No matches, no commercials, no public appearances, no worries.
The man finally lost his cool. At that moment, a young, broad shouldered man stepped out of the crowd. I mean, I understand completely. Once the disgruntled father had retreated back to his car, the young man turned to Maria. After checking out her rescuer, she hoped her father was right about this trip becoming an orgy. Kelly Clarkson boarded the CSSA cruise ship with two armloads of bags — overloaded with sexy clothes and whatnot, most of which she suspected would be on her for little more than a few scant minutes — less if she put them on when TRL was with her in the room.
God, she was looking forward to this. The week long trip to Bermuda was just the thing to bring out the freak in TRL. Kelly hit the main ship and smiled. Sure enough, there was TRL, already hip deep in Eva.
Kelly smiled, leaned in towards Eva, giving her a long, slow kiss that lingered just a bit longer than it should have. If he says something is going to happen, I want to have all of our bases covered. Sheridan rolled her eyes. Lexa Doig lay on the bed, clad in half of a black bikini and being fondled by a similarly clad Gwen Stefani who had just slipped her top off and was sucking on her nipples.
A look of jealousy flashed across Lexa elegant face. Both beauties rolled their eyes. Just their luck to get tangled up with a mad scientist who worshiped pagan gods. IYG popped out of his small cabin, a big smile on his face, and headed down towards the main deck of the ship. He hit the main deck, the sun nearly blinding him for a second, and then glanced around.
People were everywhere, and they were all at least approaching some stage or another of undress. Off to one side, Kojain and Kelly Rowland were getting it on right on the lounge chair. In another direction, the three babes from Battlestar Galactica were clearly getting friendly in the pool.
Evil and Sheridan emerged from the inside of the ship and on to the top decks, the Miami sun blazed down on them as they stripped down to their bathing suits. Evil in simple black board shorts, but Sheridan got a few hoots and hollers from the crowd.
She had on a black two piece that barely covered her 36 c breasts and a black thong that showed off her shapely bum. She even posed a bit for the delight of the crowd.
Evil just stood there and smirked. She shrugged her shoulders and the two kept on walking. Evil nudged her as they made their way toward the entrance. Michelle slurped and licked on it right there in front of everyone, even blocking a few people who were trying to get on.
Sheridan dabbed away, just slightly denying Michelle pleasure until Evil was good and sucked off. Michelle licked away as Sheridan teased her mercilessly, Michelle whined as best as she could with a cock in her mouth. Michelle licked faster and faster as Evil propped himself up by holding onto the ship itself, Michelle licked as fast as she could so Sheridan would give her pleasure.
Once Evil pulled out he watched the show as Sheridan went to town on the keeling Michelle. Her moans so loud that even the elderly captain looked down shaking his head. She collected her bottoms and smiled.
Having medical evacuation insurance can be helpful for these reasons. Includes tips on driving in other countries, International Driving Permits, auto insurance, and other resources. Use the same common sense traveling overseas that you would at home, and always stay alert and aware of your surroundings. Talk to your doctor about which items are most important for you. Some supplies and medicines may be difficult to find at your destination, may have different names, or may have different ingredients than what you normally use.
If you are not feeling well after your trip, you may need to see a doctor. If you need help finding a travel medicine specialist, see Find a Clinic. Be sure to tell your doctor about your travel, including where you went and what you did on your trip. Also tell your doctor if you were bitten or scratched by an animal while traveling. For more information on what to do if you are sick after your trip, see Getting Sick after Travel.
Map Disclaimer - The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on maps do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement are generally marked.
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Health Information for Travelers to Bermuda U. Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir. Hide Vaccines and Medicines. Find Out Why Protect Yourself All travelers You should be up to date on routine vaccinations while traveling to any destination. Routine vaccines Make sure you are up-to-date on routine vaccines before every trip.
Most travelers Get travel vaccines and medicines because there is a risk of these diseases in the country you are visiting. Hepatitis A CDC recommends this vaccine because you can get hepatitis A through contaminated food or water in Bermuda, regardless of where you are eating or staying. Typhoid You can get typhoid through contaminated food or water in Bermuda.
Some travelers Ask your doctor what vaccines and medicines you need based on where you are going, how long you are staying, what you will be doing, and if you are traveling from a country other than the US.
Hepatitis B You can get hepatitis B through sexual contact, contaminated needles, and blood products, so CDC recommends this vaccine if you might have sex with a new partner, get a tattoo or piercing, or have any medical procedures. Rabies Rabies is present in bats in Bermuda. CDC recommends rabies vaccine for only these groups: Travelers involved in outdoor and other activities in remote areas that put them at risk for bat bites such as adventure travel and caving.
People who will be working with or around bats such as wildlife professionals and researchers. All travelers You should be up to date on routine vaccinations while traveling to any destination. Key Get vaccinated Eat and drink safely Keep away from animals Reduce your exposure to germs Avoid sharing body fluids Avoid non-sterile medical or cosmetic equipment.
Hide Stay Healthy and Safe. Eat and drink safely. What can I do to prevent bug bites? Cover exposed skin by wearing long-sleeved shirts, long pants, and hats. Use an appropriate insect repellent see below. Use permethrin-treated clothing and gear such as boots, pants, socks, and tents.
Do not use permethrin directly on skin. Stay and sleep in air-conditioned or screened rooms. Use a bed net if the area where you are sleeping is exposed to the outdoors. What type of insect repellent should I use? Products with one of the following active ingredients can also help prevent mosquito bites.
Higher percentages of active ingredient provide longer protection. What should I do if I am bitten by bugs? Avoid scratching bug bites, and apply hydrocortisone cream or calamine lotion to reduce the itching.
Check your entire body for ticks after outdoor activity. Be sure to remove ticks properly. What can I do to avoid bed bugs? Stay alert to changing weather conditions and adjust your plans if conditions become unsafe. Prepare for activities by wearing the right clothes and packing protective items, such as bug spray, sunscreen, and a basic first aid kit. Consider learning basic first aid and CPR before travel. Bring a travel health kit with items appropriate for your activities.
Heat-related illness, such as heat stroke, can be deadly. Eat and drink regularly, wear loose and lightweight clothing, and limit physical activity during high temperatures. If you are outside for many hours in heat, eat salty snacks and drink water to stay hydrated and replace salt lost through sweating. Protect yourself from UV radiation: Be especially careful during summer months and at high elevation.
Because sunlight reflects off snow, sand, and water, sun exposure may be increased during activities like skiing, swimming, and sailing.
Very cold temperatures can be dangerous. Dress in layers and cover heads, hands, and feet properly if you are visiting a cold location. Stay safe around water Swim only in designated swimming areas.
This change was not sparked by sex ratios, but rather by an aging population that is causing the workforce to become increasingly smaller. It is estimated that this new law will lead to two million more births per year and could cause a baby boom in China.
In , China officially relaxed its one child law. So, it is unclear if this new law will actually lead to women being more valued in Chinese society as the number of citizens increases.
The Trivers—Willard hypothesis argues that available resources affect male reproductive success more than female and that consequently parents should prefer males when resources are plentiful and females when resources are scarce. This has been applied to resource differences between individuals in a society and also to resource differences between societies.
Empirical evidence is mixed with higher support in better studies according to Cronk in a review. One example, in a study, of a group with a preference for females was Romani in Hungary , a low status group. They "had a female-biased sex ratio at birth, were more likely to abort a fetus after having had one or more daughters, nursed their daughters longer, and sent their daughters to school for longer. In order to illustrate the gravity of the situation, he calculated the number of women that were not alive because of sex-selective abortion or discriminatory practices.
This figure, when combined with statistics from around the world, led to a finding of over million missing women. This has led to particular concern due to a critical shortage of wives. In some rural areas, there is already a shortage of women, which is tied to migration into urban areas Park and Cho Some scholars argue that as the proportion of women to men decreases globally, there will be an increase in trafficking and sex work both forced and self-elected , as many men will be willing to do more to obtain a sexual partner Junhong Guttentag and Secord hypothesized that when the proportion of males throughout the world is greater, there is likely to be more violence and war.
Some scholars believe that when sex ratios are high, women actually become valued more because of their relative shortage. Eventually, this could lead to better social conditions, followed by the birth of more women and sex ratios moving back to natural levels. Keifitz wrote that as women become fewer, their relative position in society will increase. However, to date, no data has supported this claim.
It has been suggested by Belanger that sex-selective abortion may have positive effects on the mother choosing to abort the female fetus. This is related to the historical duty of mothers to produce a son in order to carry on the family name. As previously mentioned, women gain status in society when they have a male child, but not when they have a female child.
Oftentimes, bearing of a son leads to greater legitimacy and agency for the mother. In some regions of the world where son preference is especially strong, sonless women are treated as outcasts. In this way, sex-selective abortion is a way for women to select for male fetuses, helping secure greater family status. Goodkind  argues that sex-selective abortion should not be banned purely because of its discriminatory nature. Instead, he argues, we must consider the overall lifetime possibilities of discrimination.
In fact, it is possible that sex-selective abortion takes away much of the discrimination women would face later in life. Since families have the option of selecting for the fetal sex they desire, if they choose not to abort a female fetus, she is more likely to be valued later in life.
In this way, sex-selective abortion may be a more humane alternative to infanticide, abandonment, or neglect. MacPherson estimates that , sex-selective abortions every year continue to be performed in India.
Many scholars have noted the difficulty in reconciling the discriminatory nature of sex-selective abortion with the right of women to have control over their own bodies. This conflict manifests itself primarily when discussing laws about sex-selective abortion. Warren also notes that, if we are to ever reverse the trend of sex-selective abortion and high sex ratios, we must work to change the patriarchy-based society which breeds the strong son preference.
Laws against sex-selective abortion, especially those that exist in some U. NARAL states that "For many years, anti-choice lawmakers have tried to ban abortion using every possible reason and excuse —including, now, on the grounds of purported concern about race or sex selection.
The practice of prenatal sex selection has been condemned internationally. It is often seen as a result of discriminatory social views which consider females inferior to males. In over states signed the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development , agreeing to "eliminate all forms of discrimination against the girl child". Many nations have attempted to address sex-selective abortion rates through a combination of media campaigns and policy initiatives.
In Canada, a group of MPs led by Mark Warawa are working on having the Parliament pass a resolution condemning sex-selective pregnancy termination. The United States Congress has debated legislation that would outlaw the practice. On the state level, laws against sex-selective abortions have been passed in a number of U. The law on sex-selective abortion is unresolved in the United Kingdom.
In order for an abortion to be legal, doctors need to show that continuing the pregnancy could threaten the physical or mental health of the mother. In a recent case, two doctors were caught on camera offering a sex-selective abortion but the Director of Public Prosecution deemed it not in the public interest to proceed with the prosecution.
In , sex-selective abortion was made illegal in China. This came in response to the ever-increasing sex ratio and a desire to try to detract from it and reach a more normal ratio. Many of the ads used depicted abortion as violent, creating fear of abortion itself within the population. The ads focused on the religious and moral shame associated with abortion. MacPherson claims this media campaign was not effective because some perceived this as an attack on their character, leading to many becoming closed off, rather than opening a dialogue about the issue.
In its communication campaigns, it is clearing up public misconceptions by emphasizing that sex determination is illegal, but abortion is legal for certain medical conditions in India.
The government is also supporting implementation of programs and initiatives that seek to reduce gender discrimination, including media campaign to address the underlying social causes of sex selection. Other recent policy initiatives adopted by numerous states of India, claims Guilmoto,  attempt to address the assumed economic disadvantage of girls by offering support to girls and their parents. These policies provide conditional cash transfer and scholarships only available to girls, where payments to a girl and her parents are linked to each stage of her life, such as when she is born, completion of her childhood immunization, her joining school at grade 1, her completing school grades 6, 9 and 12, her marriage past age Some states are offering higher pension benefits to parents who raise one or two girls.
Different states of India have been experimenting with various innovations in their girl-driven welfare policies. For example, the state of Delhi adopted a pro-girl policy initiative locally called Laadli scheme , which initial data suggests may be lowering the birth sex ratio in the state. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Missing women of China , Female infanticide in China , and List of Chinese administrative divisions by gender ratio. Female foeticide in India. Dowry system in India. Introduction to Geography, Ninth Edition.
Retrieved June 27, Evidence that Mammalian Sex Ratios at birth are partially controlled by parental hormonal levels around the time of conception".
Population and Development Review. BMJ Clinical research ed. A review of the literature". A hypothesis and a program of research". American Journal of Human Genetics. Check date values in: National Vital Statistics Reports. Switzerland Federal Statistics Office. United Nations Population Division. United Nations Data Division. Sex ratio of 1.
Current trends, consequences and policy implications Archived December 30, , at the Wayback Machine. Cochrane Database Syst Rev: The example of changing sex ratios in Southern Caucasus". International Journal of Women's Health. Sex ratio at birth. China Population Publishing House, Lu, and T Hesketh. Analysis of Data from National Intercensus Survey.
China Population Press, p. China Population Press, pp. Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies. Sex selective abortions and female infanticide". What we know, and what we need to know," in Radhika Ramasubban and Shireen J.
Economic and Political Weekly. Does pre-natal sex selection reduce post natal discrimination? Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol. How can we tackle sex-selective abortion? Oxford Institute of Population Ageing.
Associated Press, 20 Sept. Retrieved September 23, , from http: The New York Times. Retrieved May 23, Giovanna; Raftery, Adrian E. Retrieved 1 December Evolution and Human Behavior. Suttee, or sati, is the obsolete Hindu practice in which a widow burns herself upon her husband's funeral pyre Anthropological Perspectives on the Treatment and Maltreatment of Children. Women and the Family in Chinese History. Women in the Teaching of Chinese Religions". Retrieved 18 May Empowerment, Law and Dowry Deaths.
Retrieved 30 March Gender preferences from a Darwinian point of view". Imbalance of the sex ratio at birth in Korea". In the Tricameral Parliament was established, and the right to vote for the House of Representatives and House of Delegates was granted to all adult Coloured and Indian citizens, respectively. In the bantustans and the Tricameral Parliament were abolished and the right to vote for the National Assembly was granted to all adult citizens. It is unclear when the first black woman qualified for the vote.
Women have been able to vote in Afghanistan since except during Taliban rule, —, when no elections were held. Bangladesh was mostly the province of Bengal in India until , then it became part of Pakistan.
It became an independent nation in Women have had equal suffrage since , and they have reserved seats in parliament. Bangladesh is notable in that since , two women, namely Sheikh Hasina and Begum Khaleda Zia , have served terms as the country's Prime Minister continuously. Women have traditionally played a minimal role in politics beyond the anomaly of the two leaders; few used to run against men; few have been ministers. Recently, however, women have become more active in politics, with several prominent ministerial posts given to women and women participating in national, district and municipal elections against men and winning on several occasions.
Choudhury and Hasanuzzaman argue that the strong patriarchal traditions of Bangladesh explain why women are so reluctant to stand up in politics. Women in India were allowed to vote right from the first general elections after the independence of India in unlike during the British rule who resisted allowing women to vote . It sought votes for women and the right to hold legislative office on the same basis as men.
These positions were endorsed by the main political groupings, the Indian National Congress. Madras in granted votes to wealthy and educated women, under the same terms that applied to men. The other provinces followed, but not the princely states which did not have votes for men either, being monarchies.
Success in Bengal depended on middle class Indian women, who emerged from a fast-growing urban elite. The women leaders in Bengal linked their crusade to a moderate nationalist agenda, by showing how they could participate more fully in nation-building by having voting power. They carefully avoided attacking traditional gender roles by arguing that traditions could coexist with political modernization.
Whereas wealthy and educated women in Madras were granted voting right in , in Punjab the Sikhs granted women equal voting rights in irrespective of their educational qualifications or being wealthy or poor. This happened when the Gurdwara Act of was approved. Equality of women with men is enshrined in the Guru Granth Sahib , the sacred scripture of the Sikh faith.
In the Government of India Act the British Raj set up a system of separate electorates and separate seats for women. Most women's leaders opposed segregated electorates and demanded adult franchise.
In the Congress promised universal adult franchise when it came to power. It enacted equal voting rights for both men and women in In the first half of the 20th century, Indonesia known until as Dutch East Indies was one of the slowest moving countries to gain women's suffrage.
They began their fight in by introducing municipal councils that included some members elected by a restricted district. Voting rights only went to males that could read and write, which excluded many non-European males. The main group who pressured the Indonesian government for women's suffrage was the Dutch Vereeninging voor Vrouwenkiesrecht VVV-Women's Suffrage Association which was founded in the Netherlands in They tried to attract Indonesian membership, but had very limited success because the leaders of the organization had little skill in relating to even the educated class of the Indonesians.
When they eventually did connect somewhat with women, they failed to sympathize with them and thus ended up alienating many well-educated Indonesians. In the colony gained its first national representative body, the Volksraad , which still excluded women from voting. In , the colonial administration used its power of nomination to appoint a European woman to the Volksraad. In , the administration introduced the right of women to be elected to urban representative institutions, which resulted in some Indonesian and European women entering municipal councils.
Eventually, the law became that only European women and municipal councils could vote, [ clarification needed ] which excluded all other women and local councils. September was when this law was amended and the law extended to women of all races by the Volksraad. Finally, in November , the right to vote for municipal councils was granted to all women on a similar basis to men with property and educational qualifications.
In , a referendum overwhelmingly approved by voters gave women the right to vote, a right previously denied to them under the Iranian Constitution of pursuant to Chapter 2, Article 3. Women have full suffrage since the establishment of the State of Israel in Although women were allowed to vote in some prefectures in , women's suffrage was enacted at a national level in South Korean women were granted the vote in When voting was first introduced in Kuwait in , Kuwaiti women had the right to vote.
In May , the Kuwaiti parliament re-granted female suffrage. Pakistan was part of British Raj until , when it became independent. Women received full suffrage in Muslim women leaders from all classes actively supported the Pakistan movement in the mids.
Their movement was led by wives and other relatives of leading politicians. Women were sometimes organized into large-scale public demonstrations. Suffrage for Filipinas was achieved following an all-female, special plebiscite held on 30 April In compliance with the Constitution , the National Assembly passed a law which extended the right of suffrage to women, which remains to this day.
In late September , King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz al-Saud declared that women would be able to vote and run for office starting in That applies to the municipal councils, which are the kingdom's only semi-elected bodies. Half of the seats on municipal councils are elective, and the councils have few powers. The king declared in that women would be eligible to be appointed to the Shura Council , an unelected body that issues advisory opinions on national policy.
Now it is time to remove other barriers like not allowing women to drive cars and not being able to function, to live a normal life without male guardians. First the warnings, then the payments, now the beginnings of solid reform.
Thurayya Obeid was named deputy chairwoman of the human rights and petitions committee, Zainab Abu Talib, deputy chairwoman of the information and cultural committee, and Lubna Al Ansari, deputy chairwoman of the health affairs and environment committee.
Sri Lanka at that time Ceylon was one of the first Asian countries to allow voting rights to women over the age of 21 without any restrictions. Since then, women have enjoyed a significant presence in the Sri Lankan political arena. The zenith of this favourable condition to women has been the July General Elections, in which Ceylon elected the world's first woman Prime Minister , Sirimavo Bandaranaike. She is the world's first democratically elected female head of government.
Her daughter, Chandrika Kumaratunga also became the Prime Minister later in , and the same year she was elected as the Executive President of Sri Lanka, making her the fourth woman in the world to hold the portfolio. It was only after the breakdown of the Habsburg Monarchy , that Austria would grant the general, equal, direct and secret right to vote to all citizens, regardless of sex, in Azerbaijan is known to be the first ever Muslim-majority country which enfranchised women.
Universal voting rights were recognized in Azerbaijan in by the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic. A revision of the constitution in October it changed art.
In Belgium, voting is compulsory but not enforced. In the former Bohemia , taxpaying women and women in "learned profession[s]" were allowed to vote by proxy and made eligible to the legislative body in Women were guaranteed equal voting rights by The constitution of the Czechoslovak Republic in In Denmark, the Danish Women's Society DK debated, and informally supported, women's suffrage from , but it did not support it publicly until in , when it supported the suggestion of the parliamentarian Fredrik Bajer to grant women municipal suffrage.
However, as the KF was very much involved with worker's rights and pacifist activity, the question of women's suffrage was in fact not given full attention, which led to the establishment of the strictly women's suffrage movement Kvindevalgretsforeningen — However, after having been met by compact resistance, the Danish suffrage movement almost discontinued with the dissolution of the De samlede Kvindeforeninger in The LKV originated from a local suffrage association in Copenhagen, and like its rival DKV, it successfully organized other such local associations nationally.
Estonia gained its independence in with the Estonian War of Independence. However, the first official elections were held in These were the elections of temporary council i. Since then, women have had the right to vote. The parliament elections were held in After the elections, two women got into the parliament — history teacher Emma Asson and journalist Alma Ostra-Oinas.
Estonian parliament is called Riigikogu and during the First Republic of Estonia it used to have seats. The area that in became Finland was a group of integral provinces of the Kingdom of Sweden for over years. Thus, women in Finland were allowed to vote during the Swedish Age of Liberty — , during which suffrage was granted to tax-paying female members of guilds. The predecessor state of modern Finland , the Grand Duchy of Finland , was part of the Russian Empire from to and enjoyed a high degree of autonomy.
In , taxpaying women were granted municipal suffrage in the country side, and in , the same reform was given to the cities. It also elected the world's first female members of parliament the following year.
Upon its declaration of independence on 26 May , in the aftermath of the Russian Revolution , the Democratic Republic of Georgia extended suffrage to its female citizens.
The women of Georgia first exercised their right to vote in the legislative election. Women were granted the right to vote and be elected from the 12th November In Greece, women over 18 voted for the first time in April for the National Council , a legislative body set up by the National Liberation Front resistance movement. Ultimately, women won the legal right to vote and run for office on May 28, The first woman MP was Eleni Skoura , who was elected in In Hungary, although it was already planned in , the first occasion when women could vote was the elections held in January In , The Isle of Man in the British Isles but not part of the United Kingdom passed a law giving the vote to single and widowed women who passed a property qualification.
This was to vote in elections for the House of Keys, in the Island's parliament, Tynwald. This was extended to universal suffrage for men and women in The new version of article 51 Constitution recognizes equal opportunities in electoral lists.
In Liechtenstein , women's suffrage was granted via referendum in Women were granted the right to vote in the Netherlands on August 9, However, even though women's right to vote was approved in , this only took effect from January 1, The women's suffrage movement in the Netherlands was led by three women: This movement got a lot of support from other countries, especially from the women's suffrage movement in England.
In the movement wrote an open letter to the Queen pleading for women's suffrage. When this letter was rejected, in spite of popular support, the movement organised several demonstrations and protests in favor of women's suffrage. This movement was of great significance for women's suffrage in the Netherlands. Liberal politician Gina Krog was the leading campaigner for women's suffrage in Norway from the s.
Members of these organisations were politically well-connected and well organised and in a few years gradually succeeded in obtaining equal rights for women. Middle class women won the right to vote in municipal elections in and parliamentary elections in Universal suffrage for women in municipal elections was introduced in , and in a motion on universal suffrage for women was adopted unanimously by the Norwegian parliament Stortinget.
Regaining independence in following the year period of partition and foreign rule, [ citation needed ] Poland immediately granted women the right to vote and be elected as of 28 November The first women elected to the Sejm in were: In during the Estado Novo regime, women were allowed to vote for the first time, but only if they had a high school or university degree , while men had only to be able to read and write.
In a new electoral law enlarged the possibility of female vote, but still with some differences regarding men. A law from claimed to establish "equality of political rights for men and women", but a few electoral rights were reserved for men. After the Carnation Revolution , women were granted full and equal electoral rights in The timeline of granting women's suffrage in Romania was gradual and complex, due to the turbulent historical period when it happened. The concept of universal suffrage for all men was introduced in ,  and reinforced by the Constitution of Romania.
Although this constitution opened the way for the possibility of women's suffrage too Article 6 ,  this did not materialize: Although women could vote, they could be elected only in the Senate and not in the Chamber of Deputies Article 4 c. Due to the historical context of the time, which included the dictatorship of Ion Antonescu , there were no elections in Romania between — In , Law no. Despite initial apprehension against enfranchising women for the right to vote for the upcoming Constituent Assembly election , the League for Women's Equality and other suffragists rallied throughout the year of for the right to vote.
After much pressure including a 40,strong march on the Tauride Palace , on July 20, the Provisional Government enfranchised women with the right to vote. San Marino introduced women's suffrage in ,  following the constitutional crisis known as Fatti di Rovereta.
It was however only in that women obtained the right to stand for election. During the Miguel Primo de Rivera regime — only women who were considered heads of household were allowed to vote in local elections, but there were none at that time. Women's suffrage was officially adopted in despite the opposition of Margarita Nelken and Victoria Kent , two female MPs both members of the Republican Radical-Socialist Party , who argued that women in Spain at that moment lacked social and political education enough to vote responsibly because they would be unduly influenced by Catholic priests.
During the Franco regime in the "organic democracy" type of elections called "referendums" Franco's regime was dictatorial women over 21 were allowed to vote without distinction. During the Age of Liberty — , Sweden had conditional women suffrage. Suffrage was gender neutral and therefore applied to women as well as men if they filled the qualifications of a voting citizen. Initially, the right to vote in local city elections mayoral elections was granted to every burgher , which was defined as a taxpaying citizen with a guild membership.
Between and , women voted in 17 of 31 examined mayoral elections. Women suffrage was first abolished for taxpaying unmarried women of legal majority, and then for widows. While women suffrage was banned in the mayoral elections in and in the national elections in , no such bar was ever introduced in the local elections in the country side, were women therefore continued to vote in the local parish elections of vicars.
In , tax-paying women of legal majority unmarried, divorced and widowed women were again allowed to vote in municipal elections, making Sweden the first country in the world to grant women the right to vote.
The right to vote in municipal elections applied only to people of legal majority, which excluded married women, as they were juridically under the guardianship of their husbands. In the suggestion to grant women the right to vote in national elections was initially voted down in Parliament. In , the temperance activist Emilie Rathou became the first woman in Sweden to demand the right for women suffrage in a public speech.
The delegation was headed by Agda Montelius , accompanied by Gertrud Adelborg , who had written the demand. This was the first time the Swedish women's movement themselves had officially presented a demand for suffrage. In the Swedish Society for Woman Suffrage was founded. In the suggestion of women's suffrage was voted down in parliament again. The right to vote in national elections was not returned to women until , and was practised again in the election of , for the first time in years.
After the election, the first women were elected to Swedish Parliament after the suffrage: Switzerland was the last Western republic to grant women's suffrage; they gained the right to vote in federal elections in after a second referendum that year. The first female member of the seven-member Swiss Federal Council , Elisabeth Kopp , served from to Ruth Dreifuss , the second female member, served from to , and was the first female President of the Swiss Confederation for the year From 22 September until 31 December the highest political executive of the Swiss Confederation had a majority of female councillors 4 of 7 ; for the three years , , and Switzerland was presided by female presidency for three years in a row; the latest one was for the year A small percentage of seats were set aside for women, so naturally those female candidates won.
John Stuart Mill , elected to Parliament in and an open advocate of female suffrage about to publish The Subjection of Women , campaigned for an amendment to the Reform Act to include female suffrage. Until the Reform Act specified "male persons", a few women had been able to vote in parliamentary elections through property ownership, although this was rare.
This right was confirmed in the Local Government Act and extended to include some married women. In , the Isle of Man in the British Isles but not part of the United Kingdom passed a law giving the vote to single and widowed women who passed a property qualification.
During the later half of the 19th century, a number of campaign groups for women's suffrage in national elections were formed in an attempt to lobby Members of Parliament and gain support. In , seventeen of these groups came together to form the National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies NUWSS , who held public meetings, wrote letters to politicians and published various texts.
After this media success, the WSPU's tactics became increasingly violent. This included an attempt in to storm the House of Commons , the arson of David Lloyd George 's country home despite his support for women's suffrage. In Lady Constance Lytton was imprisoned, but immediately released when her identity was discovered, so in she disguised herself as a working class seamstress called Jane Warton and endured inhumane treatment which included force-feeding.
In , suffragette Emily Davison protested by interfering with a horse owned by King George V during the running of The Derby ; she was trampled and died four days later. The National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies, which had always employed "constitutional" methods, continued to lobby during the war years, and compromises were worked out between the NUWSS and the coalition government.
Regarding fears that women would suddenly move from zero to a majority of the electorate due to the heavy loss of men during the war, the Conference recommended that the age restriction be 21 for men, and 30 for women. On 6 February , the Representation of the People Act was passed, enfranchising women over the age of 30 who met minimum property qualifications. The Representation of the People Equal Franchise Act extended the franchise in Great Britain and Northern Ireland to all women over the age of 21, granting women the vote on the same terms as men.
The female descendants of the Bounty mutineers who lived on Pitcairn Islands could vote from , and this right transferred with their resettlement to Norfolk Island now an Australian external territory in Propertied women in the colony of South Australia were granted the vote in local elections but not parliamentary elections in Henrietta Dugdale formed the first Australian women's suffrage society in Melbourne , Victoria in Women became eligible to vote for the Parliament of South Australia in , as were Aboriginal men and women.
Western Australia granted voting rights to women in The first election for the Parliament of the newly formed Commonwealth of Australia in was based on the electoral provisions of the six pre-existing colonies, so that women who had the vote and the right to stand for Parliament at state level had the same rights for the Australian Federal election.
In , the Commonwealth Parliament passed the Commonwealth Franchise Act, which enabled all women to vote and stand for election for the Federal Parliament, and also.
Four women stood for election in In , the right to vote in federal elections was extended to all indigenous people who had served in the armed forces, or were enrolled to vote in state elections Queensland, Western Australia, and the Northern Territory still excluded indigenous women from voting rights.
Remaining restrictions were abolished in by the Commonwealth Electoral Act. Lyons went on to be the first woman to hold a Cabinet post in the ministry of Robert Menzies. Rosemary Follett was elected Chief Minister of the Australian Capital Territory in , becoming the first woman elected to lead a state or territory.
Women in Rarotonga won the right to vote in , shortly after New Zealand. Although the Liberal government which passed the bill generally advocated social and political reform, the electoral bill was only passed because of a combination of personality issues and political accident. The bill granted the vote to women of all races. New Zealand women were denied the right to stand for parliament, however, until In almost a third of the Members of Parliament elected were female.
Ecuador enfranchised women in and the last was Paraguay in There were political, religious, and cultural debates about women's suffrage in the various countries. Women's political status without the vote was promoted by the National Council of Women of Canada from to It promoted a vision of "transcendent citizenship" for women.
The ballot was not needed, for citizenship was to be exercised through personal influence and moral suasion, through the election of men with strong moral character, and through raising public-spirited sons. The National Council position was integrated into its nation-building program that sought to uphold Canada as a White settler nation.
While the women's suffrage movement was important for extending the political rights of White women, it was also authorized through race-based arguments that linked White women's enfranchisement to the need to protect the nation from "racial degeneration. Women had local votes in some provinces, as in Ontario from , where women owning property freeholders and householders could vote for school trustees.
The Wartime Elections Act of gave the vote to British women who were war widows or had sons, husbands, fathers, or brothers serving overseas. Unionist Prime Minister Sir Robert Borden pledged himself during the campaign to equal suffrage for women. After his landslide victory, he introduced a bill in for extending the franchise to women.
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